Social Deviancy (Deviant Behavior)
Social Deviancy (Deviant Behavior) SYG 3320
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Study Guide lvlondayJuly 7 20111 211 PM SYG 3325 Social Deviance Spring 2014 1 Dr Shearon Lowery Midterm Study Guide De ne deviant behavior including JL Simmons study Do sociologist generally agree on a precise definition of deviant behavior Sociologists do not agree on the exact definition of deviant behavior One study by JL Simmons in 1965 brought out the likes of deviant behavior such as prostitutes Alcoholics drug users murders mentally ill the physically challenged Being named were 252 different types of deviant people per their deviant behavior Some Sociologists say that deviance is any violation of any social rule It can also be defined as individuals with mental or physical disabilities It is even defined as being a genius saint creative artist or glamorous celebrity It is also defined as anyone disvalued by society Although sociologists have proposed a number of different definitions of deviance many of these differences are minor and represent little more than variations on a broader conceptual theme Most of the disagreement over the concept of deviance appears to boil down to a choice between two alternative definitions a normative definition versus a relativistic definition of deviance The normative definition is the older of these two sociological conceptualizations According to this definition deviance refers to behavior that violates social norms or to persons that engage in such behaviorOny in the past few decades has this traditional definition of deviance been seriously challenged by sociologists who favor the relativistic alternative According to the relativistic definition deviance refers to behavior or persons that are de ned as deviant by social audiences This definition is termed relativistic because it views persons or their behavior as deviant only relative to the way other people react to them 2 List and briefly discuss the popular conceptions of deviant behavior NOTES Popular Conceptions of Deviant Behavior 1 The first and oldest popular conception is statistical and is derived from the field of statistics eg deviation from the mean According to this conception any trait or behavior that differs substantially from the average is considered deviant This is the only popular conception that includes positive deviance For example in the case of IQ intelligence quotient if an individual deviates substantially either higher genius or lower intellectually challenged from the average score they are considered deviant Likewise a person can be too tall too short too skinny or too fat etc Also being a member of any minority also constitutes deviance in this conception of deviance eg gays lefthanders communists in the United States 2 The second popular conception is deviance as an illnessdisease This popular conception is based on the medical model where deviant behaviors are viewed as symptoms of an underlying physic physical or social disease Therefore deviance has causes and must be followed with an appropriate treatment and aftercare The deviant is viewed as a person who needs treatment not punishment Some examples are drug abuse alcoholism and mental illness However this conception has become increasineg applied to other behaviors in recent decades and such behaviors are being quotmedicalizedquot such as the treatment of sexual addictions gambling and eating disorders 3 The third popular conception is that deviance is the failure to conform to group norms and rules This is a very common view among sociologists However this is not as straightforward as it first appears This is because one must first define the group establish their norms and rules determine which are sanctioned if ignored by a member of the group and the nature of the sanctions Once this is established you must compare individual behaviors to the group standards to determine if they are deviant For example a one percent motorcycle gang such as the Hell39s Angels Pagans and Outlaws are considered very deviant by the larger society but one must look within the group to determine whether they are deviant according to group standards That is a member who is very conforming to societal standards would be a deviant within the group The group itself however is considered extremely deviant by the larger society So in conforming to group standards and norms one may automatically violate the norms and standards of the larger society while being a conforming group member Another example of such a group is the Amish community which does not use electricity or cars and has norms quite different from the larger society 4 The fourth popular conception is the deviant as a boat rocker that is as a disruptive individual or group that wishes to bring about social change For example the early leaders of the civil rights movement were considered deviants by the larger society because they refused to accept the norms embodied by the status quo This held true for the leaders of the women39s movement as well as the leaders of other movements such