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Interm Human Phy Lab

by: Miss Alysa Lehner

Interm Human Phy Lab PCB 3702L

Miss Alysa Lehner
GPA 3.55


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This 53 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Alysa Lehner on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PCB 3702L at Florida International University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see /class/221719/pcb-3702l-florida-international-university in Biology at Florida International University.


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Date Created: 10/12/15
Nervous System 2 REVIEW 31 pairs of Spinal nerves 8 cervical In neck 12 thoracic in chest and upper abdomen 5 lumbar in lower back 5 sacral in pelvis 1 coccygeal in the tail bone Dermatomes sensory region on surface of body Shingles virus presents as a painful striped rash along dermatome Virus comes out when immune system is low T4 dermatome is along the Nipple while the T10 is along Umbilicus Dermatomes represent a spinal nerve so represent motor and sensory as well If you damage a spinal nerve irritate it or squeezeimpinge it the dysfunction will present along the dermatome that spinal nerve innervates Lumbar lower back and injury leads to sensorymotor dysfunction in lower spine thighs legs Damage of Cervical spinal nerve in neck will cause pain numbness and weakness along neck and shoulders This is common in whiplash injuries and affects the ability of patients to use their hands Damage of Sacral 525 5 pelvic organ problems Trouble urinating holding in feces erectile dysfunction Saddle anesthesia no sensation along inner thighs and groin Occurs often Post cancer radiation prostate ovaries uterus Ca uses AUTONOMIC Problems Damage of L4L5 causes sciatic dysfunction Pain numbness down back butt and leg weakness L4L5 is the most commonly herniated disc Herniated Disc squeezesirritatesimpinges a spinal nerve causing sensorymotor dysfunction along the dermatome that the spinal nerve innervates Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Impingement of Median Nerve in the carpal tunnel causes sensory motor problems in the hand primarily the first three digits Painnumbness weakness Paresthesias tinglingpins and needles sensation Occurs when nerve is slightly irritated Adaptation the tendency for receptors to respond less to a stimulus over time They adapt and are no longer stimulated by the stimulus Pain receptors are slow When you have a lacerationcut to your arm the pain does not go away in a matter of minutes The pain will persist for long periods of time Eventually slow and throbbing pain will ensue Also think of placing your hand on something hot Your hand will quickly react and pull off the hot stove and then moments later you begin to feel the burning pain sensation Pain is slower than the signal from your brain to your hand You feel warm surface move your hand then feel burn pain Pain is slow and takes time to present and then time to go away Fast adapting receptors include vibration sense hearing and smell This allows you to smell 5 scents in a glass of wine in a matter of seconds Also if someone begins to mow the lawn outside your window in a matter of minutes you don t even notice the sound anymore Hearing is fast adapting The annoying sound outside soon becomes the baseline for your hearing Your hearing receptors adapted Finger tips are sensitive because have lots of Afferent receptors Afferent usually receives sensory info from periphery and takes to CNS while Efferent takes info from the CNS to motor neurons in muscles SAME Sensory Afferent Motor Efferent Herniated disc carpal tunnel nerve irritationimpingement causing motor and sensory dysfunction Lumbar Herniation Patients will have low back pain along with shooting painnumbness down legs along with weakness Most common herniated disc is L4L5 Carpal tunnel will cause pain numbness weakness in hand Spinal nerve or spinal nerve root damage will cause autonomic trouble with bladder and imtestines motor weakness and paralysis and sensory dysfunction pain numbness or tinglingasleep discomfort Paresthesias is the tinglingpins and needles sensation when your legs fall asleep Paralysis is permanent while Paresis is temporary Paraplegic is both lower limbs are non functional while guadriglegia 4 is usually neck injury and m limbs don t work will hemiplegia is one hemisphere of bodyone side is paralyzed Common in Strokes Knee reflex is a MUSCLE SPINDLE STRETCH REFLEX Dorsal root Dorsal fin on backposterior of dolphin Dorsal root is on POSTERIOR of cord Sensory VENTRAL root located ANTERIOR and controls MOTOR Tracts Corticospinal tract motor control Injury causes paralysis Often Caused by stroke or trauma Spinothalamic tract pain and temperature Injury causes inability to feel pain and people burn hands and mouth a lot because can t tell how hot things are Feeling pain is good lets you know to stop Dorsal 39 39 39 Dosition sense of limbs in body two point discrimination vibratory sense pressure position sense A lot of sensory receptors on finger tips so two points on finger tips feels like two points However Two points on forearm often feels like one because activating one receptor Dorsal columnar tract is often Damaged in NEUROSYPHYLLISl 312 De ciency and DIABETES 312 Is needed to produce myelin so deficiency results in eventual demyelination of tract Lateral Inhibition activating one receptor will diminish another Pain in arm will decrease when you rub your arm The rubbing causes pressure and touch receptors to activate diminishing pain receptor If it says QUESTION next to it it will be asked on MIDTERM KNOW THE BASICS I will ask rods vs cones and myopia vs hyperopia I will ask what is a cataract what is astigmatism also I will ask lens flattens to see Ear while it becomes rQund to see lese Eye Rods help with night vision and seeing dark shades of color VIT A in carrots are good for rods help with dayvision and seeing blah tcolors Myopia is Near Sighted vision This means you can see things that are close such as a newspaper or book but you have trouble seeing far such as the board or a stop sign down the street HYPEROPIA is FAR SIGHTED vision Think of an older person being able to clearly see mischievous teens across the neighborhood or across their yard however they cannot read a newspaper right on front of their face They have to move newspaper farther from face in order to read Vision Light has to hit retina where photoreceptors rodscones are in order to convert light into image If light does not land on retina you have blurry vision In Myopia and Hyperopia light does not land directly on retina and we have blurry vision Lens re ects light Corrective lenses help correct our vision in myopiahyperopia To see Ear lens Elattens To see lese lens becomes rQund This is called accommodation Lens has to change shape flatten or round in order for us to focus from far to near vision respectively Pupil dilates in dark constricts in bright light to control amount of light that will hit retina Circular muscles Constrict pupil while Linear muscles puLL pupil open Cranial nerve 3 controls pupillary constriction This is parasympathetic Rest and digest Cataract is an opaci ed lens murkymilky Damage due to sun infection Vision problems when old lris the colored part of the eye Astigmatism is an irregular surface ofthe lens causing an irregular reflection of light Parts of vision are blurry while in myopiahyperopia all of image is blurry If it says QUESTION next to it it will be asked on MIDTERM KNOW THE BASICS Ears AC gt BC Air conduction is greater than bone conduction Ear wax can lessen air conduction Presbycussis high frequency hearing loss from age or loud noises for long periods QUESTION Middle ear has ossicleslittle bones and is Air filled QUESTION lnner ear is uid filled and is composed of cochlea and vestibular apparatus Otoliths are little crystals in vestibul apparatus that break off and cause sensation of vertigo QUESTION Cochlea does hearing vestibular apparatus maintains equilibrium Endolymph in inner ear is potassium rich QUESTION Outer ear funnels sound then tympanic membrane vibrates and causes middle ear ossicles bones to vibrate which in turn causes vibration on the oval window which causes a fluid wave in the fluid filled inner ear This fluid wave bends hair receptors causing them to depolarize and send action potentials along the vestibulocochlear nerve Cranial nerve 8 Acoustichearing neuroma schwannoma presents on CN8 Causes hearing and balance problems QUESTION VERTIGO is caused by tumbling Otoliths These are little crystals in vestibular apparatus that break off and when they move through the semicircular canals it gives you the impression that room is spinning QUESTION Eustachianin tube pressure release from inner ear connects throat and ears Ear Nose and Throat Doctor Ear infection drains into throat and you will eventually have a sore throat Ear tubes are placed in tympanic membraneear drum and help drain infection from middle ear out of ear A normal ear drum is pink and shiny A infected