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Mammalian Physiology

by: Annette Leannon

Mammalian Physiology BIO 3210

Annette Leannon
Florida Tech
GPA 3.97

Michael Grace

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Michael Grace
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annette Leannon on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 3210 at Florida Institute of Technology taught by Michael Grace in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/221684/bio-3210-florida-institute-of-technology in Biological Sciences at Florida Institute of Technology.

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Date Created: 10/12/15
BIOL 3210 Mammalian Physiology Fall 2009 Study Guide for Exam II This study guide is meant as a GUIDE and is therefore not necessarily allinclusive Please remember that the things we discussed in class are of primary importance Use this document as a guide to some of the major topics to study but let the questions here remind you of other important issues that we discussed and then study those as well Outline of important issues Sensory Systems a Vision i Retina and brain organization ii Photoreceptors and phototransduction iii Color vision b Audition i Anatomy of the middle and inner ear hair cell function ii Mechanism of frequency discrimination iii Mechanism of spatial localization c Chemosensation i Signal transduction and the mechanism of odor discrimination 11 Muscle a Skeletal i Anatomy ii Mechanism of EC coupling b Smooth i Anatomy ii Mechanism of EC coupling iii Regulation of activity 1 autorhythmicity 2 neuralhormonal effects c Cardiac i Anatomy ii Mechanism of EC coupling iii Inability to reach tetany how and why III Cardiovascular System a Functional architecture of the heart i Atria ventricles blood ow pathway ii Autorhythmic cells 1 SA AV nodes Bundle of His Purkinje fibers 2 why are they autorhythmic 3 how does excitation spread from them to other cells 4 how do they control overall beating of the heart iii Regulation of heart function 1 total cardiac output 2 regulation of heart rate by sypathetic parasympathetic input 3 regulation of stroke volume a extrinsic mechanism neural regulation Fquot 3 1 b intrinsic mechanism end diastolic volume and lengthtension relationship Functional architecture of the circulatory system i Arteries as pressure reservoir ii Veins as volume reservoir iii Mechanisms of blood return to heart 1 blood vessel valves 2 skeletal muscle pump other mechanisms Regulation of heart and blood vessel function i Systemic vasoconstriction vasodilation ii Localized changes chemical temperature effects on blood vessels in a localized area Function of capillary beds i Architecture of capillaries size crosssectional area ii Bulk ow mechanisms roles of capillary blood pressure and plasma colloid osmotic pressure Organization and function of lymphatic vessels i Architecture of lymphatics blind ends in tissues and overlapping cells that allow uid to enter ii Return of uid volume back to cardiovascular system Study gggide questions and points 1 Sensory Systems Understand the organization of the retina and how vision is wired into the brain Understand the roles of rods and cones What is the mechanism of phototransduction What is the mechanism of color vision What are the blind spot and the fovea What is the physical mechanism of sound transduction from the environment to the inner ear What is the structure and role of the cochlea How do auditory hair cells work Why are they called hair cells How are they mechanosensitive What is the mechanism of detection of sound intensity How do we discriminate the wide array of sound frequencies that we can hear Why is it that nonhuman animals detect frequencies different from the human frequency detection range How do we determine the position of the source of a sound in the environment What is the mechanism of balance How do chemosensory olfactory neurons detect the wide variety of chemicals that we can smell 2 Skeletal Muscle Understand the structure and function of the neuromuscular junction Understand the structure of muscle cells fibers fibrils sarcomere How is depolarization of muscle membrane coupled with contraction What is a motor unit and what is meant by recruitment What is meant by summation and tetanus What sensory receptors give feedback information regarding skeletal muscle position and stretch and how do they operate 3 Smooth muscle Distinguish between mechanisms of contractility in skeletal and smooth muscle How is contraction of smooth muscle regulated by the nervous system Where is smooth muscle found What are pacemaker cells and what is meant by selfexcitability Why is smooth muscle useful in its functions ie how does its function differ from that of skeletal skeletal muscle and how does structure and activity relate to functional requirements 4 Cardiac muscle and heart function Understand the structure and function of cardiac muscle and its mechanism of excitation What are the similarities and differences between cardiac and other muscle types Know the path of blood ow through the heart and how that ow is regulated How is heartbeat initiated maintained and controlled Why does cardiac muscle not reach tetany and why is this important What are the two components of cardiac output and how is each regulated How is blood pressure measured and what do the values represent What is a FrankStarling curve and how does it change under different conditions 5 Blood vessels What is the path of blood flow through the body What factors in uence blood ow rate and pressure How are arteries and veins involved in regulating blood ow What factors regulate vasoconstrictionvasodilation and why What are the functions of capillaries How do things get into and out of capillaries How do their size structure and branching patterns in uence their function What is the lymphatic system and how does it operate What factors ensure efficient return of venous blood to the heart Biol 3210 Mammalian Physiology Fall 2009 Study Guide for Exam I This study nge is not necessarily allinclusive I listed major issues but read your text and study your notes There may be test questions not covered by the material noted here STUDY TOGETHER DISCUSS Know detailed mechanisms how do things work Y J quot to 39 quot Physiology define homeostasis Does this refer to cells tissues organs the entire body understand and be able to give examples of positive and negative feedback what are feedforward systems General Aspects of Cellular Physiology Understand general cell biology I will not ask questions on this but it is impotant to your understanding of other things Do know the components make up the cytoskeleton microtubules etc and generally how they work Also know the different mechanisms by which things can be physically transported across the membrane and about signal transduction systems where things cannot cross the membrane Know cellcell junctions desmosomes tight junctions gapjunctions See next section CellCell and Neuronal 39 quot understand the different types of signal transduction systems we discussed including direct channel effects vs indirect activation of an intracellular second messenger understand the different cellcell junctions How are they similardifferent What are their functions know mechanisms by which things are physically transported across the membrane how is neuronal membrane potential generated what proteins are involved what is responsible for the different components of the action potential Whyhow is an action potential unidirectional How is it selfpropagating why can an action potential travel in only one direction at a given time understand the role of the myelin sheath and nodes of Ranvier in an action potential Where do you nd myelin in the nervous system and why is it there how is an action potential coupled to transmitter release at the synapse know what is meant by graded potential PSP IPSP and EPSP How are they generated understand the different mechanisms of cellcell communication ie gap junctional synaptic endocrine etc Give examples of each Functional Organization of the Nervous System know what the terms afferent efferent and interneuron refer to understand the large functional divisions of the nervous system somatic autonomic sympathetic etc Organized projection of incoming information to the brain what does this accomplish Be able to describe somatotopic and somatosensory maps Understand the basic anatomy of the spinal cord What are re exes and how is a neural re ex organized anatomically


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