Popular in Lifespan Development: Child-Adult
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Notetaker on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 225 at Northern Illinois University taught by Elizabeth Rusnak in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Development: Child-Adult in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence Ch11 Adolescence A Developmental Transition Adoescence 1119 or 20 years Developmental transition between childhood and adu hood Entails major physical cognitive and psychosocial changes Puberty Process by which a person attains sexual maturity and the ability to reproduce Thought to begin at the same time around age 13 Wrong Adolescence as a Social Construction No such concept in preindustrial societies Considered an adult when matured physically or began vocational apprenticeship Today adolescence is a global phenomenon Different forms in different cultures Entry into adulthood takes longer and is less clearcut Marriage comes later as well Adolescence A Time of Opportunities and Risks Time for growth Physical cognitive and social Supportive connections are linked to positive healthful development US adolescents still face hazards for their physical and mental well being May re ect immaturity of the adolescent brain Encouraging trends Adoescents today are less likely to Use alcohol tobacco or marijuana Ride in a car without wearing a seatbelt or with someone who has been drinking Carry weapons Have sexual intercourse without condoms Attempt suicide How Puberty Begins Hormonal Changes Results from the production of various hormones Leads to menstruation in girls lnitiates the secretion of testosterone and adrostenedione in boys Marked by two stages The activation of the adrenal glands Maturing of the sex organs First stage occurs between ages 6 and 8 Adrenal glands gradually increase levels of androgens primarily DHEA DHEA in uences Growth of pubic axillary and facial hair Body growth Skin oils Development of body odor Maturing of sex organs triggers a second burst of DHEA production In second stage Girls ovaries increase their output of estrogen Stimulates growth of female genitals and development of breasts and pubic and underarm hair ln boys testes increase the manufacture of androgens particularly testosterone Stimulates the growth of male genitals muscle mass and body hair Beginning of puberty seems to depend on reaching a critical amount of body fat necessary for reproduction Girls with higher percentage of body fat andor who experience unusual weight gain between ages 5 and 9 show earlier development Studies suggest an accumulation of leptin may be the link between body fat and earlier puberty Heightened emotionality and moodiness in early adolescence may be due to hormonal developments Timing Signs and Sequences of Puberty and Sexual Maturity Changes begin around age 8 in girls and age 9 in boys Wide range of ages exists for various changes Process typically takes about 3 to 4 years for both sexes Primary and Secondary Sex Characteristics Primary Sex Characteristics Organs directly related to reproduction which enlarge and mature during adolescence Females Ovaries Fallopian tubes Uterus Clitoris Vagina Males Testes Penis Scrotum Seminal vesicles Prostate gland Secondary Sex Characteristics Physiologica signs of sexual maturation that do not involve the sex organs Females Breasts Growth of pubic and axillary hair Changes in skin texture Males Broad shoulders Voice change Muscular development Growth of pubic facial axillary and body hair Sequence is more consistent than timing Signs of Puberty First external signs Females Breast tissue Pubic hair Males Enlargement of testes Girls nipples enlarge and protrude areolae enlarge and breasts assume rst a conical and then rounded shape Some boys experience temporary breast enlargement which may last up to 18 months Pubic hair eventually becomes coarse dark and curly Boys develop hair on their face and chest Girls too may develop hair on their face and chest normal Voice deepens especially in boys Skin becomes coarser and oilier May give rise to pimples and blackheads Acne is more common in boys The Adolescent Growth Spurt Adolescent Growth Spurt Sharp increase in height and weight that precedes sexual maturity Occurs in girls between ages 9 12 14 12 avg 10 Occurs in boys between ages 10 12 16 avg 1213 Lasts about 2 years Girls between 11 and 13 tend to be taller heavier and stronger than boys of the same age Girls typically reach their full height by 15 boys by 17 Muscular growth peaks at 12 12 for girls 14 12 for boys Boys and girls grow differently in rate and form Boys become larger overall Wider shoulders Longer legs relative to trunk Longer forearms relative to upper arms and height Girls Pelvis widens for childbirth Layers of fat accumulate under skin Accumulates twice as rapidly in girls than in boys Because of differing timetables body parts may be out of proportion for a while Physica changes have psychological rami cations Signs of Sexual Maturity Spermarche Boy s rst ejaculation Occurs on average at age 13 Often the result of a nocturnal emission or wet dream Menarche Girl s rst menstruation Occurs fairly late with timing varying from age 10 to 16 12 Average age in US girs fell from 14 years before 1900 to 12 12 years in the 19905 African American girls typically experience menarche 6 months earlier than Caucasian girls In uences on and the Effects of Timing of Puberty Secuar Trend Trend that can be seen only by observing several generations Onset of puberty A drop in the ages when puberty begins and when young people reach adult height and sexual maturity Began