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Fdns Of Hum Physiol

by: Miss Alysa Lehner

Fdns Of Hum Physiol PCB 2099

Miss Alysa Lehner
GPA 3.55

Maureen Walter

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Maureen Walter
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Alysa Lehner on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PCB 2099 at Florida International University taught by Maureen Walter in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/221716/pcb-2099-florida-international-university in Biology at Florida International University.


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Date Created: 10/12/15
Atoms 0 000 0 Atom O 0 Atom 0 Are the smallest units of the chemical elements Composed of protons neutrons and electrons Nucleus contains protons and neutrons Electrons occupy orbitals or shells outside nucleus Atomic mass is sum of protons and neutrons in an atom Atomic number is number of protons in an atom electron shells Electron shells or orbitals are in layers around nucleus I Number of shells depends on atomic number I First shell can contain only 2 electrons I Second shell can contain up to 8 electrons I Electrons in more distant shells have higher energy Valence electrons are those in outermost shell I These can participate in chemical reactions and form bonds Isotopes Are different forms of same atom I Atomic number is the same but atomic mass is different 0 Because contain different numbers of neutrons 0 C12 C 13 C14 Chemical bonds 0 Molecules form by chemical bonding between calence electrons of atoms I Number of bonds determined by number of electrons needed to complete outermost shell Covalent bonds 0 Occur when atoms share valence electrons o In nonpolar covalent bonds electrons are shared equally I Eg in H2 or 02 o In polar bonds electrons are shared unequally I Pulled more toward one atom I Have and poles I Oxygen nitrogen phosphorous have strong pull 0 Tend to form polar molecules 0 Eg H20 Ionic bonds 0 Occur when valence electrons are transferred from one atom to another I Forming charged atoms ions I Atom that loses electrons becomes a cation charged I Atom that gains electrons becomes an anion charged 0 Ionic bonds are formed by attraction of and charges 0 Ionic bonds are weaker than polar covalents O O O Dissociate when dissolved in H2O I Because H20 forms hydration spheres around ions I Eg NaCl Hydrophilic molecules are soluable in water I Because readily form hydration sphere I Eg glucose and amino acids Hydrophobic molecules are nonpolar cannot form hydration spheres Hydrogen bonds 0 0 When H forms polar bonds with another atom it takes on slight charge Making it attracted to any nearby negatively charged atoms I Called hydrogen bonds 0 Forms between adjacent H20s creating surface tension Acids and bases 0 Acids release protons H in a solution proton donor 0 Bases lower H levels of a solution proton acceptor pH o Is symbol for H concentration of a solution 0 pH scale runs from 1 to 14 0 pH log1HLogrithimic scale 0 Pure H20 is a neutral and has pH 7 0 Acid pH less than 7 base pH greater than 7 0 Make more basic what happens to a Hydrogen concentration 0 Shift of one whole pH is not a shift of one factor it s a factor of 10 because it s a logritimic scale Logs x10 Buffers o Are molecules that slow changes in pH by either combing with or releasing H I Eg the bicarbonate carbonic acid buffer system in blood 0 H20 C02 gt H2CO3 gt H HC03 or H20 C02 gt H HC03 gt H2CO3 I This buffer pH because reaction can go in either direction depending upon concentration of Hs tries to maintain homeostasis 0 Our respiratory system can change the blood pH Blood pH 0 Normal range of pH is 735 745 o Maintaining by buffering action I Acidosis occurs if pH lt 735 I Alkalosis occurs if pH gt 745 Organic molecules 0 O 0 Are those that contain carbon and hydrogen Carbon has 4 electrons in outer shell I Bonds covalently to fill outer shell with 8 electrons nbody carbons are linked to form chains or rings Lpids I Serve as quotbackbonequot to whish more reactive functional groups are added 0 Functional groups I Carbonyl group forms ketones and aldehydes I Hydroxyl group forms alcohols I Carboxyl group forms organic acids lactic and acetic acids Carbohydrates o Are organic molecules containing carbon hydrogen and oxygen in ratio of CnHZnOn o Monosaccharides are simple sugars such as glucose fructose galactose o Disaccharides are 2 monosaccharides joined covalently I Include