Theatre Appreciaton THE 2000
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Date Created: 10/12/15
FRBSF ECONOMIC LETTER Number 2007709 April 6 2007 Will Fast Productivity Growth Persist Strong productivity growth is essential for improving living standards and can have an important impact on economic policy yet economists are far from being experts at predicting when the trend of productivity growth might shift In the 1960s productivity growth boomed growing at an average annual rate of 20A lt weakened in the early 1970s and for the next two decades or so averaged an annual growth rate of only about 1 oiThen in the midr1990s productivity growth boomed again averaging about a 3 annual rate from the last quarter of 1995 through the middle of 2004 These shifts were not predicted and were generally not widely recognized until years after they occurred Considering that since the middle of 2004 productivity growth has averaged only about 11100 per year it may be time to ask whether this is just a pause in the boom that started in the midr1990s or a shift back to the growth rates seen in the 1970s and 1980s This Economic Letter begins to answer this question by focusing on the factors that underlay the most recent productivity boom and what they may portend for the future Information and communications technology and the productivity surge Technological innovation is often associated with prof ductivity boomsiThe most obvious such innovations in recent decades have been in the production of information and communications technology lCT such as computers software communications equipr ment and the like But the channels for lCT to afr fect the overall economy are complex Economists identify three proximate or direct sources of higher labor productivity Firstworkers have more and better capital to work with also known as capr ital deepening Second the workforce gains more education and skill Third is total factor productivity or TFP a comprehensive term for everything not otherwise explained the main reason TFP rises over time is innovation in products and processes Oliner and Sichel 2006 decompose labor productivr ity growth using annual aggregate data through 2005 They nd that in the 199572000 period both faster TFP growth and an increased contribution of capitalr deepening raised labor productivity growth relative to the 197371995 periodi Thereafter however investment was relatively weak and the pace of capital deepenr ing especially of lCT capitalifell substantiallyYet labor productivity growth remained strong in the early 2000s because TFP growth accelerated even further Economists generally agree that aTFP acceleration in lCT production was a signi cant contributor to the acceleration in overall TFP during the 1990s and the causes of the former are reasonably well understood New product development resulting especially from research and development led to rapid improvements in computer technology for example competition between Intel and AMD led to a faster introduction of new semiconductor chips in the postr1995 period This faster pace of technological rollout appears to exr plain a large share of the lCT productivity acceleration Many earlier studies argued that the acceleration in overall TFP was largely if not entirely due to innovar tions in sectors producing lCT goodsi These innovai tions in turn raised labor productivity in the sectors that used lCT because of capital deepening in particr ular falling lCT prices reduced the effective cost to a user ofpurchasing highrtech capital leading rms to increase their desired capital stock From this perr spective there is no reason to expect an increased pace ofinnovation outside of lCT production Basu Fernald and Shapiro 2001 however argue that the overall TFP acceleration was broadrbasedi not narrowly located in lCT production nd more recent studies including Bosworth and Triplett 2003 have emphasized the TFP acceleration in the services sector Over time major of cial data revisions have afected the apparent size and timing of the accelr eration in different sectors but haven t changed the general picture Oliner and Sichel 2006 nd that in the 200072005 periodTFP in lCT production slowed and estimate that the acceleration in overall TFP is completely explained by nonrlCTrproducing sectorsiA number of other studies have found simir lar resultsi pices of the Center for the Study of Innovation and Productivity within the FRBSF s Economic Sig l P CSIP Notes appears on an occasional basis It is prepared under the ausi VCSIP FRBSF Research Departments FR BSF Em m7 m1 Letter To explain how ICT can affect measured production and productivity in other sectors a number of papers highlight the notion of ICT as a general purpose technology GPT much like electricity or steam power in that it has pervasive and widerranging efr fects on how rms do business or even how people live They also note that adopting new GPTs is neither easy nor instantaneous First rmrlevel studies sug gest that bene ting from lCT investments requires substantial costly investments in intangible capital such as reorganization for example faster informar tion processing might lead rms to think of new