about 100 years ago Occurred in US Western Europe and Japan Proposed explanation is a higher standard of living Average age of sexual maturity is earlier in developed countries In the United States the increase in obesity may be a cause of earlier puberty in girls Combination of genetic physical emotional and contextual in uence may affect individual differences in the timing of menarche Twin studies document heritability Age tends to be similar to the mother s if nutrition and SES remain stable Earlier menarche is associated with mother s prenatal smoking and being the rst born child Famiy con ict has been associated with earlier menarche Parental warmth harmonious family relationships and paternal involvement are all related to later menarche Though preschool relationships with parents have been shown to be predictive of menarche other research has shown family disruption and residential separation from the father to have an effect Effects of early or late maturation are most likely to be negative when Adolescents are much more or less developed than their peers Adolescents do not see the changes as advantageous Severa stressful events such as the advent or puberty and the transition to middle school occur at about the same time Ethnicity school and neighborhood can make a difference Earlymaturing girls are more likely to engage in sexual risk taking and show more problem behavior in mixed gender schools and in disadvantaged urban communities The Adolescent Brain The adolescent brain is still a work in progress Dramatic changes in brain structures involved in emotions judgment organization of behavior and selfcontrol take place between puberty and young adulthood Raised questions about the extent to which adolescents can reasonably be held legally responsible for their acUons Supreme Court ruled in 2005 that the death penalty was unconstitutional for a convicted murderer aged 17 or younger when the crime was committed Risktaking appears to result from the interaction of two brain networks Socioemotional network sensitive to social and emotional stimuli Becomes more active in puberty Cognitivecontrol network regulates responses to stimuli Matures gradually into early adulthood May explain teenagers tendency toward emotional outbursts and risky behavior Adolescents process information about emotions differently than adults do Eary adolescents tend to use the amygdala lnvolved in emotional and instinctual reactions Older adolescents use the frontal lobes Hande planning reasoning judgment emotional regulation and impulse control Permits more accurate reasoned judgments Might explain early adolescents unwise choices as the immature brain may permit feelings to override reason Sleep Seep deprivation among adolescents has been called an epidemic Adolescents need as much or more sleep than when they were younger Seep deprivation can cause Loss of motivation lrritabiity Poor school performance Melatonin causes the brain to get ready for sleep Anorexia Nervosa Eating disorder characterized by selfstarvation Potentially life threatening Affects O3O5 of adolescent girls and young women and a smaller percentage of boys and men in Western countries Results from distorted body image causing the person to believe they are too fat Often good students but may be withdrawn or depressed and may engage in repetitive perfectionist behavior Early Warning Signs Determined secret dieting Dissatisfaction after losing weight Setting new lower weight goals after reaching and initial desired weight Excessive exercising lnterruption of regular menstruation usually due to too low body fat Both deliberate and involuntary Seem to have existed in all parts of the world May be in part a reaction to societal pressure to be gender Bulimia Nervosa Eating disorder in which a person regularly eats huge quantities of food and then purges the body by laxatives induced vomiting fasting or excessive exercise Affects about 12 of international populations Episodes of binging and purging occur at least twice a week for at least 3 months People with bulimia are usually not overweight but are obsessed with their weight and shape Tend to have low selfesteem and may become overwhelmed with shame selfcontempt and depression Little historical evidence of bulimia or evidence of it in other cultures Use and Abuse of Drugs Substance Abuse Repeated harmful use of a substance usually alcohol or other drugs Substance Dependence Addiction physical or psychological or both to a harmful substance Addictive drugs are especially dangerous as they stimulate parts of the brain that are still developing in adolescence 6 of 1217 year olds need treatment for alcohol use More than 5 of 1217 year olds need treatment for illicit drugs Trends in Drug Use Nearly half 47 of US adolescents have tried illicit drugs by the time they graduate An increase in drug use during the early 1990s was accompanied by lowered perceptions of its dangers and less peer disapproval This trend is beginning to reverse Rates of marijuana and nonmedical prescription drug use have not seen a recent drop Recent trend is the abuse of nonprescription cough and cold medications to get high Alcohol Marijuana and Tobacco Alcohol Potent mindaltering drug with major effects on physical emotional and social wellbeing Serious problem in many countries In 2009 15 of US 8th graders 30 of 10th graders and 44 of 12th graders said they had consumed alcohol at least once during the past 30 days Binge Drinking Consuming ve or more drinks on one occasion Majority of high school students who drink engage in this May affect thinking and memory by damaging white matter Marijuana Most widely used illicit