middle ear causes uid to build ug in middle ear and behind ear drum so ear drumtympanic looks qrdy murky dull and bulqinq outwards Please Know the Following Information Each Cranial Nerve will Be Tested Cranial nerve 2 is optic nerve Controls vision If Nerve is injured blindness in that eye Cranial nerve 3 4 6 is or eye movement Nerve injury eye muscle paralysis quotlazy eyequot CN 8 is for hearing and eguilibrium damage is hearing loss and balance problemexvertigo CN 7 facial facial nerve and controls the muscles of facial expression Cn1 olfactory controls smell PLEASE KNOW THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PARASYMPATHETIC ANS SYMPATHETIC STIMULATION There will be at least 5 questions on the information below Parasympathetic rest and digest Sit on couch Increases digestion and gastrointestinal motility Increases uids like saliva tears urine feces Slows heart rate Constricts pupils and lung bronchioles Think ofthanksgiving relaxing digesting not breathing rapidly your pupils are tiny you are sleepy Symgathetic is tight or light resgonse Run from Pitbull Increases heart rate Dilates pupils and lungs to see and breathe better Increases glucose release into blood stream to power your cells Increases sweat Decreases digestion and decreases fluids People don39t urinate and have dry mouth When you are nervous parasympathetic activation predominates so you will have dilated pupils and elevated heart rate you will have sweat on your forehead and you will have a dry mouth Think of Marco Rubio stepping off stage to grab a bottle of water in the middle of his nervous speech PointandShootisquot 39 39andquot 39 39 39 39 39 Licwhile39 39 is r 1 Erection IS gum Lab 8 Urinary System Objectives 39 Review the urinary system at the macroscopic level 39 Review the urinary system at the microscopic level 39 Describe the physical characteristics of urine 39 Urine and its relationship to kidney function 39 Conduct a urinalysis test Introduction The main function of the urinary system is to regulate the composition of plasma by eliminating excess water and solutes and maintaining those that are needed As a secondary function the urinary also regulates mean arterial pressure The main organ of the urinary system is the kidney Before we go into the anatomy of the urinary system including the kidneys lets review the main functions of this system The rate that the kidneys eliminate materials has an important impact on the volume and composition of the uids found in the body This process needs to be highly regulated The table below shows these general functions Table 1 Functions of Urinary system Regulation ofplasma ionic composition Increase or decrease of Na Kt Ca Mg Cl39 l39lCOg39 and HPO4239 Regulation ofplasma volume Regulation of plasma volume has a direct effect on total blood volume and blood pressure Regulation ofplasma osmolarity Solute concentration of the plasma by excretion of water pH Regulation By regulation of bicarbonate and hydrogen ions in plasma Removal ofmetabolic waste Removal of byproducts such as urea food additives and drugs Anatomy of Urinary System The urinary system consists of two kidneys two ureters and urinary bladder and the urethra The ureters connect the kidneys to the bladder The urine is formed in the kidneys and then transported to the bladder by the ureters From the bladder urine travels through the urethra to be excreted Below you can see a diagram of the structures of the urinary system Abdominal aorta Ureter Iliac crest Psoas major muscle Urinary bladder 4 I Figure 1 Urinary System Macroscopic View of the Kidnev The kidney is divided into the cortex and the medulla The cortex is the outer layer of the kidney while the medulla is the inner region The cortex contains the renal corpuscles glomerulus and Bowman39s capsule and renal tubules The medulla is divided into sections called renal pyramids These pyramids contain the loops of henle as well as the collecting ducts These collecting ducts drain to the minor calyces and then major calyces which drain to the renal pelvis and then the rest of the ureter The diagram below shows these parts clearly r Fibrous capsule Renal cortex Renal medulla Renal papilla Fa l 39 Henal artery renal srnus Renal sinus 39 A Renal pyramid Renal lobe in renal medulla U reler Figure 2 Right Kidney Anatomy Microscopic Anatomy of Kidney The functional units of the kidney are nephrons Nephrons are found in the renal pyramids of the kidney The function of the nephron is to filter blood and form urine This is the urine that then travels to the collecting ducts into the ureters and then the bladder Before we go into each part of the nephron lets discuss how blood travels to the kidney It all starts with the renal artery The renal artery then branches out into smaller arteries then to interlobular arteries which carry blood to each nephron by afferent arterioles The exchange ofnutrients occurs at the peritubular capillaries These peritubular capillaries then branch out to become the vasa recta and then drain to interlobular veins These veins then drain into the renal vein This system ofveins and arteries can also be seen in the figures 1 and 2 Function of the Nephron Below you can see the function of each region of the nephron The main function of all these regions to reabsorbed to the blood everything that is needed in the body while at the same time secreting extra ions and compounds In addition you can see a figure ofa nephron below 39 Glomerulus This is where filtration begins The walls of the glomerular capillaries provide hydrostatic and osmotic pressure The filtrate that comes out of the glomerulus lacks most of the proteins that are present in plasma 39 Bowman s Capsule This capsule resembles a sac Inside this sac the glomerulus is found Fluids from glomerulus are collected here The filtrate at this point is called glomerular filtrate Big cells platelets and large proteins do not pass into this capsule 39 Proximal Convoluted Tubule In this region of the nephron around 70 of water and sodium from the filtrate is reabsorbed In addition glucose amino acids vitamins and ions such as Cl39 K Ca2 HCOg39 should be reabsorbed at this point The only substance that is secreted is hydronium ions II 39 Descending Loop of Henle This section of the loop of Henle is only permeable to water This means water is reabsorbed There is no Na Cl39 or K transport 39 Ascending Loop of Henle The ascending loop of Henle is structurally thicker than the descending loop This loop is impermeable to water and permeable to ions Because of this reason Na Cl39 and K are reabsorbed I Distal Tubule This is the region between the loop of Henle and the collecting duct It is partly responsible for the regulation ofpotassium sodium calcium and H F r this reason water Na39 and Cl will continued to be reabsorbed while K and H will be secreted I Collecting Duct A series of tubules that connect the nephrons to the ureter 39 39n L 39 39 39 J n quot and electrolyte balance Na Cl Caz HCOa39 and water are reabsorbed At the same time while K and H will be secreted Bowman39s capsule Glumevulus 0onximaliuhule Anerlale 39 i mmrenal unery Anerlole imm glamsmlus l Branch at renal vein a Leap cl Henle wlth naplllary nelw vk Figure 3 Diagram ofa Nephron Renal Balance The kidney lters 180 Liters ofplasma per day Most ofthis ltered uid is u I I J l l l reabsorbed quot J r 4 L L I I l a uh tanr o there ran L 39 39 the Systeml39l L39 L I c J J 39 39 l a39n nrntinn This leadsto 39 39 39 lULlnd in the urine over some of these materials and how they are caused Glucosuria The appearance of glucose in the urine This is usually caused by diabetes Diabetics have high concentration of glucose in their system This means that not all of the glucose can be reabsorbed by the nephron Diabetes is not the only reason to have glucose in the urine It can be a result of high carbohydrate meals as well as stress Albuminuria This is a large protein that would not have passed through the glomerulus but a trace ofit found in the urine is still considered normal When there is an excess of albumin in the urine it suggests that there is an increase ofpermeability in the glomerulus This increase in permeability may be due to physical injury high blood pressure or bacterial toxins Hematuria This is the presence of erythrocytes in the urine This is due to bleeding in the urinary tract This can be due to many reasons such as kidney stones physical damage in the kidneys In addition if there is a high number of red blood cells being broken down in circulation the kidneys will excrete chains of hemoglobin This will give urine a dark brown to reddish color Urea Urea is produced during reactions where ammonia is removed from amino acids 80 of the nitrogen waste in urine is urea Ketosis ketones in the urine This is due to starvation or low carbohydrate diets When carbohydrates are low in the body the body starts to catabolize fats into fatty acids and glycerol Fatty acids are then converted into ketones in the liver The increase in ketones in the body leads to the appearance of ketones in the urine Many ions