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by: Annette Leannon
Annette Leannon
Florida Tech
GPA 3.97

Michael Grace

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Michael Grace
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annette Leannon on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 3701 at Florida Institute of Technology taught by Michael Grace in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/221683/bio-3701-florida-institute-of-technology in Biological Sciences at Florida Institute of Technology.

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Date Created: 10/12/15
Final Evolution Exam Natural Selection 1 To occur Darwin 0 Variation among individuals 0 At least some of the variation must be heritable 0 Competition among individuals 0 Population has differential reproductive and survival 0 Reproductive output is nonrandom Tied to variation Artificial Selection Dramatic change in response to human selection pressure Cattle Galapagos Finches Specific beaksize and shape according to species location Beak size correlates with size of seeds harvested Small beak small seed Natural selection 0 acts on individuals but its results occur in populations 0 acts on phenotypes but evolution consists of changes in allele frequencies 0 cannot be anticipated 0 acts on existing traits but new traits can evolve 1 Adaptation not necessarily quotp erfect o Nonrandom not forwardlooking Organisms are not trying to become better for environment Environment is killing those that can t survive Population will become adapted for those who can survive and kill those who can t Population only as perfect as nature allows Sexual Selection 1 Sexual selection can lead to profound differences bt male and female ofa species Name two differences that decides which sexes chooses potential mates and which competes Parental investment amount of time and energy a parent puts into caring for offspring Operational sex ratio of individuals of a sex available for mating 2 Define Sexual Selection Sexual selection is a form of natural selection that causes the elaboration of adaptations that differ between males and females This is a special form of natural selection Natural selection generally however leads to adaptations in both males and females The adaptations that occur because of sexual selection aid in tness by aiding the acquisition of mates In many species males posess adaptations that enhance attractiveness to female females have adaptations that lead to choosiness among males the reverse is true in species exhibiting sexual role reversal Runaway Selection 1 Runaway selection an exaggeration of an extreme dimorphic characteristic Like long stalks of some ies Gets attention of the sex that is choosing a mate Not really runaway b c the trait will soon be at some point selected against Kin Selection 1 William Hamilton described the concept 0finclusive fitness to help explain altruistic behaviour and kin selection What does inclusive fitness mean What are its two components Inclusive fitness refers to an individual s own fitness reproductive output plus that component of reproductive output of close relatives because of the actions of that individual Inclusive fitness includes direct fitness increasing an individual s own reproductive success indirect fitness increasing another individual s reproductive success that share same alleles 2 How does data on ground squirrels suggest kin selection If an individual is not reproducing than they are making warning calls to warn those who are reproducing The benefit is the relatives are able to mate successfully and alleles are passed on The cost to the ground squirrel making the calls is the attention of the predator and it is more likely to be attacked Altruism 1 Define altruism Animal behavior that benefits other individuals at a cost or no benefit to the performer 2 Why does altruistic behavior seem at odds with natural selection According to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying natural selection alleles that promote altruism should be selected against because while the behaviors they generate are advantageous to the receiver they confer little or no fitness benefit to the altruist maybe even harm Altruism may be beneficial however when it is generated through the process of kin selection when altruistic behavior is aimed at close relatives the altruist increases the likelihood of passing on its own kind of alleles Heritable Change Reassortment Randomness in which each pair of chromosomes is put into a given seX cell these cells come together to form a zygote Recombination During meiosis crossing over between homologous chromosomes gives new combinations of alleles on individual chromosomes Mutation Point mutation Gene duplication Chromosome inversion 1 2 o Sickle cell anemia Nonsynonymous point mutation amino acid change mRNA is reversetranscribed and inserted in genome called Retrotransposition Some duplicated genes lack promoters what is their role in the environment by natural selection These genes do not produce proteins so there is no change in the phenotype They are not selected against but increase chance for future mutations Useful for calculating phylogenetic history based on rate of mutation Chromosome inversions affect genetic diversity by causing formation of Supergenes Don t cross over large linked sections How does duplication of the entire genome at once affect process of sp eciation Can create new type of species that is a derivative of the original species Describe mechanism by which genes can be duplicated in an individual Recombination during meiosis improper synapsing can occur between homologous chromosomes This can leave one chromosome with a deletion and one with a duplication of the same gene An example is the Marie Charcot Tooth disease Describe in detail the genetic mechanism by which instantaneous speciation can occur Genome duplication Autopolyploidy within species Allopolyploidy crossspecies hybridization Meiosis fails and Zn gametes are formed If a 2n gamete combines with another 2n gamete the zygote will be 4n This has a drastic effect on the offspring new species because each cell must be larger to hold twice the genetic material and there are twice as many genes to control function Autpolyploidy generally occurs in owering plants 7 Suppose a silent point mutation has occurred in human betaglobin gene Has a new allele been created Defend Yes although a different amino acid is not made and the protein and phenotype created by the mutation are the same as