ways of communicating with suppliers or arranging distribution systems These investments may include resources diverted to learning or purposeful innovar tion arising from research and development RampD Second the GPT literature suggests the likelihood of sizeable spillovers from ICT For example successful new managerial ideas uch as using ICT to build a new business information system eem likely to diffuse to other rms Imitation is often easier and less costly than invention because you learn by watchr ing and analyzing others experimentation successes and importantly mistakes lndeed firms that don t use computers intensively may also bene t from spillovers of intangible capital created by rms that use comr puters more intensively For example if RampD has sizeable spillovers and if RampD is more productive with better computers then even rms that don t use computers intensively may bene t from the knowlr edge created by computers Brynjolfsson et al 1997 study the experience ofa large medical products company following its decir sion to deploy computerrbased exible machinery Management recognized that the project would inr volve not only the purchase of new machines but also a substantial amount of learning and a reorganir zation of the production processWhile ultimately successful so much so that the company painted factory windows black to prevent competitors from imitating its organizational and technical innovar tions various hurdles led to an extended and costly period of experimentation and false starts39 for exr ample production workers continued to use the new machinery as they had used the old resulting in large inventories of work in process and nished goods Ultimately the rm physically isolated one section of its plant to experiment with different methods of reorganizing the production line Another study of about 500 large US rms found that it took at least ve to seven years for the full bene ts of computers to be realizetht the indusr try level Basu and Fernald 2007 nd that the data are reasonably consistent with the predictions that in sectors that use lCT ICT capital growth should Number 2007709 April 6 2007 with long lags be positively associated with TFP growth In particular they nd evidence that ICT capital investments in the late 1980s and 1990s are positively correlated with the TFP acceleration in the 2000s They conclude that these results are rear sonably consistent with the rmrlevel evidence Is the era of rapid productivity growth over To begin to answer this question it is useful to look rst at whether the pace ofinnovation in the ICT sector has slowedThough this is not easy to mear sure some have argued that the relative price of ICT sector output provides a rough and ready indicator of technical progress in this sector see Doms 2005 for instance Other things remaining the same the faster the rate of technical progress in the ICT sector the faster the rate at which the price of ICT goods falls against other prices in the economy It turns out that the price of information processing equipr ment and software relative to the GDP de ator fell at close to a 62 rate over the 19732Q1719951Q3 period39 the rate of decline accelerated to 8 over the 19952Q4720002Q4 period but has fallen back to 6 since Based on this evidence as well as the studies mentioned earlier one could argue that the pace of technical progress in the ICT sector has slowed but there is no way to tell whether this slowr down is temporary or permanent If the productivity slowdown in ICT production is permanent should we then expect productivity growth in the ICTrusing sectors to fall back to the rates seen before the boom The GPT literature sug gests that the answer is not DeLong 2002 points out that even though the period of doublerdigit annual productivity increases in steamrpower and textiler spinning machinery ended in the early 1820s these technologies made their major contribution to ecor nomic growth in Great Britain in the subsequent 50 years Similarly David 1991 emphasizes that the benr e m of the electric motor took nearly halfa century to spread as rms learned how to make more ef r cient use of the technology ls ICT likely to have the same impact that earlier GPTs did At least one metric suggests that it could It has been pointed out that ICT prices have fallen far more dramatically than prices of GPTs like eleci tricity and the internal combustion engine and the resulting decline in the price of capital goods is uni precedentediThis suggests that we might expect prof ductivity growth to remain elevated for a while yet Furthermore recent data for non nancial corporar tions suggest that productivity growth might not have slowed quite as much as the nonfarm business secr tor data indicate It has been argued that data for non nancial corporations whose output amounts FR BSF Eco no mic Letter to about 70 of nonfinancial business sector outr put is better measured than for the noncorporate and nancial sectors of the economy As Figure 1 shows productivity growth in nonfinancial corpor rations has tended to track that in the overall none farm sector reasonably well but the former has not slowed as much over the past year At