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Lecture 14 Coevolution and Mutualism Goals Be able to de ne coevolution and provide examples from all relationship types Know the difference between symbiotic and mutualistic associations Be able to de ne and provide examples of all types of mutualisms Be able to explain population growth of mutualistic organisms with mathematical models Be able to de ne and provide examples of commensalism Outline Overview of interspecies interactions 7 herbivory predation competition De nition of Coevolution Examples in all relationship types Symbiosis vs Mutualism Types of mutualisms l Obligate Symbiotic Mutualism 7 some examples Obligate Nonsymbiotic Mutualism 7 some examples Nonobligatog Mutualism 7 some examples Defensive Mutualism 7 some examples Indirect Mutualism 7 some examples Population growth in mutualistic organisms can be modeled For species 1 in the presence of 2 ledt 1 1 KlN1a1 2N2K1 For species 2 in the presence of l szdt 1 2 KzNzaz 1N1Kz Where a1 2 coef cient of mutualism positive effect of individuals of species 2 on growth rate of species 1 degree to which species 2 increases access of species 1 to resources Commensalism 7 de nition and examples Some examples ofcommensalisms Provider Resource Pitcher plant Habitat of water pitcher Sapsucker Drills holes to get sap Shark Food scraps Marine worms Habitat burrow Cattle Stirs up insects Trees Habitat Sloth Hair Turtle Carapace Whale Body Sea cucumber Cloaca Polar bear Food scraps ML ciarx Mosquitoes Hummingbirds Remora fish Crabs Cattle egrets Orchids Algae Green algae Barnacles Pearl sh Artic fox Lecture 19 Elemental Cycles Goals Know how organisms acquire and release energy through chemical transformations Understand REDOX reactions for energy assimilation and dissimilation Know the mechanisms of carbon transformation and the organisms that perform them Know the mechanisms of nitrogen transformation and the organisms that perform them Know the mechanisms of sulfur transformations when and where they occur Know how phosphorus is cycled between inorganic and organic forms Know how water is distributed and cycled between land and ocean Outline Overview of elemental cycling and importance to ecosystem energetics Importance of biotic REDOX chemical reactions in energy transformations Oxidation dissimilation energy releasing Reduction assimilation energy requiring Elemental cycles 1 Carbon a Autotrophic assimilationreduction i Photoautotrophs 7 aerobic and anaerobic using sun s energy ii Chemoautotrophs 7 reduction using chemical energy b l quot quot 39 quot quot idation i Aerobic 7 oxygen is electron acceptor ii Anaerobic 7 chemical electron acceptors special case of methanogenesis c Abiotic and biotic 39 quot quot and J39 39 quot of calcium carbonate 2 Nitrogen a Assimilation 7 reduction nitrate and nitrite to organic N b Ammonification 7 dissimilation of organic N to ammonia by excretiondecomp Nitrification 7 aerobic oxidation of ammonia to nitrate and nitrite Denitrification 7 anaerobic dissimilation of nitratenitrite to nitrogen gas Nf1xation 7 anaerobic reduction of molecular N gas to ammonium oo e 3 Sulfur Assimilation 7 uptake of sulfate and reduction to organic form Dissimilation 7 oxidation of organic S to sulfate by excretiondecomposition Desulfydration 7 anaerobic dissimilation of organic S to hydrogen sulfide Anaerobic dissimilation 7 sulfate used to oxidize organic matter reduced to HzS Photoautotrophic oxidation 7 HzS used to reduce organic carbon in anoxic setting Chemoautotrophic oxidation 7 oxidizing S to sulfate then forming HzSO4 4 Phosphorus a No REDOX stored in rocks essential element limiting production in lakes rug99 s H1 b Plants assimilate phosphate c Animals and bacteria break down organic P and release phosphate 5 Water a Distribution b Hydrologic Cycle Lecture 20 Nutritional Regeneration Goals Know how nutrients are recycled through uptake and decomposition Be able to describe the processes involved in breakdown of detritus Know how recycling rates are effected by climate Be able to describe how nutrients are cycled from sediments in lakes Know how allochthonous and authochthonous detrital sources vary in composition Understand how eutrophication can overwhelm regenerative capacity of ecosystems Outline Overview of regeneration to elemental cycling Nutrient recycling through uptake and decomposition of detrital organic matter Sources of organic matter can be autocthonous internal or allochthonous external examples Detrital breakdown governed by four processes leaching detritivory fungal decomposition bacterial decomposition Climatic effects on the rates of these processes Nutrient regeneration in aquatic systems depends on soil redox Eutrophication can overwhelm decompositional recycling i i r vs r J Lecture 13 Competition Goals Know the different classes of interspecies interactions Be able to design a common garden exp to determine the type and degree of interaction Know the definition of a limiting resource and