before there is a variation in the triplet codon gene An allele is a different form of the same gene so this is a new allele assuming it does not previously occur in the population Eventually this mutation may lead to variation on population genotype 8 What is the most likely effect of a random point mutation on fitness and why A random point mutation is most likely without effect neutral because many are synonymous they do not change the codon and therefore do not change phenotype mutations may also occur in some non coding regions pseudogenes etc that have no effect on phenotype Excluding these then most mutations are likely harmful because organisms are relatively welladapted to their current environments 9 In C elegans how likely is a particular point mutation How likely is my point mutation A particular point mutation is very unlikely in any species in C elegans the likelihood is about 1 in 48000000 The likelihood of any point mutation though is very high about 2 new mutatio ns individual generatio n 10Why is autopolyploidy most likely in owering plants and selffertilizing animals Autopolyploidy is more likely in selffertilizing species because if they produce diploid gametes these diploid gametes from the same individual may fertilize each other In nonselffertilizing species the likelihood of finding another individual producing diploid gametes is very low HardyWeinberg and other 1 8 pts Name 4 requirements for a population to be in HardyWeinberg equilibrium no mutation no gene ow ie no migration no genetic drift no natural selection random mating list 4 out of these five 2 What is the value of HWE what does it mean What do p and 2pq mean HWE is a mathematical description of the genetic makeup of a population It can tell us of the genetic makeup of a population is changing from generation to generation For a phenotype controlled by one gene with two alleles 2pq is the expected frequency of heterozygous individuals in a population P is the frequency that an allele occurs in the gene pool 3 What is the effect ofinbreeding on the genetic structure ofa population How can population size and gene ow affect inbreeding Inbreeding increases the likelihood of homozygosity including homozygosity for deleterious alleles and this phenomenon happens most readily and rapidly in small populations That is inbreeding is far more likely as populations become increasingly small In addition small populations necessarily have limited genetic diversity Gene ow through immigration is likely to increase genetic diversity whereas emigration likely lowers genetic diversity even further 4 Define inbreeding depression Loss of fitness due to inbreeding 5 Genetic result of inbreeding in a population Loss of heterozygosity Loss of genetic diversity Can lead to reduce survival of offspring in some cases 6 On its genetic basis how does inbreeding depression leads to quotdepressionquot This occurs because of the increased likelihood of homozygosity for deleterious alleles 7 Define the term quotgenetic drift Genetic drift refers to the random change in allele frequencies in a population because of random events such as the randomness of allele packaging into gametes the randomness of gamete fusion which particular gametes generate the next generation and random chance events that happen over the course of individual lives that lead to differential survival repro duction 8Name two mechanisms by which genetic drift occurs Randomness of alleles from meiosis Randomness of gametes that produce zygote 9Why do smaller populations have stronger effects of genetic drift The chance of a random event occurring in both individuals mating increases There are less individuals in the population to reverse the change so the next generation is more likely to continue drift toward allele fixation 10 What is the effect of genetic drift on alleles Genetic drift changes the relative frequencies of alleles and can lead to allele fixation and hence the loss or extinction of other alleles 11What is the genetic basis of the neurological disorder known as Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies How does this genetic disorder illustrate the concept ofmolecular homology HNLPP is a peripheral nerve disorder This disease is found in chimpanzees bonobos and humans The PMP22 gene produces a protein important in the formation of myelin which speeds transmission of information in neurons that travel long distances The PMP22 gene is anked by CMT1A repeats duplicated segments of DNA that can lead to unequal crossing over If unequal crossing over occurs it yields one chromosome with two copies of the PMP22 gene and another chromosome with no copies of the PMP22 genes Individuals who inherit a chromosome 17 with loss of the PMP22 gene have only one copy of the gene on chromosome 17 from the other parent exhibit HNPP Individuals who have three total copies of the PMP22 gene exhibit CharcotMarieTooth disease 12 Describe the process of 14C dating of fossils In your answer be sure to describe where 14C comes from and approximately the maximum age of fossils on which 14C dating is possible 14C is generated in the atmosphere as 14N is bombarded by cosmic rays 14 C then combines with oxygen to form 14 C02 14C becomes incorporated into plants as they respire and into animals as they consume plants directly or indirectly When living things die no more 14C is incorporated into tissues and existing 14C decay begins with a halflife of 5730 years 14C dating is used for fossils whose age ranges between 100 and 100000 years 13 Describe how people attempt to and usually do successfully predict which of many existing u strains will be the dominant form in the next u season In uenza A antigens mutate at a high rate The virus has two major surface proteins Hemaggluttin and Nueraminidase The silent substitutions are usually neutral The virus has 18 codons for two surface proteins that have more replacement than silent substitutions Antibodies bind to virus and infected cells and kill them The dominant strain will be the one with the most nonsynonymous substitutions on the 18 codons that is known to be under selection pressure 14 Describe mechanism by which pandemic u strains are thought to have evolved Pandemic u strains arise b c of hybridization among virus strains that infect different species For example a strain may infect both birds and pigs and another strain that infects both people and pigs If a pig becomes infected by a bird and human strain the cell that is coinfected may produce new virions that contain genes and surface