can be found in the urine This is a re ection on someone s diet and health Sodium and chloride ion concentrations in urine depend on the consumption of table salt in the diet pH The healthiest urine pH readings hover around 70 usually uctuating between 65 and 75 A higher urine pH reading would indicate that your system is more alkaline while a lower urine pH indicates acid residues in your body Acidic urine can contribute to the formation of stones of uric acid in the kidneys ureters or bladder A diet high in citrus vegetables or dairy can increase urine pH Procedure 1 Urinalysis In this procedure we will do an analysis of the chemical properties of urine There are five beakers in front ofyou of urine The purpose of this procedure is to test for the presence of glucose and proteins In addition we will test the pH of the urine YOU SHOULD BE USING GLOVES AT ALL TIMES DURING THIS PROCEDURE Glucose test FWN 9 Uquot 1 Obtain 5 test tubes and label them AE Fill an empty 25 0 mL beaker half way with water Heat the beaker with a hot plate until boiling To each one of those test tubes add 2 mL of the different urine solutions from the beakers Now add 5 drops ofBenedicts reagent to each test tube Note the color change if any Place all five test tubes in the beaker with boiling water and leave them all in there for 5 minutes After the 5 minutes remove the test tubes and note the color change As seen from the image below a positive result for glucose is cloudy yellow and negative is transparent yellow The more cloudy the yellow the higher the concentration of glucose Figure 4 Color Results Protein test 1 Obtain 5 test tubes and label them AE 2 To each one of the test tubes add 2 mL of the different urine solutions from the beakers FS Now add 5 drops of Biuret reagent to each test tube Note the color change Positive test for protein is violet The higher the concentration ofprotein the stronger the color Below you can see how they look like The test tube on the left is positive as its slightly violetbrown Figure 5 Biuret Test pH Test H Obtain 5 test tubes and label them AE To each one of the test tubes add 2 mL of the different urine solutions from the beakers Insert a piece of the pH strip into each test tube Note the color change J Am Procedure 2 Microscopic Urinalysis YOU SHOULD BE USING GLOVES AT ALL TIMES DURING THIS PROCEDURE 1 Obtain a urine specimen cup and have one member ofyour group to provide a urine sample 2 Obtain two centrifuge test tubes Label one of them quotsamplequot and the other one blank 3 To the quotsamplequot test tube add at least 10 mL of urine To the quotblankquot test tube add at least 10 mL ofwater 4 Place the two test tubes in the centrifuge opposite each other This is done so that the centrifuge remains balanced 5 Centrifuge your samples at 1500 RPM for 5 minutes 6 While you re waiting for your samples Have someone else in your group obtain a microscope 7 Once your sample is ready pour off the supernatant liquid above solid Don t remove all of it leave half a milliliter and combine it with the sediment at the bottom 8 With a plastic pipet remove some of this sediment and place one drop of it on a microscope slide Place a cover slip and examine your specimen 9 Look for epithelial cells red blood cells white blood cells crystals and casts 10 Once you re done dispose plastic pipets in the biohazard container and wash everything else with bleach soap and water 11 Wash and dry your hands URINARY SEDIMENT ORGANIZED ELEMENTS 3 STRAIGHT HYAL INE q 39 AHquot ORDINARY TREATED WITH APPEARANCE ACETIC ACID LEUKOCYfES EPIfHELKL CELLs w a a Q U 0 ago a a 00 co 90 it 33 o 39 a o it Q 39 c FRESH 77 7 7 39CRENATED SHADOW W39s RED BLOOD CELLS 5 L MIXED CElL CAST O FKEE EFA T OVAL FAT BODI E5 639 000 BLOOD CAST MUSCLE Excitation contraction in smooth muscle different than skeletal There is no troponin Calcium regulates myosin on thick filaments Depolarization of cell membrane opens voltage gated calcium channels and calcium flows into the cell down its electrochemical gradient increasing intracellular calcium Calcium that enters cell may cause release of additional calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through calcium gated calcium channels IP3 gated channels also release Calcium Intracellular calcium increases Calcium binds calmodulin which activates myosin light chain kinase MCLK phosphorylates myosin which allows it to now bind actin Contraction then occurs A decrease in intracellular calcium produces relaxation Excitation contraction in skeletal muscle Action potentials in muscle cell membrane initiate depolarization of t tubules Depolarization causes calcium release channels to open up on sarcoplasmic reticulum ryanodine receptors Intracellular calcium increases Calcium binds to troponin c on thin filaments Cross bridge cycle begins At first no ATP is bound to myosin but myosin is lightly attached to actin In Rapid contracting muscle this is brief In absence of ATP this state is permanent Rigor ATP th binds to myosin producing conformational change in myosin that causes myosin to be released from actin Myosin is displaced toward plus end of actin Hydrolysis of ATP and ADP remains attached to myosin Myosin attaches to new site on actin initiating power stroke ADP is then released returning myosin to its rigor system The cycle repeats as long as calcium is bound to troponin c Muscle and Exercise Basic Anatomy and Physiology 206214 Bones in Body xx Anatomical Position feet forward palms forward Arm Biceps flex front Triceps extend rear Forearm Median nerve Carpal Tunnel supplies first three fingers Ulnar nerve supplies little fingerring finger4th and 5th Injury causes hand of benediction Ulnar nerve lies medially when in anatomical position Hitting of elbow causes quick ulnar nerve impingement funny bone and causes that numbnesspain sensation Pinprick Rememberer nerve injury cause sensorymotor problems painnumbness weakness Trunk abdomen Thbh Quads femoral nerve anterior thigh extend leg If you get shotstabbed in groin you hope it does not penetrate femoral artery because this is a high pressure artery You will bleed out Hamstrings sciatic nerve posterior thigh flex leg move sole of foot to your buttocks eQ Calve muscles posterior leg control plantar flexion walking on tip toes Strong in Ballet Anterior Leg muscles anterior control Dorsiflexion lifting of foot up People with damage have to raise leg high and swing it around to walk because the dropped foot can cause them to trip They have to overcompensate and have to lift up leg higher Abnormal Gait Sciatic runs from buttocks down to knee then breaks into anterior and posterior branch of leg Sciatic nerve irritation causes pain numbness weakness down buttocks posterior thigh and around the knee to lateral foot Damage to sciatic nerve might cause you weakness with plantar flexion and dorsiflexion because those anterior and posterior branches control muscles in anterior and posterior of leg Elbow Is a hinge joint Epicondylitis is inflammation of elbow jointtendons Due to overuse such as in tennis elbowlateral epicondyle and golfers elbow medial epicondyle Carpenters constantly using screwdrivers will cause inflammation and micro tears in the muscle tendon and cause chronic pain whenever the joint is used Pain every time ball hits tennis racket Hip is a ball and socket Hip connects to medial thigh Hip pain causes groin pain medial as opposed to pain on the lateral aspect of body such as the outer upper thigh or butt Synovial joint is a fluid filled joint The knee is important Synovial fluid in knee joint can get infected with bacteria can have crystals due to Gout can have antibodies due to Rheumatoid Arthritis can become excessive after injury causing swelling of knee Movement Abduct away Adduct towards Flexion bend towards joint Extension bend away from joint Whiplash severe extension of cervical spine Lateral medial rotation in anatomical position Supination hand out to hold a bowl of soup vs pronation with palms facing to ground lnversion turn ankle in Sole of foot faces medially Most common way to sprain ankle lmagine missing a step and rolling ankle The outer ligaments get stretched Eversion Ankle turns outward Sole of foot faces laterally or away from you lmage getting slid into at upper ankle by soccer player Your medial ligaments will snap and sole of foot will face out Rotator cuff injury Excessive abduction and flexion of arm as in the throwing motion of a pitcher or quarterback This ligamenttendon that passes between the joint swells and becomes inflamed from overuse and rubs up against bones in joints The ligament can have minor tears from repetitive trauma use but the rubbing against bones causes it to eventually tear Anterior cruciate ligament posterior cruciate ligament medial and lateral collateral ligaments as well as lateral and medial menisci offer joint stability to the knee Help with our gait Very common injuries in sports Unhappy triad happens often in football with a player tearing an ACL medial meniscus and Lateral collateral ligament at same time Forceful blow to lateraloutside