press time we have data for nonfinancial corporations through 2006Q3 and for nonfarm business through 2006Q4 The reasons for the divergence are not clearThe underlying source data are different since nonfir nancial corporate output is measured from data on income whereas nonfarm output is measured from data on expenditure While the national accounts are designed so that in principle income and expenditure necessarily grow at the same rate the two measures rely on different surveys so there can be a statistical discrepancy between them Conclusion At the peak of the New Economy hype of the late 1990s many claimed The Internet changes every thing and by implication that it happened overnight But the history lessons om GPTs like electricity and steam power as well as recent theoretical and empirical work suggest that the necessary compler mentary investments and innovations that drive change unfold only slowly over time Thus it could be that the promise of recent technological advances will continue to be realizedTo the extent that ICT is indeed a GPT on a par with the electric dynamo the returns to innovation whether managerial inr Fi ure 1 Labor productivity yearoveryear growth 5 Number 2007709 April 6 2007 novations or the development of new products and processes might remain high for some time to come The strength ofproductivity growth in nonf1nanr cial corporations provides another reason for hope that underlying productivity trends remain strong None of this is meant to argue that trend productin ity growth will revert to the 3 rate seen around the turn of this century39 we are arguing instead thati in the near termitrend productivity growth is uni likely to revert to the rates seen during the 1970s or 1980s But these are not statements that can be made with a high degree of certainty As we confessed at the outset economists including us do not have a winning record in predicting the path of productin ity growth John Fernald Vice President David T hipphavong Research Associate Bharat T rehan Research Advi sor References Basu Susanto and John Fernald 2007 Information and Communications Technology as a General Purpose Technology Evidence from US Industry Data Forthcoming German Economic Review Basu Susantoohn Fernald and Matt Shapiro 2001 Productivity Growth in the l990sTechnology Utilization or Adjustment Carnegie Rochester Series on Public Policy December Bosworth Barry and Jack Triplett 2003 Services Productivity in the United States Griliches Services Volume Revisited Brookings Institution Brynjolfsson Erik Amy Austin Renshaw and Marshall van Alstyne 1997 The Matrix of Change MIT Sloan Management Review 382 pp 37754 DeLongJ Bradford 2002 Productivity Growth in the 2000s NBER Macro Annual pp 1137145 David Paul 1991 Computer and Dynamo The Modern Productivity Paradox in a NotrTooeDismnt Mirrorf Technology and ProductivityxTne Challenge for Economic Policy Paris OECD Doms Mark 2005 IT InvestrnentWill the Glory Days Ever Return FRBSF Economic Letter 2005713 June 17 httpwwwfrbsforgpublications economicsletter2005e12005713html Oliner Stephen and Daniel Sichel 2006 Unpublished update to The Resurgence of Growth in the Late 1990s Is Information Technology the Story ournal ofEconomic Perspectives 14 2000 pp 3722 ECONOMIC RESEARCH FEDERAL RESERVE BANK OF SAN FRANCISCO PO Box 7702 San Francisco CA 94120 Address Service Requested Printed on recycled paper with soybean inks PRESORTED STANDARD MAIL US POSTAGE PAID PERMIT NO 752 San Francisco Calif Index to Recent Issues of FRBSF Economic Letter DATE NUMBER TITLE AUTHOR 106 06 26 Safe and Sound Banking 20 Years Later Kwan 10 13 06 27 In ation Persistence in an Era OfWell Anchored In ation Expectations Williams 1020 06 28 Did Quantitative Easing by the Bank OfJapan Work Spiegel 1027 06 29 What Are the Risks to the United States of a Current Account Reversal Valderrama 113 06 30 The Rise in Homeownership DomsMotika 11 17 06 31 Interest Rates Carry Trades and Exchange Rate Movements Cavallo 11 24 06 32 Is a Recession Imminent FernaldTrehan 12 1 06 33 34 Economic Inequality in the United States Yellen 128 06 35 The Mystery of Falling State Corporate Income Taxes Wilson 1215 06 36 The Geographic Scope Of Small Business Lending Evidence Laderman 1222 06 37 Will Moderating Growth Reduce In ation Lansing 12 29 06 38 Mortgage Innovation and Consumer Choice Kramer 15 07 01 Concentrations in Commercial Real Estate Lending Lopez 1 19 07 02 Disentangling the Wealth Effect Some International Evidence SierminskaTakhtamanova 1 26 07 03 Monetary Policy Inertia and Recent Fed Actions Rudebusch 29 07 04 2006 Annual Paci c Basin Conference Summary Glick 3 2 07 05 Financial Innovations and the Real Economy Conference Doms Fernald Lopez 3 9 07 06 Update on China A Monetary Policymaker s Report Yellen 3 16 07 07 Prospects for China s Corporate Bond Market Hale 330 07 08 The US Productivity Acceleration and the Current Account De cit Valderrama Opinions expressed in the Economic Letter do not necessarily re ect the views Of the management Of the Federal Reserve Bank Of San Francisco or Of the Board Of Governors Of the Federal Reserve SystemThis publication is edited by Judith Golf with the assistance