as gay rights animal rights environmental groups like the Earth Liberation Front etc However all such groups do not wish to bring about positive social change eg the Klu Klux Klan 5 The fifth popular conception is that deviance is immoral behavior and deviants are immoral individuals It is rooted in various religious perspectives and may be one of the most universal applications of religion It is also relative to group culture and historical time 6 The sixth popular conception of deviance is that deviants are human beings just like anyone else with the exception that some of their time is spent engaging in activities that other people or groups disapprove of Examples everyone living or dead has been considered deviant by some group 3 Identify Mundane Deviance Higher and Lower Consensus Deviance Give examples of each type of deviance Mundane Deviance 0 Everyday routine deviance that we say we disapprove of that we don t usually act upon it Things that are really common and it happens all the time 0 Cheating because most common in todays society 0 Bad manners at a dinner table High consensus deviance O 90 believe these people are deviant Usually consisting of law breakers such as murder pedophile Within each category there are some that may be worse than others but none the less the behaviors are so deviant that there are extreme sanctions for those behaviors Lower quot 39 39 39 deviance 0 On the line and never determined to go one either side of the high or low Premarital Sex Polygamy All debatable issues like abortion 0 A minority groups that vocalize and that is making the issue an actual issue Gay marriage lol back to bud she talks 4 Know the following theories 3 AnomieStrain Merton Agnew O AnomiegStrain Theory in 1938 Robert Merton developed what is now called the Anomie Strain theory which attributes deviance to anomie the breakdown of social norms that results from societies urging of people to be ambitious but failing to provide them with legitimate opportunities to succeed In 1992 Agnew emphasized how the strain generated in people by anomie or other social conditions cause them to commit deviant acts In general it is the lack of the usual social or ethical standards in an individual or group b Control Hirshi Mata Control theory is defined as the Lack of social control which causes deviance c Social Learning Sutherland Akers Glaser Tarde Deviance is learned by social interaction d Power Thio Deviant behavior is any behavior deemed deviant by public consensus Alex Thio The powerful and the powerless The powerful who are more deviant If you look at the acts they are different The Powerful committing lower consensus deviant acts The powerless commit the lower consensus acts Focuses on corrupt crime Greater deviant motivation when born wealthy you are more concerned with your peers rather than those below you That social motivation deems a deviant motivation Symbols of wealth Weaker social control Always in the public eye and never first to be accused or suspected Greater opportunity law enforcement is not looking at the powerful when there is an issue They are there to protect the powerful More access to financials e Phenomenology major idea only Looking into peoples subjective interpretation of their own experiences is key to understanding their deviant behavior Phenomenology works in the mind of the deviant to understand what the deviant act to them f Labeling Tannenbaum Lemert especially concepts of primary and secondary deviance Relatively powerful persons are more likely to label the less powerful as deviant than vice versa and being labeled deviant by society leads people to see themselves as deviant and live up to this selfimage by engaging in deviant behavior g Linguistic domination post modernist theory quotPrivilegedquot language of the powerful dominants the quotmarginalizedquot language and thus the lives of the weak as deviants 5 De ne two 2 types of Shaming Reintegrative and disintegrating 6 First shaming the act and then brought back the group and dis integrating is that you shame them and then send them away How do constructionist theories of deviance differ from positivist perspectives Can the two types be integrated Explain 10 The constructionist perspective consists of the relativists view that the so called deviance us largely a label applied to an act at a given time and place The positivist perspective holds the absolute view the deviant behavior is absolutely real and he Myths concerning alcohol use Drinking coffee will sober you up Beer drinkers are more likely to become alcoholics Often believed by beer drinkers that you are less likely to become an alcoholic Mixing drinks will not get you drunk any faster Sex is more exciting Effect of alcohol Effects of heavy drinking involve the liver it also may be likely to cause stroke and heart disease Heavy drinkers are also more likely to develop cancers that include cancers of the mouth throat and other areas that are frequently assaulted by the abuse of alcohol Social factors in drinking ethnicity gender age religion etc As far as gender is concerned it has been