knee causes medial ligaments to pop Forceful blow to medial inner knee causes the lateral ligaments to pop With ligament injury you have joint instability and your limbs can move in ways they should not normally Skin Largest organ Epidermis protective barrier Sloughed off with road rash or first degree burn leaving lower dermis exposed yielding severe pain Dermis nerves blood supply receptors Sloughed off in third degree burns so no more pain receptors and relatively painless Muscles are composed of individual myofilaments that when grouped form myofibrils A group of myofibrils forms a muscle fiber A group of muscle fibers is known as a fascicle or muscle bundle Langers Lines created by orientation of collagen tension lines in skin This is what surgeons follow when making incisions Wounds heal better along Langers lines and leave less scarring Imagine cutting with the grain as opposed to against the grain Make incision below breast around crease as opposed to vertical scar on chest Make horizontal incision for tummy tuck as opposed to vertical incision against all Langers lines People that have hernia surgeries or emergency c sections get vertical incisions Hesse provide quicker access but eventually leave greater scars because incisions are against Langers lines Blood vessels supply bones and bone marrow in bones supplies circulatory system with RBC WBC PLt People who need bone marrow transplants do not have a function bone marrow so without WBC they have weak immune systems and without RBC they are weak and anemic RBC red blood cell carry 02 WBC white blood cell immune system PLt platelets stop us from bleeding after injury Fix a flat Plug up cuts on skin holes in arteries ANS innervates all smooth muscle Vasculature arteries and veins muscle covering of organs such as the bladder which contracts when Parasympathetic activated cardiac muscle bone marrow The Enteric Nervous System of the ANS controls Gi tract intestines Osteoporosis weak and fragile bones prone to fracture may cause chronic back pain Crush fractures of spine are common causing spinal nerve impingement Low calcium and vitamin D and sun exposure in the elderly leads to less calcium taken up in bones Grandma breaks weak hip then falls not the other way around Estrogen keeps bones strong until women hit menopause and have a decrease in estrogen Older women receive Hormone replacement therapy or Estrogen in order to avoid the softening of the bones Being overweight while young helps build bone mass big boned This gives you stronger less osteoporotic bones however the extra weight will cause you to have arthritis bone on bone OsteoArthritis erosion of CARTILAIGE in LARGE WEIGHT bearing joints prominent in knee and hip bone on bone pain No cartilage leads to bones rubbing against bones Happens to us all Wear and tear arthritis Being overweight causes greater wear and tear Pain worse at end of day after use of the joints and rubbing of bones Common in neck and hands as well RHeumatoid Arthritis autoimmune attack against SYNOVIUM in SMALLjoints such as wrists and fingers Worse at BEGINNING of day but better as joints loosen up with use These people need chemo sometimes to keep the body from attacking itself Decrease the immune response against its own joints 4th and 5th fingers deviate away from hand Gout crystals in synovial fluidjoints Causes swollen tender red joint Usually big toe Due to lots of protein in Diet or excessive alcohol consumption Excessive Uric Acid crystallizes Low back pain postural muscles center of gravity anterior to spine great stress on postural muscles of lower back Think of pregnant woman holding back Most common reason fordoctors visit Back pain is very common Either arthritis muscle spasms sprains or disc herniations among most common causes Being overweight causes stress on lower back These muscles have to contract all day to maintain your posture Stretching is important Most fractured bone in adults is scaphoid This is a wrist bone below thumb and occurs when fall on outstretched hand Snowboarders tripping grandmas with osteoporosis Boxers fracture metacarpalsknuckles Very Common fracture in young males After direct blow to knuckles Punching someone attacking you or hitting a wall wrong when angry Most fractured bone in children is the clavicle Most dislocated joint the Shoulder and in an anterior direction Tendon attaches muscle to bone Ligament attaches bone to bone not muscle to muscle Increased intracellular calcium causes increased muscle contraction Decreased intracellular calcium causes muscle weaknessrelaxation BoTOX botulinum toxin lnhibits release of acetylcholine from presynaptic terminal It does not block post synaptic acetylcholine receptor as I mentioned in class I apologize for the error When Botox is administered no Ach is released meaning there will be no activation of post synaptic terminal and there will be no change in calcium concentration This leads to no muscle contraction The muscles relax The muscles causing wrinkles on your face will relax and your face will smooth out No wrinkles However Botox also relaxes the muscles that control facial expression Think of a Real housewife of DC or Miami without wrinkles but cannot smile These muscles of facial expression are also weak and relaxed Chemical Synapses an action potential in presynaptic cell causes depolarization of presynaptic terminal As a result of depolarization Calcium enters presynaptic terminal and causes release of a neurotransmitter Acetylcholine epinephrine glycine serotonin etc This neurotransmitter diffuses across synaptic cleft and combines with post synaptic receptors and changes the permeability of ions into the post synaptic cell membrane Excitatory neurotransmitters depolarize the post synaptic membrane Inhibitory neurotransmitters hyperpolarize Neuromuscular junction synapse between axons of motor neurons and skeletal muscle Neurotransmitter released is Ach and post synaptic terminal has Nicotinic Ach receptors CavdlDVRSGlLIN 5mm 39Prelrmd End kWMIL Vomeb vabnwu in Gum lling 39A H lml quot frasm wM v mm Mr C mommaH 51Tquot Regal 001 T lalqu frusurt 39 Shiert Ubbune Hoot leaving C9 par Eg 39 Chime GumT a HM lmn ng 07 or 3amper L 00 5V 4 H39IL AUkaa QDSE IN ISOUDLUHETTZE cow mantra 4 LEIAKATION k Lead Hqu min 0 Frwvwdns allowum lacia m1 muxsfu s i1 h WR My Mu ma eulan Mo w Al JQHJA wequ mkd mu IlT Gama bad113W MamHm UTM EH 5640 M H k m 4M 7M ham aw WT moioer bod 39 Ve w rLkwM ollt ol wt d bloocu n rth nhfuwm 4 quotrfnz aide Lagim 3am foml39du a Wm mmmlnr Thom Af rm 39Le side my T icm 39 InT me blmp it a M 1 miwmb dba 39FLDW 0F BLOOD a luu WA Zgn nm Cv mfid Value MAT Wide pu mm lc IAlvl pulmarw311mn Mllmvvwma Arm3 1 LCM Lav VMMWVB was ltFT Mn39um gt M Hml Valve a l V M1312 V414 AOKTH wad 0mm zl m 417 34 M A M fl u V Imm H44 E Am male va Iu a M m 6101 In kpr quot1quot TL 139 39 M7 AV at TbglwaV mambo 0 n nun 1211 Am awmwmmqu AsP39win w An in 1A5 Fwy Mm Johnny a 9M 7 P 3 PM 4 damn MM L Shqu Wax via slaw m sgdlm amnmh PM 0 quot 001wa diman gyms M39min waaprw HM chum Mme calml Lv effM of PDTMsiwn lommr Adi an 4 Wm JELLO mqu depola lii n h Rae 4 Mm MM 39 9M1 3 5048M drawn Ousin ano39fo mwm Avu Ag 39 all v1 ve 39 aom um MM bm 31 mkm Lainnwr MMPu rmmn eWA 3 w 3amper mekklxa veplmi ng Galoism W 7DAssimn PIM piau 3 refolm39u m maxim m a Aura whim MANNP MM lu g Mubk human 09 mania M Q9 pills U17 mm Haul faggkw mhnzh m w unwrdex ml 039 gm Hawk Mammy cl me Lugs Ammo m m mm mm Lung 50 2 0mm v ssuu 4i m rum w uni 1 17 Hood M u Mm hm B Rafiva bm ink a Alvmli m Muenlav m In Rfi Evie 39 Wham 0N5de tonwm C09 m Bimrbomk 39 Wow q l u s 5 th pap mummbe m L J l a W f ruprm nj Ho 1 1M RM r Gm ohm Tak 2 9 Inning SIAfhgiwll l a ude sum Minna M u Mall 5mm aw Cnf c k gt lncruuwv Mmkmr m tickn nis RM aleeLAV SINW 4mm evcvan na n vwlnv anusflu Lnsrm m awn ATMOSPHERIC amaze gt ALUEOUHL Mewms Lmm mam n alveoh39 Exel39m 39m mm YEwiU HAVEDLAV Wesson gt ATMOSPHERIC Frk ssum l an my Into admnsfkre quotJulmvuc mm vowime w oluu u in a SvMMLV Gambdnc r are MW gmq mm Eamon TEM VO MML 39 WM Head n in ml ouT 39 Imqfwdnva 4 M w an 4U Imam In Emmiova Aquot m and whale V39 n ma mmm aikucunhrm an g our quotMAW vaLmL aivmrr W sinJ in Mr um Mr A Ml maximal ufn m 39m Vim r QM 1 Eel1 39 malt Mar 6139 M1 39Wl Mir mur weak M011 aim MACH 6 WA fwd melamgx mkduitl 0amp6 Wudmom wnducq 1 70 m GfF which emum WMMM T E dm m and sfiml EMA WarWay bmm mkv chran 0 skull uid quotMM me a mHeIr Mn 9wa WV CNS M Quin Gamer pm shod ml 05F sefmk 1ka diner 39 LSF I Slang aJoSochrMviu WAWMSMW 0zcLM13h L tqudm VIN1m Cevdam Me W LMWMENAAUW be m b mush L39 lama 4mm AumrrlAI MWW 9av eM v 700 o wik 1 09 M43 L PmLm messing 5 10 39ancm gt labnkem raj1 illumich imwbmmt swcdn 71km 39 WMM WK hum w v wvmmt ml bnbma 39an39hllL 39MVa rdcmu kDwaanllr 39an39yffnl i cmfwll visual mama L39 dimaym LLMJnup 39 Ethan FLU ALWM M quot39 quot 39thinkd vx v d quotquot quotomit 11m L m39lcle Cl up 4quot CHI UMair LKAKMDF H20 39QaAwiAJLM quot mkq 9f Hi0 39Gnalmlrc e WM Mme Mug Amlm a ma mas dam aw mm Me a thfIVHMWMK N h 9319 we 5va gig 39 wma Adm Pv E 4 Q Cardio Vascular review Preload is