Of Anita Todd Permission tO reprint portions Of articles or whole articles must be Obtained in writing Permission tO photocopy is unrestricted Please send editorial comments and requests for subscriptions back copies address changes and reprint permission to Public Information Department Federal Reserve Bank Of San Francisco PO BOX 7702 San Francisco CA 94120 phone 415 974 2163 fax 415 974 3341 e mail sfpubssffrborg The Economic Letter and other publications and information are available on our website httpwwwfrbsforg N w 5 Older Americans Act Frequently Asked Questions How can I get my questions answered Read the Older Americans Act OAA Title III to nd the answer It is the responsibility of the State Unit on Aging SUA to delineate State policy to implement the OAA and its regulations Some questions and answers are a matter of State policy and best practice not the OAA or its regulations Call your regional Administration on Aging AoA nutrition contact for assistance if you cannot find the answer Does the state need to have a nutrition policy and procedure manual The OAA places responsibility for nutrition program implementation on the SUA See Title III Part C Subpart 3 General Provisions The current regulations 45 Code of Federal Regulations 1321 132911 State agency policies a state The state agency on aging shall develop policies governing all aspects of programs operated under this partThe State agency is responsible for enforcement of these policies Is the nutrition program required to provide services in an adult day care OAA Section 331 states The Assistant Secretary shall carry out a program for making grants to States under State plans approved under section 307 for the establishment and operation of nutrition projects2 which shall be provided in congregate settings including adult day care facilities and multigenerational meal sites This language gives examples of the kinds of congregate nutrition settings and indicates that it is permissible or allowable to provide services in these locations The language does not indicate that it is required to provide services in adult day care Who may participate in the 0AA Nutrition Program Section 339 2Hl provide for the following 0 A person aged 60 years of age and older A spouse ofany age Disabled individuals who reside in housing facilities for the elderly where a congregate site exists are eligible for congregate meals AAAs may establish procedures to allow a nutrition project to offer a meal to an individual who provides volunteer service during meal hours AAAs may establish procedures to allow a nutrition project to offer a meal to a disabled individual who resides at home with an older adult both congregate and home delivered meals August 2006 0 Are family caregivers eligible for home delivered meals HDMs Yes if the family caregiver is 60 or the spouse of an eligible client Section 339 2 the family caregiver may receive HDMs under Title III C2 Ifthe family caregiver is not eligible to receive HDMs through Title III C2 HDMs may be provided to the family caregiver through Title III Part E Section 373b5 Part E Section 373b5 lists supplemental services on a limited basis to complement the care provided by caregivers These supplemental services may include HDMs an Who may not participate in the 0AA Nutrition Program Homebound disabled individuals living alone who have not attained the age of sixty may not participate in the Part C2 program homedelivered meals Spouses under the age of 60 of nonTitle IllC participating individuals may not receive eligible meals Eligibility for the under60 spouse is based on the age 60 spouse s participation in the nutrition program Guests of eligible participants may receive a meal for the full cost ofthe meal provided all participants have received the service These meals are not counted as eligible meals to be included on the state s Stat Program Report SPR Guests should receive meals only upon availability 0 Guests include children staffand any nonparticipating person The full cost of the meal must be charged because Title IllC funds are not intended for these populations 7 If an older individual is accompanied by a younger person who is seeking Title IllC nutrition services under the spousal eligibility provision of Section 339 2l and the two individuals selfidentify as husband and wife for the purposes of meeting the Federal definition what provisions exist within the Act authorizing the State Agency to inquire further about age marital status and gender of such persons 0 There are no such explicit provisions in the OAA f persons indicate they are married and one is age 60 that is considered a selfdeclaration The OAA does state that services are provided to spouses and not partners 8 What are the eligibility criteria for meals to be served in 0AA Nutrition Programs Section 339 2Alll provides the following 0 Meals must comply with the most recent Dietary Guidelines for Americans Guidelines developed for other programs are not referenced in the OAA 0 Meals must provide at least 13rd ofthe Dietary Reference Intakes DRls August 2006 2 0 Meals must be served in compliance with State and local laws regarding the safe and sanitary