o Sucrose or table sugar glucose fructose o Lactose or milk sugar glucose galactose 0 Maltose or malt sugar 2 glucoses o Polysaccharides are many monosaccharides linked together I Include starch and glycogen which are polymers of thousands of gluecose 0 Energy stored molecules 0 Allows organisms to store thousands of glucoses in 1 polysaccharride molecule which drastically reduces osmotic problems Formation of disaccharides o Occurs by splitting water out of 2 monosaccharides I An hH or OH are removed producing H20 I Called dehydration or condensation Digestion of polysaccharides o Is reverse of dehydration synthesis 0 H20 is split H added to one monosaccharides OH to other called hydrolysis o Polysaccharide hydrolyzed into disaccharides then monosaccharides Lipids o Are insoluable in polar solvents such as water I Hydrophobic o Consist primarily of hydrocarbon chains and rings Lipids Triglycerides o Formed by condensation of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids 0 Are saturated if hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids are joined by single covalent bonds 0 Are saturated if there are double bonds within hydrocarbon chains 0 Saturated Or not saturateda Lipid Ketone bodies 0 Hydrolysis of triglycerides release free fatty acids I Which can be used for energy I Or converted in liver to ketones bodies 0 Which are acidic 0 High levels cause ketosis o Ketoacidosis occurs when ketone bodies in blood lower pH 0 Lipid Phospholipids o Are lipids that contain a phosphate group 0 Phosphate part is polar and hydrophilic o Lipid part is nonpolar and hydrophobic o Phosopholipids aggregate into miscelles in water I Polar part interacts with water nonpolar part is hidden in middle 0 Act as surfactants by reducing surface tension 0 Lipid steroids 0 Are nonpolar and insoluable in water 0 All have 6 carbon rings joined to a 5 carbon ring 0 Cholesterol is precursor steroid hormones I Is component of cell membranes 0 Lipid Prostaglandins o Are fatty acids with cyclic hydrocarbon group 0 Produced by and active in most tissues 0 Serve many regulatory function Proteins 0 Proteins amino acids 0 Are made of long chains of amino acids I 20 different amino acids can be used I Amino acids contain an aimno group NHZ at one end carboxyl group COOH at other end I Differences between amino acids are due to differences in functional groups quotRquot o R group differentiates amino acids 0 Protein peptides o Are short chains of amino acids I Amino acids are linked by peptide bonds I Formed by dehydration reactions o If lt100 amino acids is called a polypeptide gt100 amino acids is called a protein 0 Proteins structure 0 Can be described at four levels 0 Primary structure is its sequence of amino acids 0 Secondary structure is caused by weak H bonding of amino acids I Results in alpha helix or beta pleated sheet shapes 0 Tertiary structure is caused by bending and folding of polypeptide chainds to produce 3 dimensional shape I Formed and stabilized by weak bonds between functional groups I Not very stable can be denatured by ehat pH I Figure 227 shows bonds responsible for tertiary structure 0 Quaternary structure forms when a number of polypeptide chains are covalently joined 0 Many proteins are conjugated with other groups I Glycoproteins cantain carbohydrates I Lipoproteinscontain lipids I Others like hemoglobin contain pigment 0 Nucleic acids 0 Include DNA and RNA 0 Are made of long chains of nucleotides I Which consist ofa 5 carbon sugar phosphate group and nitrodenous base 0 Bases are pyrimidines 1 ring or purines 2 rings 0 DNA 0 Contains genetic code 0 Its deoxyribose sugar 5C is covalently bonded to 1 to 4 bases I Guanine or adenine purines I Cytosine or thymine pyrimidines 0 Chain is formed by sugar of 1 nucleotide bonding to phosphate or another 0 Each base can form hydrogen bonds with other bases I This hydrogen bonding holds 2 strands of DNA together 0 2 strands of DNA twist to form a double helix 0 Number of purines pyrimidines I Due to law of complementary base pairing 0 Adenine only with thymine cytosine with guanine o Consists of long chain of nucleotides joined together by sugar phosphate group 0 Its ribose sugar is bonded to 1 to 4 bases I Guanine or adnine I Cytosine or uracil replaces thymine 0 Single stranded o 3 typres of RNA are synthesized from DNA and allow it to direct activities of a cell I Messenger RNA I Transfer RNA I Ribosomal RNA


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