estimated that men are four times more likely to consume more alcohol and are more likely to get in trouble while consuming such alcohol Males are more concerned with masculinity which will make young makes more likely to engage in drinking Male gt Female Young gt Old Italians Chinese lt Everyone Else JewsConservative gt Catholics Liberal Protestants Urban suburbs gt Rural areas Small towns Jellinek s Disease Model ofAlcoholism uselellinek s terminology not Thio s Jellineks Disease progressive disease 1 Prealcoholic social drinker 6 months 2 years usually to relieve stress Starts normal and progresses as your tolerance increases Your tolerance for stress decreases Possible to never leave this stage 2 Prodromal psychologically addicted Psychologically addicted possible to stop defining characteristic is having the onset of blackouts Drinking is no longer a social thing and you start to drink alone Morning Drinking helps your start the day During this stage there is a lot of secretive drinking Trying to hide the amount that they drink or they hide evidence of their drinking Crucial Stage Physically addicted Defining characteristic is the loss of control You have one drink and continue until you pass out or there is no more to drink By this stage your family and friends are concerned and are putting pressure on you to stop or cut back and telling you that you have a problem therefore alcoholics tend to strike back and start to place blame Rationalize their behavior outward Leads to the alcoholic trying to prove that they do have control and so they become a dry drunk for a short period of time Dry drunks Still 5 11 12 13 14 15 are angry and unhappy and awful because they blame the world for not being able to drink Preoccupation with alcohol How will it effect your performance then how will their responsibilities effect their drinking They become more isolated Chronic hitting bottom onset of benders days of drunkennessloss ofalcohol tolerance Liver is destroyed therefor you have no tolerance Alcoholics at this stage can suffer with malnutrition The worst part is that the alcoholic is haunted by the thought that the alcohol will be taken away from them Alcohol is the most important thing in their lives Alcohol is so essential to them that they can not imagine living without alcohol How can you give up something that you live for and even willing to die for P Alcoholics anonymous Why does it work the most useful program for alcoholics There is a 12 step program for just about everything AA claims to work for 3 out of 4 people who really try Take one day at a time Meetings are very important Not trained therapists it is a support group with alcoholics helping other alcoholics Most alcoholics believe that only another alcoholic will understand them You have to try and think like them if you want to be a counselor for them Sponsors are very important because it allows someone to be completely open to people at any time of the day Could vary by ethnicity but we don t know because it requires people to admit that they have lost control It does give those who stay with it a more positive sense of self identity In the early years it was thought that the benefits of this program would have to go through all the 12 steps Low bottom drunk has suffered major consequences for their drinking High bottom drunks are people who have not suffered major consequences These people go to AA so that they don t lose anything worse than what they have already and they are trying to hold on to what they still have Social Control Drinking Aversion Therapy Social Control Drinking Drinking no more than 3 drinks sipping and only mixed drinks Controlling Alcohol Use and Abuse There have been many ways America has tried to control the use and abuse of alcohol In the past there was prohibition but that didn t last long There are currently new laws that have been passes to try and control underage drinking in homes such as the quotsocial hostquot law which punishes the host of the party where the underage drinking took place Taxes have also been used to try and control the consumption of alcohol Physical psychological and social dependence on alcoholism Alcoholics that have a physical dependence and stop drinking suddenly can have such physical effects that they can die Psychological dependence is a fear of being without alcohol Social dependence pressures in your environment that make it hard for you not to drink Major research ndings on female alcoholics including concept of plateau drinking Female alcoholics most of our knowledge about alcoholism is through males in the last 30 years or recently If women drank exclusive they were put into a mental institution There was a stigma for a woman to get drunk if you were a lady you didn t get drunk throughout all social classes Women are linked with alcoholism and sex Men are never unsexed by there excessive drinking 16 Most female alcoholics are not promiscuous Women were disguising their drinking Then term plateau drinking drinking throughout the day so that to disguise their behavior because it was something that they were