End diastolic volume or volume in heart after lling More blood in heart after lling means more blood can leave heart per beat More stroke volume blood leaving heart per beat Cardiac output is blood leaving heart per minute It is determined by multiplying Heart rate by Stroke Volume CO SV XHR SVEDV ESV Afterload is the pressure within the aorta that the heart has to overcome to get blood out Think of hypertension high blood pressure this will cause resistance for blood leaving the heart So more afterload or more resistance will decrease stroke volume or the amount of blood that can leave heart per beat All valves are closed in isovolumetric contraction and isovolumetric relaxation which is why there is no change in volume During isovolumetric contraction LV pressure rises while during relaxation LV pressure decreases No change in volume During contraction the LV pressure rises until it is greater than the pressure in the aorta When this pressure is greater aortic valve opens and systole occurs This ejection of blood is due to LV contraction During systole LV volume decreases because blood is ejected out of heart When the pressure in the LV drops below the pressure in the aorta the aortic valve closes shut This is the S2 heart sound During diastole mitral valve opens and blood comes in from Left Atria into Left Ventricle LV LV volume increases during diastole When mitral valve closes lling of LV stops This is S1 heart sound During systole aortic valve opens and blood leaves the heart LV volume decreases Increased venous return increases blood brought back to heart thus increasing PRELOAD this means there will be more blood in heart after filling This increases amount of blood that can be ejected out of heart per beat This increases stroke volume and increased stroke volume increases cardiac output Increased contractility increases stroke volume which increases cardiac output Contractilty is the contractile force with which the heart beats Increased contractility means a more forceful and powerful heart beat The response of the vasomotor center to a decrease in mean arterial pressure is a decreased parasympathetic vagal out ow to the heart and increased sympathetic out ow to the heart So response to low blood pressure is increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic activation Increased venomotor tone causes constriction of veins This will squeeze veins and squeeze blood back to heart Increased venous increased preloadincreased cardiac output because more blood delivered to heart means more blood can leave heart Active hyperemia blood flow is proportional to metabolic activity Increased metabolism due to strenuous exercise will increase blood flow to exercising muscles Reactive hyperemia is an increased in blood flow to an organ after a period of occlusion of flow Reactive hyperemia is what happens when blood ows back to hea1t muscles after a clot has been busted or broken up Cardio Anatomy Alteries carry oxygenated blood Veins carry deoxygenated blood Heart pumps deoxygenated blood to lungs and oxygenated blood to body Epicardiummyocardiumendocardium outside lining ofthe heart middle muscle bers interior lining of heart within the chambers Auricle fat aps Four chambers 2 atria and 2 ventricles in Heait Atria and ventricles larger more muscular than atria Notice left side is larger and thicker Right side pumps to lungs and left side pumps to entire body Iv sulcus on outside iV septum on inside Flow of blood Vena cava RA tricuspid valve RV pulmonic valve pulmonary trunk to pulmonary a1teries Leaves lungs via pulmonary veins drain into left atrium mitral valve left ventricle a01tic valve aotta Pulmonary vessels are special because Pulmonary vein is carrying oxygenated blood from lungs to left side of heart Pulmonary artery carries deoxygen ated from right side of heart to lungs Coronary a1teries are hea1t blood supply Left anterior descending artery is a main coronary artery LAD The most common occluded attery in a hea1t attack is LAD This will cause no blood to reach ventricles Right coronary altery supplies Right Atrium RA where SA node is so infarct causes damage to sA and leads to arrhythmia or conduction abnormalities heart block Flow of current sA node Av node Bundle of his bundle branches Purkinje fibers Each muscle cell sequentially activates other muscle cell via gap junctions Flow of current matches ow of blood Sinus wave P atrial depolarization Qrs ventricle depolarization T ventricular repolarization PR interval the space between P and QRS represents conduction delay through AV node This allows time for ventricles to ll after the atria contractdepolarize and before the ventricles depoloarizecontract Myocardial infarction no blood flow within coronary arteries cardiac muscle dies current conduction can39t pass through muscle bers resulting in no activation to contract Signals can bounce ofthe walls and you get arrhythmia irregular heart beat Arrhythmias cause your heart to beat funny and Ineffectiver Rather than atria and ventricles besting in synchrony they may beat independent of each other That means blood will not leave heart appropriately and deny you of blood supply in brain kidneys vital organs etc blood may stay in atria bouncing back and forth and clots can form This is how you get emboli to the lungs and brain for strokes clots in left side of heart cause emboli to brain while right sided heart clots leave to your lungspulmonary em boli Heart attack Death same day because of VFiB Death week later because the muscle while healing is weak and can rupture Even if you live after heart attack You can give meds to break down clots or do angioplasty Always give ASPIRIN CPR Airway breathing circulation Stroke volume affected by Preload after load and contractility Stroke volume will increase when increased preload decreased after load or increased contractility Contractility and stroke volume increase with increased intracellular calcium catecholamines epinephrine which is a sympathetic activator activation of beta one receptors Pacemaker action potential Three phases Phase 4 Na channel control You have the phase controlled by leaky funny sodium channels that slowly cause an increase in sodium until you have an action potential This is the pacemaker These cells cause slow diastolic depolarization and have automaticity Control heart beat Then you have no plateau Soidum in ux via slow leaky sodium channels Phase 0 Calcium channel control Next phase is the upstroke of the action potential which is caused by increased calcium first by T channels then by L channels No sodium rather calcium is main factor This is slower conduction allows time to travel through av node Calcium in ux Phase 3 Potassium channel control last phase is caused by inactivation of calcium channels and activation of potassium channels causing potassium channels to open and causing ef ux of potassium Ventricular action potential 4Phases Phase 0 First phase is rapid depolarization and upstroke of action potential due to opening of sodium channels not leaky funny sodium channels Regular ones Rapid Sodium In ux Phase 1 Then you have a small dip in the action potential this is caused by sodium channels closing and some potassium leaving Cell becomes more negative Controlled by Potassium ef ux Phase 2 the plateau which is caused by an increase in calcium which balances the minimal potassium ef ux and keeps cell from completely reploarizing Calcium in ux and Potassium ef ux Calcium via L type channels unlike T and L type from pacemaker Phase 3 Next you have repolariz ation This is rapid and caused by massive ef ux of potassium after potassium channels are activated and opened Calcium channels are closed only positive leaving cell none coming in Cardiac output heart rate X stroke volume Diastole is relaxation ofthe ventricles and the heart lls up with blood Systole is contraction of the ventricles and the heart ejects blood A medicine such as Digoxin which increases intracellular calcium will increase contractility Contractilty is dependent on intracellular calcium levels Increased contractility means increased stroke volume and therefore cardiac output will increase These medicines are bene cial to people who suffer from heart failure and have too little cardiac output These meds will help push blood out ofheait increase output Please know cardiac cycle Diastole systole which valves are open and when they close what heart sounds you hear Also changes in LV pressure and Volume during systole and diastole and isovolumetric phases RESPIRATORY REVIEW KNOW BOLD KNOW GENERAL CONCEPTS Know basic Anatomy function of cells ow of air capillaryalveolioxygen 39 r 39 11y per quot39 quot know Tidal Volume Vital Capacity Inspiratory and Expiratory Capacity Muscles Left lung has 2 Lobes needs space for heart Right lung has 3 lobes RBC s carry oxygen to tissues while tissues release CO2 back to blood Carbonic anhydrase converts C02 to Bicarbonate In carbon monoxide poisoning Carbon monoxide has an affinity for hemoglobin This means that oxyen will have to compete with Carbon monoxide for hemoglobin and most