drug in the United States In 2007 about 12 of 8th graders 27 of 10th graders and 33 of 12th graders admitted to having used it in the past year Smoke typically contains more than 400 carcinogens and potency has doubled in the past 25 years Heavy use can damage the brain heart lungs and immune system and cause nutritional de ciencies respiratory infections and other physical problems Marijuana use may be addictive Jobacco Use is a less widespread problem in the United States than in most other industrialized countries Smoking rates have declined by onethird to more than onehalf among US 8th to 12th graders since the mid 1990s About 7 of 8th graders 13 of 10th graders and 20 of 12 graders are current pastmonth smokers Substance use often begins when children enter middle school and become more vulnerable to peer pressure 4th to 6th graders may start using cigarettes beer and inhalants and as they get older move on to marijuana or harder drugs The earlier a drug is started the more frequently it is likely to be used and the greater the tendency to abuse it Average age to start drinking is 13 to 14 years Early drinkers tend to have behavior problems or to have siblings who are alcohol dependent Those who start before age 15 are more than 5 times more likely to become alcohol dependent or alcohol abusers Smoking often begins in the early teenage years Within a year or two after starting to smoke adolescents inhale the same amount of nicotine as adults and experience the same cravings and withdrawal effects Often come from homes schools and neighborhoods where smoking is common Adolescents exposed to drugs and alcohol before age 15 demonstrate an increased risk for substance disorders low educational attainment and crime Peer in uence on both smoking and drinking has been documented extensively Older siblings and their friends also in uence likelihood of tobacco and alcohol use Parents who drink are more likely to have children who abuse alcohol Media also in uences smoking Belief that parents disapprove of smoking decreases the likelihood of smoking Rational discussions can decrease risk of drinking Piaget s Stage of Formal Operations Forma Operations 11 and up Fina stage of cognitive development Characterized by the ability to think abstractly Forma operational children can Understand historical time and extraterrestrial space Use symbols to represent other symbols Better appreciate metaphor and allegory Think in terms of what might be lmagine possibilities Form and test hypotheses HypotheticalDeductive Reasoning Penduum Problem HypotheticalDeductive Reasoning Ability Piaget believed to accompany the stage of formal operations To develop consider and test hypotheses Piaget believed it resulted from a combination of brain maturation and expanding environmental opportunities Schooling and culture also play a role Formal reasoning is a learned ability that is not equally necessary or equally values in all cultures Language Development Use of language re ects level of cognitive development Vocabuary continues to grow By ages 16 to 18 the average young person knows approximately 80000 words Abstract thought allows adolescents to de ne and discuss love justice and freedom They use however otherwise anyway therefore really and probably more frequently to express logical relationships Become more conscious of words as symbols with multiple meanings and take pleasure in using irony puns and metaphors Become more skilled in social perspectivetaking the ability to tailor their speech to another person s knowledge level and point of view Essential for persuasion or polite conversation Vocabuary may differ by gender ethnicity age geographical region neighborhood and type of school and varies from one clique to another Adolescent also speak a different language when with peers versus adults Moral Reasoning Kohlberg s Theory As children attain higher cognitive levels they become capable of more complex reasoning about moral issues Tendencies toward altruism and empathy increase as well Better able to Take another person s perspective Solve social problems Deal with interpersonal relationships See themselves as social beings Heinz s Dilemma Most famous example of Kohlberg s approach to studying moral development Posed hypothetical dilemmas to 75 boys ages 10 13 and 16 and continued to question them periodically for more than 30 years By asking respondents how they arrived at their answers Kohlberg concluded that the way people look at moral issues re ects cognitive development quotA woman is near death from cancer A druggist has discovered a drug that doctors believe might save her The druggist is charging 2000 for a small dose 10 times what the drug costs him to make The sick woman s husband Heinz borrows from everyone he knows but can scrape together only 1000 He begs the druggist to sell him the drug for 1000 or let him pay the rest later The druggist refuses saying quotI discovered the drug and I m going to make money from itquot Heinz desperate breaks into the man s store and steals the drug Should Heinz have done that Why or why notquot Kohlberg s Level and Stages Three levels Preconventional Morality ages 410 Control is external and rules are obeyed in order to gain rewards or avoid punishment out of self interest Conventional Morality after 10 Standards of authority gures are internalized Concerned about being good pleasing others and maintaining social order Some people never move beyond it Postconventional Morality early adolescenceyoung aduhhood Peope follow internally held moral principles and can decide among con icting moral standards
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