particularly good at Women showed a lot more guilt depression and anxiety Trauma can cause social drinkers to become alcoholics and would become drinkers later in life Major explanations ofalcoholism Pay close attention to the theories of Harrison Trice and Robert Bales 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Trice says that you need to have certain traits that would make you become an alcoholic Haralson Trice tries to answer the question Theory as to it is applied to MEN only 39Why do some individuals become alcoholics while others don t quot Says it s a fit for certain personality traits and being exposed to certain drinking groups with certain values and engage in these types of activities believes that one of the traits is dependency Feelings of being worthlessSelf hatredCreates a lot of anxiety and you want to see yourself as a man The groups peer pressure makes the person become more tolerant to prove themselves EFFECTexcessive drinker and have lost control The RAND Reports 1976 1980 Rand Reports done on social control drinking in 1976 18 months following they went to the house and did a correct follow up The conclusion 1976 some alcoholics can learn to drink socially That was the 18 month conclusion Same individuals in 4 years most had relapsed Few success stories Major problem with the Sorbell s research The major problem with this research is that it may not have been done with hardcore alcoholics and it may have only covered individuals with a severe drinking problem or addiction Behavioral Therapy and Goals of Treatment There are treatment centers that strivve for sobriety These treatment centers involve psychological counseling and therapy aversion therapy or a combination of this with group therapy The group therapy brings together a number of alcoholics and their families including spouses and children Identify Flushing Response occurs usually in Asians when they drink and they feel ill and their face and body gets red this is immediate response to the alcohol in your system Frontloading The same thing as pregamming something that underage drinkers tend to engage in since the legal drinking agae went up in the early 198039s Low Bottom Drunks vs High Bottom Drunks Many people manage to escape their alcohol addiction before they cause too much damage to their life Such individuals are referred to as high bottom drunks Some individuals have to lose plenty in life before they are finally ready to admit defeat Such people are sometimes referred to as low bottom drunks According to Thio how do researchers define binge drinking Binge drinkers drink to get drunk unlike social drinkers who drink to have fun Binge drinking is having 4 or more drinks in a social gathering for males and 3 or more for females 24 Is alcohol a stimulant or a depressant u9uh Depressant a stimulant increases the functional activity of the body and mind where as alcohol reduces our mental and bodily functioning 25 The four Cs NOTES 4 C39s of alcoholism NEED TO KNOW Helps us understand when people are on the road to alcoholism Compulsion to drink when you feel you have to Loss of Control Continue drinking despite conseguences when a person has a lot of consequences resulting from drinking and continues drinking then they are considered alcoholic 26 Why do detox centers fail Many people do not identify as alcoholics and therefore refuse to follow the centers rules They did not end up there on their own free will it is regulated by the court and state therefore requiring their presence 27 What are the major causes of binge drinking in college Students and young adults are not exposed to drinking at a younger age and therefore are not taught to drink moderately This also leads to students drinking away from the public eye as far as authority figures being able to control the drinking allowing it to get out of hand 28 Charles Manson interview 1987 apply theoretical concepts to it Merton39s theory with having a lot of pressure put on with being apart a certain middle class Manson fit the part of a rebel with having a lot of negative stimuli in his life since his mother was a prostitute and she never gave him love Bond theory but he had no bond with society therefore he cannot for a bond and conform to society only to rebel Condemnation Appeal to higher loyalty Denial of responsibility He saw himself as being more acted upon rather than acting RationalizationAckers Define hate differently rather than the way we define it and his deviant behavior is reinforced Labeling theory Manson was labeled early in life growing up in institutions and internalize all the judgments 29 Rational Recovery Where you are told to rationalize with your act 30 How does Rational Recovery differ from AA AA is a group that offers support and is directed by alcoholics just like the ones that they are trying to help Therefore it allows the alcoholics to feel as though they can define themselves with a positive group of people who are just like them and are able to be understood therefore allowing them to strive Rational recovery does not allow alcoholics to lean on any individual