ofhemoglobin will attach to carbon monoxide rather that oxygen So now your hemoglobin is carrying carbon monoxide to your tissues rather than oxygen This is deadly Also since oxygen is competing with carbon monoxide for hemoglobin oxygen really wants to attach to whatever free hemoglobin there is The hemoglobin oxygen af nity increases because oxygen is having a hard time nding a free hemoglobin one that is not attached to carbon monoxide This means that the oxygen you happen to have attached to hemoglobin WILL NOT let go You WILL NOT get oxygen delivered to muscles because it stays attached to hemoglobin This is how your muscles and tissues heart brain lungs run out of oxygen and you eventually die Leaving car on in closed garage or barbecuing inside produces carbon monoxide People are found dead in homes every year Odorless gas AIRWAY Almospere9MouthNose9PharynxThroat9Trachea9 lst Bronchiole 2 Cl 39 39 39 39 39 Alveoli in Alveolar Sacs Capillaries I I de I I n I n J 1 copuauuy Pneumocytes Lung CellsPneumo Cells Type 1 Line the alveoli oxygen and c02 GAS EXCHANGE with capillaries DIFFUSION place Type 2 Produces Surfactant Surfactant reduces surface tension on alveoli Decrease surface tension decreases the tendency for aveoli to collapse Surfactant keeps alveoli from collapsing In premature delivery of a baby without mature levels of surfactant corticosteroids such as dexarnethasone is administered to the mother hours prior to delivery in efforts to produce increased levels of surfactant production CORTICOSTEROID INCREASE SURFACTANT LEVELS IN THE FETUSSURFACTANT REDUCES ALVEOLAR SURFACE TENSION PREVENTING ALVEOLAR COLLAPSE EXTERNAL RESPIRATION Air from atmosphere into your lungs We breathe in air which is composed of oxygen This air travels down our AIRWAY into the alveoli which is at the end of airway Capillaries which are small vessels wrap around the alveoli and oxygen leaves the alveoli and diffuses into the capillaries These capillaries then release C02 from the blood in into the alveoli When we exhale the C02 exits our LUNGS into the atmosphere INTERNAL RESPIRATION This is CELLULAR Respiration When exercising oxygen diffuses from capillaries in your muscles into your muscle cells to feed them energy The MITOCHONDRIA takes the oxygen and makes ATPENERGY for cell The waste or C02 gets diffused from muscle cells to capillaries This C02 in the capillaries travels to the lungs to then diffuse into alveoli and then be exhaled through airway EXTERNAL RESPIRATION INSPIRATION requires use of the DIAPHRAGM muscles As you take in deep breathe your diaphragm moves down and your chest wall moves outwards This creates more space in your lung cavity This greater space means there is less pressure pushing on the alveoli trying to collapse them Since the alveoli have less pressure on them they expand Since they are expanded and have now more space inside of them like the lung cavity there is less pressure on them ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE is GREATER than ALVEOLAR Pressure Air travels from atmosphere outside into Alveoli in Lungs Air follows pass of least resistance so from large quantities or higher pressure into areas of less pressure or air quantity EXPIRATION is PASSIVE Lung begins to RECOIL like a rubber band Lung cavity becomes smaller because is recoiling towards lungs so there is a greater pressure on the alveoli Greater pressure on alveoli so they want to shrink and push air out of them ALVEOLAR pressure is GREATER than ATMOSPHERIC Pressure so air leaves lungs and goes out to the Atmosphere or outside of your body Volume and Pressure Relationship Ifyou have 5 molecules in one container and 5 molecules in a container half the size the molecules in the smaller container are under greater stress and greater pressure The molecules in the larger container have more space to oat around have less stress on them and have less pressure on them Think of gold sh swimming in a bowl Too many gold sh in one bowl lots of individual stresspressure Red blood cells have Hemoglobin Hemoglobin has af nity for oxygen Affinity means hemoglobin wants to stay attached to oxygen But hemoglobin is just a taxi for oxygen If hemoglobin has too much af nity it will not release oxygen Oxygen needs to be released to reach muscles Ataxi takes you to your destination then let39s you go Hemoglobin takes you there and then it39s affinity for you decreases and it leaves you there This is normal this is good Too much af nity means no release of oxygen even though oxygen is being taxi39d to destination so oxygen cannot provide itself to muscle Stays attached to hemoglobin and continues to circle around body Increasing muscle activity and living in high altitudes decreases hemoglobin oxygen af nity which means when hemoglobin gets to muscles in dire need of oxygen it releases the oxygen to the muscles for use Also increased body temperature and increased body acid will decrease hemoglobin oxygen af nity Think of exercising muscle producing lactic acid this is why we get sore while working out a lot When you exercise your body heat rises and you produce lactic acid acid levels in body increase and those starving muscles need oxygen Affinity decreases LUNG VOLUMES Tidal volume is air we norm ally breathe in and out Our lung volumes go up when we breathe in and down when we breathe out Our volumes move up and down like the tides Inspiratory capacity is the volume of air we can still breathe in after normal breath It is a measure of total capacity Expiratory Capacity is the volume of air we can still exhale after a normal breath Vital Capacity is maximum air that we can breathe in and breathe out in one full breath Residual Volume is air that is residual It is always left over This is air that always stays in lungs even after a full maximal expiration Why does some air always stay in lungs So they don t collapse after attempting to empty Going to high altitudes causes your body to produce more EPO erythropotein because there is less oxygen up there So mountain climbers have elevated EPO to produce more RBC s so that they can carry more oxygen MORE RBC S means THICKER BLOOD More prone to HEART ATTACK AND STROKE quotquotquotAdded on 7 10 14quotquot quot quotquot Know conducting zones vs respiratory zones and which participate in gas exchange Know the typeI and type II cells within the alveoli and that typeI cells participate in gas exchange type II cells produce surfactant Surfactant production REDUCES surface tension thus preventing alveolar collapse Know the concept In premature delivery of a baby without mature levels of surfactant corticosteroids such as dexamethasone is administered to the mother hours prior to delivery in efforts to produce increased levels of surfactant production CORTICOSTEROID INCREASES SURFACTAN T LEVELS IN THE FETUSSURFACTANT REDUCES ALVEOLAR SURFACE TENSION PREVENTING ALVEOLAR COLLAPSE Know that the RIGHT lung has 3 lobes the LEFT lung has 2 lobes T H RIGHT Lung E E Know the concept of gases in a sealed container For the same amount of gas in a large container VOLUME is high and PRES SURE is lowIF you decrease the size of this container the VOLUME DECREASES and the PRESSURE INCREASES therefore your alveoli and lungs are this container in theory During INSPIRATION your respiratory muscles contract expanding your lungs leading to an expanded lung volume and decreased pressure for gases Now the pressure of gasses in your lungs is LESS than the pressure of gasses in the atmosphere allowing for the gasses to ow down a pressure gradient from the outside into your lungs P atm gt P alveoli The opposite holds true for expiration During expiration your lungs recoil thus reducing the lung volume and increasing in lung pres sure Your lung pressure becomes higher than atmospheric pressure and air is forced out P atm lt P alveoli Know that oxygen is 1 39viaI 39 39 39 IY 39 39 39 beta Hemoglobin can only carry 4 02 molecules max know the states that hemoglobin exists in TAUT hemoglobin hemoglobin is tight and has a LOW affinity for oxygen meaning that it want to unload its oxygen that it is carrying into the tissues TAUTTIS SUES RELAXED hemoglobin hemoglobin is in a relaxed open state and has a HIGH affinity for oxygen meaning that hemoglobin want to pick up oxygen molecules this occurs in the lungs RELAXEDRESPIRATORY is composed of 4 sub units 2alpha and 2 Know that CO carbon monoxide competes for oxygen binding with hemoglobin in carbon monoxide poisoning Hemoglobin has a 200x higher affinity for wanting to bind CO instead of OZ therefore there is no oxygen binding and delivery to cells and tissue Vital organs and brain start to die eventual overall death o b l39 Wag hm Gaxor s 39 Sawflm ld NM AM Clam dg m Dis acn 39ms 39SlerMMr Ankvrnr mf 03mm 209 l eU0maJ Iskvn ov 39 Mr w a v wmdm TL Ath q XML Hon 9F 0kil 39 lain214 km a born 11th 500 350 Aramaicdl mlI m mT mud mdldwhmrl willy 39faw Forward W41 k vlajfm Qrmvm Wier Harm F Tn ce CG ulvw mm my hmvni 9F lumenlidion Ma S ltssma H van i much My Janl l mvp 39WVML quot39 abo amm M I39m41 gt AMvicgfs F L hmsmwds 5 Wm 39 uif Ea