Leibig s law Be able to explain the competitive exclusion principle Be able to describe each term in the model de ning population growth under competition Be able to describe the origin of resource partitioning and character displacement Know the difference in the fundamental and realized niche Be able to provide examples of how predators can modify the outcome of competition Outline Overview of interspecies interactions 7 herbivory and predation Types of interspecies interactions classified by 0 or 7 effect on each interactor Determining interaction types through a common garden experiment Competition happens when resources are limiting Leibig s Law of the Minimum Competitive Exclusion Principle Population growth in competitive environment can be modeled For species 1 in the presence of 2 ledt 1 1 K1N1a1 zNzK1 For species 2 in the presence of l szdt 1 2 KzNzaz 1N1K2 Where a1 2 coefficient of competition effect of individuals of species 2 on growth rate of species 1 degree to which species 2 uses species l s resources Competition can be by exploitation or interference Competition results in resource partitioning and character displacement Resource partitioning along multiple gradients results in a fundamental and realized niche Predators can in uence the degree of interspecies competition Keystone Predator hypothesis Lecture 17 Biodiversity Goals Know global diversity estimates and global spatial and temporal diversity patterns Know how diversity can be related to productivity and habitat heterogeneity Be able to calculate alpha gamma and beta diversity for a given area Know how species sorting ecological release and species packing in uence diversity Be able to graph and explain the equilibrium theory of diversity as applied to islands Outline Overview of community concepts and diversity Global diversity estimates and patterns some reasons for latitudinal trends and high diversity in the tropics Diversity is often correlated with habitat heterogeneity and overall energy input Diversity can be de ned on different spatial scales Local 7 Alpha 7 Diversity species per area of homogenous habitat Regional 7 Gamma 7 Diversity species in all habitats in an area Beta Diversity turnover in composition from one habitat to next habitats habitats occupied per species Factors determining diversity Species sorting 2 Ecological release 3 Species packing 7 how communities can accommodate more species increased total niche space increased niche overlap decreased niche breadth Eguilibrium Theog of Diversity balance of species added and species removed species added by evolution and immigration species removed by competition predation emigration Island Biogeography Theory 7 MacArthur and Wilson species added by immigration declines with species already on island species removed by extinction increases with species already on island immigration is slower for distant islands so those close to mainland should have more species extinction is higher on small islands so big island should have more species Lecture 11 Herbivory Goals Understand why herbivores don t eliminate plant populations Be able to describe different ways that plants protect themselves from grazers Be able to give examples of plant defenses Understand how scientists study herbivory in terrestrial and aquatic systems Understand the mechanisms by which herbivores can stimulate plant production Understand how herbivores choose and utilize different food types Outline Overview of intraspecies interactions and introduce interspecies interactions Herbivory can control plant populations observations from field exclosure experiments Why is the world green 1 Herbivores selfregulate so they don t destroy resource the logistic growth model 2 Predation holds herbivore production down 3 Plants have evolved defenses against herbivores a Mechanical b Masting c Mutualisms d Chemical i Quantitative ii Qualitative e Defensive Associations 4 Herbivory can stimulate plant productivity 5 Herbivory can increase plant diversity Lecture 12 Predation Goals Know the 5 tenets of predation Describe ways that predators exploit prey Describe ways that prey escape predation Describe how the magnitude of predator control on prey populations can be determined Describe oscillations of predatorprey populations Be able to mathematically model numerical response of predators to prey Be able to mathematically model numerical response of prey to predation Describe 3 functional responses of predators to prey Describe 5 factors that reduce oscillations in predatorprey models Describe origin of multiple stablestates of predatorprey populations Outline Overview of intraspecies interactions introduce predation Five Tenets of Predation Predators have adaptations for exploiting prey 2 Prey have adaptations for escaping predators 3 Predators can control prey population size 4 Predator and prey populations often increase and decrease in regular cycles 5 Predators exhibit three types of functional responses to prey density 1 Adaptations for exploiting