handing of food equipment and supplies used in the storage preparation service and delivery of meals to an older individual Section 315b 3 Means Testing 0 Meals served to meanstested individuals in meanstested programs are not Title III C eligible meals Meals served to individuals in nursing homes adult care homes or assisted living facilities where the meal is a part of the per diem rate are not eligible 9 Can meals served to recipients of Medicaid waiver meals who are 60 years or over or disabled under 60 years be reported as eligible Title IllC meals 11 No In order to participate in the Medicaid program clients are evaluated for income status and services are provided accordingly Meanstested services are not allowable in OAA programs A meal may be provided through the Medicaid waiver program Usually a negotiated per diem rate is contractually entered into with the State Medicaid agency and the Title IllC provider The rate should coverthe full cost ofthe meal These meals are not reported to AoA for the Nutrition Services Incentive Program NSIP meal count How are contributions to be used Section 315 b4E The Area Agency on Aging AAA shall ensure that each service provider will use all collected contributions to expand the service for which the contributions were given and that contributions are to be used to supplement not supplant funds received under this Act Prior to the 2000 OAA Amendments providers could use their contributions from IllC services to improve access to these services and thus they could use their contributions fortransportation outreach etc as long as it was forthese services in the nutrition program The 2000 amendments change this section and now contributions can only be used for expansion ofthe service generating the contribution Most states that previously relied heavily upon contributions for access services Title III B services to nutrition services now have the option to transfer funds from Title IllC to IllB to offset the change Does AoA have a written response that has been officially released to States regarding sending quotbillsquot for home delivered meals August 2006 No because the OAA does not allow clients to be charged for or pay for any OAA services Section 315 Voluntary Contributions b indicates that voluntary contributions shall be allowed and may be solicited for all services for which funds are received under this Act provided that the method of solicitation is noncoercive In addition contributions are encouraged for individuals whose selfdeclared income is at or above 185 of the poverty line at contribution levels based on the actual cost of services 12 Should we deny meals to potential clientsparticipants based on citizenship or national origin 0 Noncitizens regardless of their alien status should not be banned from services authorized by the OAA and administered by the AoA based solely on their alien status OAA programs administered by the AoA are not on the list of agencies published by HHS that provide quotFederal public benefitsquot as de ned in Title IV ofthe Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 PRWORA Only agencies on this list providing those bene ts are required to determine citizenship etc For further information please go to wwwaoagovprofessionalscivil rights 13 Are participants required to sign in o The OAA does not require signatures How a state chooses to keep track of participation is a state decision 14 What is the guidance on waiting lists 0 The OAA doesn t address waiting lists They are considered acceptable practice for many providers to use to manage the applications for services in an orderly fair manner 15 Does a Title III meal have to be the noon meal Can the daily meal be an early evening meal everyday o A Title III meal can be served at breakfast lunch and dinner The same standards apply 16 Can a meal be counted as an eligible meal if the client does not eat everything served 0 Meals are eligible based on their nutritional content and not how much is eaten The meal is eligible ifit provides the required nutritional content and meets all other program requirements 17 If a client asks for a part of a meal after eating a complete meal can the second helping be considered an eligible meal 0 Second helpings served to the same individual at the same meal service are NOT counted as second meals for reporting purposes 18 Are Carryout TakeOut meals considered eligible meals 0 Part C Subparts 1 and 2 of the OAA authorize two nutrition services Congregate Nutrition Services and HomeDelivered Nutrition Services respectively No August 2006 4 provisions are made for carryout or takeout settings The OAA states that meals shall be provided in a congregate setting or delivered to the person s home Congregate meal service allows clients to receive socialization information and assistance and many other education and healthrelated services to name a few The OAA requires that services are to be targeted and persons participating should be in need of these related services and not just the meal 19 What should SUAs be doing with Title VI 0 SUAs are responsible under Title III to provide services to older Indians and to coordinate with Title VI funded