SocuT Svnovml 5am ma Plum 91le Mm cm Injma shoulder HaL Pug NCL LCL Knu chm39sovu af x W Mn Pas MW wmszhs 39EPI39MH L 39 Gum s CAVFOALOI 39T hdm muck5m 39 bgmmT39 Lunabane V memw 94er Mam Median Minn angk J WM and mm anzucm w mm m w PLEA Aorsx dzrxg yo Y mun1M ewrsr m 5Lm 4 wrng mdam L epfd em s Pmkd m 39 du mh warm Hood 349913 1 Ruf anpain Linng Lino Madam SM Son1 QDTDX mJA YclmM FWM Frcs am fkc MMNJ Md Yaltvwh W Kr mama 39 05kmv dxrlk junk M39 mpng Lu t 0 weight x KM Gout Tum m4 MAM un h39l hh 1mm LngooU Khmwwfm39d awka v MMMMWL mm in Smaladvm 39 OS PL DfaVaSI39S Amlmaiii nl wl QLLW Mllaw H51 3939 MmkF fkMi n hasJum Lr gtum In Emer L Ca MM VH1 mama Lv gm m wawm M1 we no xmm Wm thaw aluwiomm 04 Comm celLs CLANNMW out Fur 39HL hm hut54 RM S s fm I A 1 Arthka 39 g nHun gt mm Glawvm wsw W5 OfAe aoZMLO Na 3 Hm macaq 1 Pvmmm WWW w r 417 mem H19 IubSnr39o km L 1M Wquot inwan L HWEETDML39C All mm nme rth outlay M Qfmr va 39m Half Vu wne up bland clem Mkmi od u rm7k bmdmums afiulv rcr 39mz L Wad dwdim MNHp 11W hmwjquot W AHM W M ML M1 Dumban KWQ Wink dew H004 liming MOBIL mkvrr Uladr39m 39 5111ch I Mmm r EFkrud 4 n W 6v dummyw m MAP QM MWMW 4th 0 W 14AM Valwmc M 1 124sz a F Enapp Lu norrml FF 910 22 94 mm Llaml M MM nal mum is Qlkn m banm W Dim m AFmT M fawnmarge elm Hm mm atka f Gama NF W mm CamAn iCml n39dcim 06 EFWT glam Ang wsm II T WSW and Mka1 from 7 EPA ad lmnzrulwy J m KFF 0L4 0 MM Hana FmJ WEI avkvmk Jaytr MSW thc n ME inhibr n m Hod AT UT 39IMMHU 65mm Gingham QWLT Dim WWW mm 41 pinam amh dlwem hmmavLCA DHJ L h a mum 39 imkih ty 0c mam Junk inmphrmv mpun vloADH Lv Hem cannaT mbm H40 W na blawi Shawn km aws w W r op 40 m in mine PM MIMI pom 439 Miami H40 Jun 1am krjk mm O RMlmha pr PAM lust bambodg Rom pf jiobmxin Sym AnQIOMvnagsm pUU J Miol rsini Me L An v39D krISlnE Vafoml n cil39w A lAOSW WMC Ar km VMO VESTn L y ADM f Smyimm 10 V aoonf dnv chnJuon WW Mam ImXbjlmwemlw cell 0 W ifammLM Mdquot 19w anme Frc erk Mrdm ram Mm W a f L War and WH A aiaknxin v Anjfnknrml Anjipkmn gt Anjiaknfin It Mia CF In pMnkmin K M Emmmmb h Vasvms mt AT E SHMuWqr 1h kfu VJAMM 4o rdeau th rirawa 04 MW Vzk fm an mm diam 1md 0 YA UL L m lo lkme MMme axis analIsM Mule incyou as m aSarpr msF Suiw 4 H20 4 am a r M mm 1 H40 Mimome b m Kamar 4nd meH IFCHIM 0 Triaddex blooJ Summwy TRIS 53mm wmm m m7va Hood Vanma U C KW caml m1 01 or New 1 415 WWW chcvt Jab Ava 39mquot am W M 11 0F 3 2 W Hoot NUSM RM 4MLIMM Pm W141 lelwe 54 hm 41mth A HM OHM4340M HMWL L S in MW of 0 an Hand 1 mde 465st anim Lulw CAI4M MU akam Wmdmhmajm LMYINU Yam mm Mg 147 teaP AH 4 I v quotn mava Hl m m DP HIL ude qj bmkolu MM DOM19040 WLuf Iberia M e bS tmzHam 0F J v W M wile AM new 14A Camv A Mazda OF MUN fum t w ng Mm mkml a W Lab 5 Nervous System Part II Objectives 39 Learn about the Spinal Cord 39 Learn about the peripheral Nervous system 39 Learn about the Sensory system Introduction Last week we focused on the central nervous This week we are going to finish the central nervous system by focusing in the spinal cord The spinal cord is just a cylinder of nervous tissue that is protected b the vertebral column Just like the brain it is also cover by meninges The spinal cord has 31 pairs of spinal nerves branching off These nerves branch off between two adjacent vertebrae Depending in the area of the spinal cord these nerves are they receive different names There are cervical nerves which are in the neck region There are thoracic nerves which are in the chest region lumber nerves that are in the lower back sacral nerves that are in the coccyx and a coccygeal nerve which emerges from the tip of the coccyx The nerve fibers that travel through a single spinal nerve travel to adjacent sensory regions These regions are called dermatomes and they are served by a specific spinal nerve Another aspect of the spinal cord that needs to be mentioned is that the gray matter of the spinal cord is on the inner part and the white matter is on the outside which is the opposite of what we saw on the brain The gray matter contains the cell bodies and dendrites of efferent neurons motor neurons that carry signal away from CNS as well as axons of afferent neurons sensory neurons towards CNS The white matter consists of tracts of communication between different parts of the spinal cord as well as the spinal cord with the brain The tracts can be ascending or descending depending if its information from spinal cord to brain or brain to spinal cord respectively An example is seen when afferent neurons are activated by a sensory stimulus which then travel through nerve fibers to interneurons to ascending tracts and then to the brain Below you can see a diagram of how the information travels through the spinal in smug an m irvm uuiannrduvl Sensory Impulse Pathways chnmea WI NiIi Cum Brain stem transverse ciculus sections i f cuneatus sory Impulse Spinal cord r m s transverse empel39atIII39E Duo or ecnon pain receptors cord Figure 1 Spinal cord pathway Another important aspect of the nervous system is a reflex Reflexes are the simplest pathways of the nervous system A reflex is an automatic patterned response to a sensory stimulus There are many types of reflexes but we are going to focus on somatic spinal reflexes The basic scheme of a reflex arc is the following A sensory receptor detects a stimulus then an afferent neurons sends a signal to an integration center in the CNS brain or spinal cord and then from this integration center an efferent neuron is sent to an effector organ which produces a response to the initial stimulus In this laboratory we are going to learn about the stretch reflex also known as the muscle spindle stretch reflex or quotkneejerkquot reflex This reflex occurs by tapping the patellar tendon below the kneecap stretches the quadriceps muscles of the upper thigh The tapping would be the stimulus which would lead to an excitation of the muscle spindle which would activate action potentials of afferent neurons which will travel to the spinal cord integration center Then two efferent neurons are sent from the spinal cord one will cause the extension of the quadriceps and the other will cause the inhibition of the hamstrings Below a diagram shows this reflex Cell body of ray quadriceps ts enscn39y neuron In matter musde orsa r o ganglion Hamstring muscle Spinal cord cross section Sensory neuron 0 Motor neuron 58 Interneuron Figure 2 Knee Jerk Reflex In addition to reflexes which are autonomic there are reactions which are somatic voluntary responses to a stimulus This decision involves the brain and requires the brain to make a decision about what your response will be A reaction is the deliberate or voluntary changing of the body s position to respond to the stimulus Reactions may also be very quick and of short duration but they aren t always Procedure 1 1 The subject is to sit on the edge of the lab table with the legs able to swing freely One partner will be the subject first and the other partner the tester then you ll switch 2 Once the legs are relaxed and swing freely the tester should use the side of their hand to quottapquot the subject just below the kneecap What happened Record your results in the data table 3 Now have the person sit with their leg straight out Tap the knee in the same place Observe and record your results 4 Switch places with your partner and repeat steps 1 3 Record the data for both partners in your data table Procedure 2 1 Have the subject sit comfortably with their forearm resting on a desk With their index finger and thumb about two inches apart Hold a ruler at the 30 cm end and have the quotzeroquot 0 cm mark lined up between your partner s finger and thumb 2 Without warning release the ruler and have them grasp it as quickly as they can Record the distance the meter stick traveled to where the thumb meets the stick Repeat the trial three more times and record your data 3 Switch roles and repeat steps 1 and 2 4 Determine the average distance that the meter stick fell for all of the trials Using that average calculate the TIME it took for you to react and grab the ruler using the equation on the next page Sensory Systems The general idea of sensory systems is how information from afferent neurons is transmitted from the periphery to the central nervous system In this lab we are going to focus on sensory receptors These sensory receptors can be categorized into the somatosensory system proprioception and special senses The somatosensory system is used for perception of sensations on the skin The proprioception system is for perception of position of limbs and body The special senses are necessary for vision hearing balance equilibrium smell and taste Sensory receptors are very specific A given sensory receptor is specific for a particular modality A modality is the energy mode of a stimulus The table below shows a few specific receptors along with their sensation and modality Table 1 Sensory Receptors Receptor Sensation Modality Photoreceptors Vision Photons oflight Chemoreceptors Taste Chemicals in saliva Smell Chemicals in mucus Pain Chemicals in extracellular fluid Thermoreceptors Warm receptors Warmth