prey a Morphological b Behavioral II Adaptations for escaping predators a Avoidance b Crypsis c Chemical defenses Aposematism Batesian Mimicry Mullerian Mimicry III Predators controls on prey population size Over and underexploitation IV Predator and prey population cycles a Habitat heterogeneity allows coexistence b Oscillations modeled by LotkaVolterra V Functional l 2 3 Terms P Predator N R Prey N C Capture Ef ciency r intrinsic rate of growth a ef ciency of prey conversion to predator growth d death rate of predator Predicting prey response to predators IUdt rR 7 cRP Predicting predator response to prey dPdt acRP dP iV Joint equilibrium equilibrium isoclines i ii iii responses of predator to prey Predators consume constant proportion of prey regardless of prey density Predation rate decreases as predators become satiated Predators are depressed at low prey density because prey are hard to nd Oscillations in predatorprey models reduced by l 2 3 4 5 Multipl Predator inef ciency Density dependent limitation Alternative food for predator Refuges from predation Time lags in response e steady state models Multiple stable states can develop in some predatorprey KEY Net increase of prey Net decrease of prey Predation Stable Unstable Relative rate per individual prey Density of prey population Before A predators can t find prey and eat other things prey increase After A predators capture prey more efficiently and drive prey back to A Above B predation efficiency not high enough to regulate prey Prey increase to C their carrying capacity and predators capture a smaller proportion Recruitment net contribution of b and d to prey with no predators Lecture 4 Life in Water Goals Be familiar with points from lectures 13 before proceeding Be able to list the main physical factors important to most animals and plants Be able to explain the main properties of water that make it a good medium for life Be able to explain how ionic composition of water effects organisms Be able to explain how light availability changes with depth in water the parameters that effect changes in light availability and how this controls productivity and distribution of organisms in the water Be able to explain how the thermal structure of lakes is established and how it changes seasonally Know the major nutrients important to life and how productivity can be limited by them Be able to explain availability of gases in water and how photosynthesis and respiration effect them Outline Review Ecology organisms interacting with physical environment and other organisms Focus of unit 1 physical environment Focus of last 2 lectures how physical environment climate varies on large scale to create predictable global distribution patterns biomes Smallscale physical variation Important variables in uencing individual organisms on small scales Water Light Temperature Gases Ions Nutrients Distributions are in uenced through niche preference Different variables effect aquatic and terrestrial systems differently Life in Water Properties of water that make it a good medium for life Hydrologic cycle Ions 7 coping with uctuating salinity and pH Light Amount and types reaching water Amount and types penetrating water Light extinction calculating rates Why light matters Productivity Visibility 7 food amp mate finding predator avoidance Temperature Thermal structure in lakes In uence of cycling on lake productivity Nutrients Required nutrients Nutrient limitation Categories of production in lakes Gases C02 and 02 in water vs air Effects of phytoplankton and bacterial production on concentrations Lecture 18 Energetics Goals Know how ecosystem science developed and the major scienti c contributors Be able to describe how the sun s energy is used to x carbon into plant biomass Be able to distinguish net from gross primary production Be able to describe four methods of measuring primary production Know the major factors controlling primary production and their relationships to it Be able to generalize global primary production patterns Understand how energy is transferred within food webs and what losses occur Understand that systems can depend on biomass produced within or outside a system Understand the biomass accumulation ratio for producers and decomposers Outline Overview of ecosystem ecology Ecosystem de nitions fundamental unit Tansley energy transformations Lotka energy losses through food web Lindeman expression of energy transformation in common currency Odum Primary production conversion of C02 to carbohydrate using sun s energy and water determines rate of energy supply to system De nitions 0 Gross Prima Production GPP 0 Net Prima Production NPP o Respiration R1 Measurements o Harvesting 0 Count and remeasure 0 Gas exchange at different scales 0 14C xation Trophic Energy Transfer only 520 passes to next level Ecological ef ciency 7 percent transfer Assimilation ef ciency 7 assimilation ingestion Decomposition and microbialdetrital loop Residence time 7 storageproduction Energy sources 7 within