proteins from both strains These new virions are capable of infecting people but also contain antigens that are extremely different to the human immune system from which it has encountered 15 Define Virulence Why vectorborne pathogens more virulent than those spread by direct contact Virulence is the damage done to the host by the pathogen Bacteria transmitted direct hosttohost has less virulence because the virus relies on the host to live in order for it to spread and reproduce Bacteria transmitted by air or water has a higher virulence because it does not require the host to live for it to survive and reproduce Natural selection favors pathogen with optimum balance between bacteria cost and benefit to virulence 16 Describe process by which AZT acts on HIV and how mutation and selection result in AZTresistance in HIV AZT binds to reverse transcriptase of HIV The reverse transcriptase cannot tell the difference between Thymidine and AZT because AZT mimics Thymidine After AZT binds the reverse transcriptase stops and the virus dies However some HIV virions can tell the difference between AZT and Thymidine When AZT is given to a patient these virions are the ones that survive The HIV population soon decreases for a period of time meanwhile the AZTresistant virions are still replicating Soon the HIV population returns to original size but it only consists of AZT resistant individuals 17 De ne allopatric species by Vicariance Allopatric speciation refers to the process of speciation caused by a population being spit into multiple large groups by some kind of geographic boundary The issues that come into play here are the relatively diverse genetic make up of each population and the relatively limited effect of genetic drift 18 What is meant by assortative mating How is it involved in the process of speciation Assortative mating is that there exists some type limitation on mate selection in assortative mating Often this means that one sex chooses particular characteristics in potential mates This process can affect speciation by causing isolation of types in a population which may drive greater distinction among multiple different types For example in the hawthorn fruit y individuals reared on a diet of hawthorn fruits mate assortatively with animals that were also reared on hawthorn Those reared on apples tend to mate with others reared on apples 19 What meant by multiple niche polymorphism How can this lead to sympatric speciation CHRSOPERLA EXAMPLE BELOW Multiple niche polymorphism refers to if multiple distinct niches exist in a particular ecosystem a population of organisms from one species may exhibit characteristics that are polymorphic among individuals The form of the character that best fits within a particular niche should be selected for within that niche but not in another niche An example we discussed was the adaptation of body color in lacewings that live in grassy meadows green in spring and summer brown in fall vs those that live on nearby conifers green all year The evolution of multiple niche polymorphisms may lead to speciation including sympatric speciation 20 De ne peripatric speciation And how this process led to the evolution of the fruit ies on Hawaiian islands Isolation of small population from the original population This is a type of allopatric speciation involving dispersal fruit flies migrated from older islands to newer islands These subpopulations eventually become new species due to mutations different selection pressures andor genetic drift Therefore phylogenies are related to the age of the islands Older islands have more ancient lineage 21 What is meant by reinforcement with respect to speciation and possibility of hybridization By what mechanism can it occur Reinforcement is what drives two species to form a single species that lives across a geographic range with out an intervening barrier At the zone where the two types mate the hybrids can be selected against or selected for If selected for there is a chance for three species to arise 22 Describe genetics and the resulting phenotypes that appear to underlie sympatric speciation in lacewings of genus Chrysoperla The reproduction season of Chrysoperla is determined by three loci One species is homozygous for one allele and the other species is homozygous for the other allele One of the species changes color relative to day length members of this species will only mate based on color change This species lives in elds which is presumably why they change colors The other species live in evergreen trees which is why they don t change colors The evolution of breeding seasonality occurred after this niche polymorphism was established The combination of these results in sympatric speciation 23 De ne Last Universal Common Ancestor Describe some piece of evidence that supports it Describe an alternate explanation of early history of life that does not involve a single common ancestor LULA Most recent common ancestor for all extant organisms RNA world RNA can store and transmit information as well as perform work RNA can also evolve This means that all life may be a descendant of a single common ancestor of the RNA world Alternative Gene transfer The three major lineages Bacteria Eukarya Archea could have evolved by lateral gene transfer rather than by passing genetic information from one generation it to the next 24 Describe 3 pieces of evidence that support theory of the cretaceous itertiary mass extinction Theory 65 mya massive impact forming the Chicxulub crater Evidence 1 Magnetic and gravitational anomalies Differences in expected and gravitation and magnetism at the site of impact 2 Microtectites spherical or teardrop shaped glass found at meteor impact Shocked quartz lamellated quartz grains found at meteoric impact sites 3 Clay layer extinction of shelled organisms stopped formation of limestone High concentrations of iridium in this layer 25 Greenbeard Allele The Greenbeard Effect alleles rise to high frequency by inducing altruism toward individuals certain to be carrying the same alleles Richard Dawkins 1976 following Hamilton s ideas imagined a single hypothetical allele that simultaneously OCauses carriers to grow a green beard Allow carriers to recognize green beards in others and OCause carriers to behave altruistically toward others with green beards This is asking a lot complex behavior 3 forms driven by a single allele But it apparently does happen in simple organisms and can operate at the level of single genes


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