Increase in temperature Cold receptors Cold Decrease in temperature Mechanoreceptors Hair Cells Sound Sound waves Balance and equilibrium Acceleration n sensory transduction receptors convert the energy of the stimulus into changes in membrane potential These membrane potentials are like graded potentials in the sense that the greater the sense ofthe stimulus the greater the change in membrane potential Receptors can be categorized based on their sensory unit A sensory unit is the afferent neuron and the receptors associated with it These can be receptors in the neuron itself receptor cells communicating with the neuron and neurons with receptive field which is the region containing receptors for a single neuron Below you can see a few examples A Figure 3 Sensory receptors Most receptors adapt to stimuli This means that the response to the stimuli will decrease with time This is known asAdaptation There are two types of adaptation slow and fast Slow adaptation means that there is little adaptation and the receptor will continue signaling the stimuli even iffor a prolonged period of time fast adapting receptors function best in detecting changes in stimulus intensity vibrations of the skin and olfactory receptors are examples offast adapting receptors we is a stimulus is perceived is called acuity when learning about this we are going to focus on two important processes Lateral inhibition and tworpoint discrimination Lateral inhibition is when a stimulus strongly excites receptors in a given location inhibits the activity in the pathway of the other nearby receptors This process increases acuity because it increases the contrast of signals The strong signals are tranwilled while the weak onesare suppressed For example it increases contrast and sharpness of visual response Twopoint discrimination is a way to measure tactile acuity it is the ability to perceive two points pressed against the skin as two distinct points Two point discrimination occurs only if the two points are applied to the receptive fields of two different afferent neurons Procedure 3 In this exercise you will test your partner s ability to perceive the stimulation of two different sensory receptors This test provides an indirect measure of the density and receptive field size oftouch receptors in different parts of the body The individual being tested should close his or her eyes for the duration of the test You should do the two point discrimination test at six different locations the five listed below and another of your own choosing Record your data results on the chart in your in lab questions 1 Your partner the subject of the experiment should be seated comfortably eyes closed 2 Begin with the two points together Gently lightly touch the skin do not poke the subject place the tips ofthe pins to the skin at the same time 3 Your partner the subject should report feeling one or two points 4 Move the points 1 mm further apart and gently touch the tips of the pins to the skin 5 Repeat steps 3 4 until the subject reports feeling two points 6 Record the smallest separation distance between the two points that the subject reports feeling two points 7 Repeat this procedure on at least five different skin regions 8 Compare your results with the results of other students in the lab Are the results consistent from subject to subject Another aspect of sensory systems that should be covered is thermoreceptors in the skin Thermoreceptors respond to temperature changes in the receptors themselves as well as the surrounding tissue Just like the table above shows there are two types of thermoreceptors warm and cold Warm receptors respond to temperatures between 30 and 43 degree Celsius As the temperature increases the frequency of action potentials increases Cold receptors respond to temperatures between 35 and 20 degree Celsius As the receptor gets colder the frequency of action potential increases The sensitivity of thermoreceptors is measured in the ability to discriminate between two temperatures Most receptors adapt to stimuli This means that the response to the stimuli will decrease with time This is known as Adaptation There are two types of adaptation slow and fast Slow adaptation means that there is little adaptation and the receptor will continue signaling the stimuli even if for a prolonged period of time Fast adapting receptors function best in detecting changes in stimulus intensity Vibrations of the skin and olfactory receptors are examples of fast adapting receptors Adaptation allows the nervous system to disregard continuous sensory information and be prepared for changing or new incoming sensory stimuli In this exercise you will demonstrate the phenomenon oftemperature adaptation Procedure 4 1 Have your partner hisher eyes can be open for this experiment place one hand in the ice water bath and one hand in the hot water bath 2 Record your partner s immediate perceptions 3 Wait two minutes Record your partner s perceptions at this time Did one hand adapt more quickly than the other If this is too painful do not keep your hand in the cold water for 2 minutes 4 Have your partner remove both hands from the water at the same time and place both hands in the same room temperature water bath Did one hand adapt more quickly than the other Record your partner s immediate perceptions for each hand Special Senses Taste or Gustation The taste receptors are located on the apical membrane of taste cells in the taste buds Taste buds are present in taste papillae on the dorsal surface of the tongue and also in palate pharynx and larynx The taste receptors detect and transduce five primary taste qualities sweet salty sour bitter and umami In the taste buds each taste cell expresses receptors for a single taste quality Once activated through the binding of the receptor taste cells depolarize and release the taste specific neurotransmitter ATP The binding of ATP to the taste nerves that share synapses with taste cells transfer the chemical signal to the brain Saliva plays a very important role in this process It is required to dissolve food chemicals in order to stimulate and activate the taste receptors Procedure 5 Objective Subject will try salt or sugar with dry tongue and compare the same flavor with wet tongue 1 Subject dries hisher own tongue using a napkin 2 Put sugar or salt in the dry tongue keep mouth open 3 Close mouth to allow saliva to humidify tongue 5 Put salt or sugar on the wet tongue 6 Compare sensation with dry and wet tongue Vision Vision begins when light rays bounce off all objects If a person is looking at an object light is reflected off the object to the person s eye and enters the eye through the cornea Next the light rays pass through the pupil which is an opening in the iris The iris controls the amount of light entering the eye by either dilating or constricting the pupil n bright light the pupils shrink to lessen the amount of light entering whereas in the dark the pupil dilates to allow more light to enter the eye The light will then pass through the lens which will focus the light rays onto the retina by bending the rays The cornea does most of the refraction and the lens fine tunes focuses the image In a healthy eye the lens can change its shape accommodate to provide clear vision at various distances For instance when an object is close the ciliary muscle of the eye contracts and the lens becomes rounder To see a distant object the same muscles relax and the lens flattens The retina lines the posterior of the eye and is responsible for the wide field of vision that most people experience For clear vision light rays must focus directly on the retina When light focuses in front of or behind the retina the result is blurry vision The retina contains millions of specialized photoreceptor cells called rods and cones that convert light rays into electrical signals that are transmitted to the brain through the optic nerve Rods and cones provide the ability to see in dim light black and white and to see in color respectively The optic nerve located behind the retina transmits signals from the photoreceptor cells to the brain Each eye transmits signals of a slightly different image and the images are inverted Once they reach the brain they are corrected and combined into one image This is referred to as visual processing To have tridimensional vision it is necessary to have both eyes in good working condition Stereopsis is binocular depth perception It is dependent on the convergence of inputs from both eyes The two different images in the retina give different perspectives that lead to cues about the depth Procedure 6 Depth Perception Test Tube 1 Obtain a test tube rack with a single test tube 2 Sit at arm s length to the test tube in its rack 3 Close both eyes and allow your partner to move the test tube rack slightly 4 The rack should remain within arm s reach 5 Open one eye and quickly insert a penpencil into the test tube 6 Close both eyes and repeat the process with the just the contralateral eye open 7 Repeat again with both eyes open


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