or outside system autochthonous vs allochthonous Terrestrial Tropical forest Temperate forest Boreal forest m Savanna Cultivated land J Shrubland Temperate grassland 4 Tundra and alpine J Desert scrub Aquatic Algal beds and reefs J Estuaries Lakes and streams Continental shelf J Open ocean 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Net primary production g per in2 per yr Lecture 21 Extinction and Conservation Goals Be able to draw a general diagram of the history of human population growth Know how this growth is impacting the globe and how this impact can be decreased Know how biodiversity losses are measured and why we should be concerned with it Know causes for the present high rates of extinction Be able to describe the characteristics of successful conservation practices Outline Overview of conservation biology Human impacts on globe enormous 7 three ways of decreasing impact 1 Zero population growth 2 Decrease consumption 3 Ecosystem management Biodiversity loss 7 cost of overpopulation 7 measured by Number of species 2 Functional diversity 3 Genetic diversity 4 Geographic diversity Why should we concern ourselves with this loss 1 Moral responsibility 2 Economic benefits 3 Indicators of environmental quality 4 Maintenance of ecosystem function Extinction is natural present rates are not 7 causes include 1 Habitat reduction 2 Small population size 3 Introduction of exotic species 4 Overexploitation Conservation practices 1 Nature preserves 7 base construction on biogeographic theory 2 Conservation planning for the minimum viable population Plant species richness before drought Biomass remaining after drought fraction of original lt 0 C N 4 8 K C O 0 O 0 O O Lecture 2 Climate Goals Be familiar with points from lecture 1 before proceeding Understand how earth s climate is driven by astronomy Be introduced to how climate in uences plant distribution Be able to diagram how sunlight air and water circulation patterns and landmass distribution control broadscale climate patterns Understand how largescale variation in climate can in uence patterns in nature Outline Review ecology de nition types of ecological systems and scales of variation Physical variation at the largest scale global climate Climate rainfall and lighttemperature Predictable patterns in climate predict global patterns of distributionproductivity Climate zones controlled by l Intensity of solar radiation a Angle sun hits earth determines incident sunlight intensity b Rotation of earth around sun determines seasons in hemispheres 2 Air circulation a Hadley cells drive large scale circulation patterns i Intertropical Convergence at solar equator ii Subtropical High Pressure Belt b Wind direction patterns caused by earth s rotation and Coriolis effect 3 Landmass distribution a Water masses moderate climate and in uence rainfall patterns b Continental climates develop interior of large land masses c Mountain climates modified by altitude and wind direction 4 Ocean circulation a Diagram of ocean circulation patterns b Circulation in uences coastal climates c Upwellings where surface currents diverge Global climate anomalies El Nino La Nina Lecture 3 Biomes Goals Be familiar with points from lecture2 before proceeding Understand that largescale variation in climate in uences global patterns in nature Be able to de ne optima and tolerance and how this links physical to biotic conditions Be able to map biomes on temperatureppt scale Whittaker s diagram Be able to draw Walter diagrams for each biome Be able to de ne major characteristics of each biome type Outline Review causes of climate variability and distribution of major climate zones Climate drives global distribution of organisms Climate lightheat temperature and rainfall these factors interact to determine conditions and resources for plant growth controlled by latitude circulation landmasswater mass proximity altitude Organisms are most abundant where best suited for particular tempppt regime Optima conditions where abundance is highest Tolerance range of conditions where present Distribution of average annual temperature and precipitation is predictable l Whittaker s site diagram 2 Whittaker s biome diagram a Biomes driven by temperature and ppt patterns b Walter diagrams describe these patterns c 9 major biomes 7 characterized by location climate pattern vegetation type 39 Tropical Rainforest i Tropical Seasonal ForestSavanna iii Subtropical Desert iv WoodlandShrubland v Temperate Rainforest vi Temperate Seasonal Forest vii Temperate GrasslandDesert viii Boreal Forest iX Tundra Temperature F 122 104 86 68 50 32 14 Temperature 0C Walter Diagram Name SS Location Panther 113 Climate Biome 50 100 40 40 80 g 32 30 60 z 24 9 g 20 40 5 16 in i 10 20 g m 0 0 0 10 Annual ppt mm 20 Average T C JFMAMJJASOND Month Climate Biome Inm inx PKxipiuxinn Frenpitaminn mm Temperature quotC Temperature quotc Precipitaan mm Temperature quotc Precipitaan mm Imm39umpiminn mamm rmer mmmrmmm Dm iiinl leuw rawn Annualppt Average T JFMAMJJASOND