programs Title III contains numerous references to services to Indians as well as references to Title lllVl coordination The following sections ofthe OAA address lndians andor Title lllVl coordination To co 0 N O Section1025620 Section 201 cA Section 301 a2C Section 305 a1b234 Section 306a16G11ABC Section 307a2124 Section 310 ab Section 614a811 mply with the OAA Title lllVl coordination requirements Some States award Title III funds to the Title VI grantees and the program is administered by one state program administrator This makes coordination more effective because the dollars can be maximized to reach more persons Many States invite tribal organizations to all training that the State is conducting Some State nutritionists provide technical assistance and training on nutrition related topics Does the 0AA or AoA require an SUA to use a menu pattern No the OAA does not require a speci c menu pattern Patterns are used as planning devices to help follow the dietary guidance A menu pattern is not a compliance tool It is a State responsibility to determine the use of meal patterns in menu planning August 2006 21 Could you please clarify the requirement for home delivered meals to provide milk if the client does not drink milk Is there a recommendation for record keeping purposes that the client refuses a portion of the meal and then not send the milk 0 There is not a requirement for milk Nutritional requirements are for individual nutrients not particular foods Since milk and milk products are considered best sources of calcium potassium phosphorous vitamin D and other nutrients they are usually placed on the menu daily for that reason A program may want to substitute orange juice fortified with calcium and vitamin D forti ed soy beverage or reduced lactose milk for individuals who are lactose intolerant c When calculating nutrient content however nutrients from all sources should be determined If clients don39t drink milk and refuse it when served it should not be served Other good sources of the needed nutrients should be included on the menu to replace those nutrients coming from milk One of the advantages of using a computer assisted nutrient analysis system is to identify the nutrients from all ofthe foods served 22 Is there any expectation that we collect and include in reporting the NSI risk scores for recipients of meals from the quototherquotnoncontractual funding sources 0 Nutrition screening information must be provided for all persons participating in the OAA nutrition program lfthe state submits counts for clients that are served by Title III C providers but whose funding is from another approved source other than OAA funds and match client information data is required forthem also 23 Do we have to use the NSI checklist for our State Program Report SPR c There is no requirement that you must use the NSI Form as long as you obtain information to respond to questions on the state s SPR for participants Some states include the same questions in their overall client assessment and others develop their own tool with questions that correspond to the NSI checklist 24 Can NSIP money be used to buy frozen meals that meet 13 RDA for home delivered meal recipients Yes NSIP funds can be used to purchase frozen meals NSIP funds can only be used under Section 31 1d1 for the purchase of United States agricultural commodities and other foods Since NSIP funds are often pooled with other funds and the NSIP share of total meals costs are usually minimal it is unlikely that a meal provider would not adhere to this provision 25 Can a 60 year old caregiver family volunteer paid or not receive a home delivered meal along with the 60 client receiving HD meals and have it counted as an NSIP HDM which means it would be paid for with Tlll CZ funds August 2006 6 No this 60 year old nonspousal caregiver that has not been determined to be homebound is not eligible to receive a Title IllC meal that would be counted for NSIP A meal for the caregiver in this instance may be paid with Title III E funds 26 Can a congregate meal provider provide an evening or weekend meal at a congregate site to an eligible meal participant who is identified as a high nutritional risk and can that meal be funded by Title III C1 funds If the meal is funded with local dollars is the meal eligible for NSIP N Section 331 ofthe OAA authorizes congregate meal provision 5 or more days per week so weekend meals are authorized Section 331 also authorizes more than one meal a day so an evening meal is also acceptable Howeverthese meals must be served in a congregate setting If an eligible meal recipient is determined to need an additional meal to address his nutritional risk and the meal meets all Title III C requirements it is an eligible meal and would be included in the State s count for NSIP purposes Local funding is a part of the match to the Title III dollar and is therefore an acceptable funding source When is a waiver of the 5day a week requirement needed A waiver from the SUA is necessam if a provider is serving a Lral area and is unable to provide meals 5 or more days a week The waiver must explain what factors are barriers to supplying meals daily