Munth Mnnth JFMAMJJASOND Munth Climate Climate Climate Biome Biome Biom inn inn inn A A an A 9 n 9 n an 6 i E 4n 3 g 4n 1 E a a a e g E Z a E E 3 Zn m 7 E 5 WWWWMM E Z a 2 a nemmmmrm U n n Average T JFMAMJJASOND Mnnth Munth Munth Climate Climate Biome Biom Tn npemture quotC Precipitaan mm Frenpitaminn mm quotmm 9mmquot humans mama Temperature ac Temp eamre ac Dum nl lemmiurr Annualppt Average T Lecture 8 Population Growth Goals Know three models of population growth Be able to calculate and interpret growth rates of populations growing geometrically Be able to calculate and interpret growth rates of populations growing exponentially Understand how to use a life table to calculate population growth rate Know how to calculate reproductive rate and generation time for a population Understand the logistic population growth model and effects of density dependence Outline Review population structure variables and their abbreviations Three models of population growth geometric exponential logistic Population growth is not additive but multiplicative l Geometric Population Growth a Graphic representation b Mathematical representation c De nition and ranges of growth rate lambda d Discrete vs continuous reproduction 2 Exponential Population Growth a Graphic representation b Mathematical representation c Using life tables to calculate growth rate i Cohort life tables ii Static life tables 1 Reproductive rate R 7 mathematical de nition 2 Generation time T 7 mathematical de nition 3 Intrinsic rate of growth r 7 mathematical de nition and ranges 3 Logistic Population Growth a De nition of carrying capacity K b Graphic representation c Mathematical representation d D n it A r A vs d n it 39 J J effects on population growth r Lecture 16 Community Development Goals Understand the dynamic steady state in community context Know de nition of succession and sere Be able to explain factors determining sere composition Be able to describe and explain common patterns of succession Be able to explain characteristics of transient and cyclic climax communities Be able to provide examples of different types of successional seres and climaxes Outline Overview of interspecies interactions and community concepts Communities are continually in ux mature communities may not change in appearance but energy and materials are cycled following disturbance community rebuilds to former condition Succession 7 sequence of changes initiated by disturbance resulting in a climax community 1 First proposed by Clements 2 m 7 series of successional stages 3 Some examples Primary succession 7 establishment and development in newly formed habitats Seconda succession 7 disturbance initiates regeneration of climax Factors determining establishment in sere l Invasion probability 2 Response to changing environmental conditions Three categories of mechanisms describing effects of one species on probability of establishment of another Facilitation 7 each species paves way for next 2 Inhibition 7 one species deters growth of another by using its resources more efficiently 3 Tolerance 7 new species is established with or without others Predictable patterns in succession 1 Diversity highest in intermediate stages 2 BiomassProductivity ratio increases 3 Biomass net accumulation slows and stops 4 Nutrients increasingly in organic form 5 Detrital food chains begin to dominate Characteristics of early and late successional species Climaxes may not persist 1 Transient climax 2 Cyclic climax Lecture 9 Population Dynamics Goals Know how populations can vary in time and space Understand how populations uctuate around carrying capacity sometimes with lags Be able to describe and graph two types of time delay models Be able to explain causes for 3 types of oscillations in discrete and continuous models Understand how metapopulation dynamics in uence extinction probability Outline Review population structure variables growth rate models and concept of carrying capacity Populations vary in time and space 1 Temporal Dynamics Populations tend toward equilibrium density determined by K Environmental uctuations are random population uctuations usually not random Age structure over time reveals history of uctuations Logistic models assume immediate response to birth rate changes Time lags are common 1 Discrete time models 7 lags from breeding season episodes a No oscillations when growth rate low b Damped oscillation when growth rate intermediate c Limit cycles or chaos when growth rate high 2 Continuous time models 7 lags from developmental generation gaps a No oscillations when low growth rate and short gaps b Damped oscillation when intermediate growth rate and medium gaps c Limit cycles when high intrinsic growth rate and long time delays 2 Spatial Dynamics Metapopulation dynamics 7 subpopulation growth and exchange effecting whole Extinction probability driven by patch occupancy and colonization rate Rescue effect of large subpopulations Catastrophic and chaotic random extinction probability of small populations