such as lack oftransportation or personnel or nancial Part C Subpart1 Section 3311 A waiver is not needed when meals are served on different days within one program That is for instance ifa city is the provider with 3 sites as long as there are congregate meal services on any one ofthe sites for 5 or more daysweek then the 5dayweek requirement is met A provider may provide a total of5 meals in 2 3 deliveries The service provider however must justify to the AAA why there is a need to deliver meals on fewer days than 5 by describing what types of meals will be served how they will be delivered and whether adequate storage and preparation service is available to the older client Homedelivered meals may be delivered frozen for more than one day as long as there is adequate storage and preparation service is available to the older client and the client is capable of heating the meal appropriately 28 What about holidays May nutrition sites close for major holidays and still meet the 5day a week rule August 2006 Providers may choose to close on defined holidays This information should be included in their contract with the SUA AAA Most labor laws do allow for employees to have certain days offand since clients choose not to come on holidays providers may choose to close for those predetermined days The state agency can provide broad policy instructions that describe when it is acceptable to 30 close for a holiday and whether alternate arrangements should be made based on an assessment ofthe provider s request to close for those days and the needs ofthe clients For homedelivered meals some kind of alternate arrangement may be made for a holiday to avoid an interruption of service to the homebound How many cans of a liquid supplement can be counted as a meal Liquid Supplements served in addition to a meal are not considered separate meals no matter how many cans are provided A supplemental food given in an amount that equals 13rd DRI will not be considered a meal unless it is the only food provided and consumed as a meal A supplement adds on to a meal it does not serve as a meal No matter how much a meal provides adding supplements to that meal will only increase the nutritional value of that single meal A medical doctor39s order is required for those clients that are unable to consume otherthan liquid food The order must require that a Registered Dietitian preferably review the client39s intake ofthe supplement their toleration ofthe supplement and their need to continue consuming just liquid The goal is always to have clients eating a mixture of solids and liquids in a meal to maintain muscle mass and overall body functioning If an eligible client meets the criteria for a homedelivered meal is not quotat homequot can they still have the meal delivered No it is not a good practice to leave meals at a house unattended or with a neighbor where there is no assurance that sanitation standards can be met and maintained 31 Can the client39s meal be delivered to her child s workplace which is not the client39s quotplace of residencequot as described in NAPIS No homedelivered meals are to be delivered to a client s home because they are homebound This client does not appearto be homebound if she accompanies a daughter to work Other arrangements should be made for the parent August 2006 RESOLUTION GUIDE Sample Code UNDPll provided by director Committee UN Development Programme Subject International Cooperation for Development Preambular Clauses Emphasizing the importance of international cooperation in the delivery of development assistance to enhance all parties efforts Noting the important role that the 2000 Human Development Report has to report the effectiveness of cooperation in the eld of development assistance Recognizing the efforts of the UN Development Group UN Specialized Agencies and Funds to cooperate with all actors particularly with nongovemmental organizations in the development field THE UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME Operative Clauses l Strongly urges all nongovemmental organizations to continue their efforts to cooperate with the United Nations Specialized Agencies and Funds to promote the principles of sustainable development and the eradication of poverty 2 Reguests the United Nations Development Group to intensify its present efforts to cooperate with all relevant actors in the delivery and coordination of development assistance Preambular Clauses Affirming Alarmed by Approving Aware of Bearing in mind Believing Cognizant of Confident Convinced Declaring Deeply concerned Desiring Emphasizing Expecting Expressing gratitude Fulfilling Fully aware Further recalling Guided by Having considered Keeping in mind Noting Observing Reaffirming Realizing Recalling Recognizing Seeking We lc om ing Operative Clauses Accepts Affirms Appreciates Approves Authorizes Calls Condemns Confirms Congratulates Deplores Emphasizes Encourages Endorses Expresses its hope Further proclaims Further recomm ends Further reminds Notes Proclaims Reaffirms Recommends Regrets Reminds Requests Resolves Solemnly affirms Strongly urges Supports Takes note of Trusts
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