Lecture 13 & 14 Notes
Lecture 13 & 14 Notes 81463 - BIOL 3030 - 001
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abigail Towe on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 81463 - BIOL 3030 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Richard W. Blob in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Vertebrate Biology in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Amphibian Diversity Part 2 lecture 12 is part 1 Respiratory System 0 organs over the course of amphibian life include gills lungs and skin 0 operate to complete cutaneous respiration gas exchange through the moist highly vascular skin 0 organs shift from gills to lungs as the amphibian grows from larvae to adult As they go through metamorphosis the go through chances to prepare them for life on land hence gills to lungs 0 However some adults keep the gills These adults are paedomorphic keeping juvenile traits in adulthood 0 Some adults have no lungs These adults are plethodontids are the example They have a shift from gills to strictly cutaneous respiration 0 And all of these types of adults can use cutaneous respiration at any stage as larvae tadpole on land in water as adult 0 in amphibians that have lungs there are patterns that can be seen as lungs are used 0 pattern as demand for oxygen increases they switch to lungs as their primary mechanism I lungs would be required if they are at high temperatures and activity is high Lungs can keep up with high metabolic activity 0 lungs work by Ventilation Cycle I air is moved into the lungs through ventilation via a forcepump mechanism I they drop the floor of their mouth to expand buccal cavity so that they can suck air in through external nostril into this buccal cavity through the choana the internal nostril I the air stays in the buccal cavity because the glottis the connectiving slit to the lungs is held closed I the nostrils close floor of buccal cavity rises forcing fresh air into lungs through open glottis I the glottis then closes and the floor of the mouth oscillates back and forth flutters to clear any residual air that is left in the mouth so that the air doesn t get into the lungs I the glottis reopens the muscles of the body wall contract so that it the air is forced out of the lungs because the air is stale because the oxygen has been extracted from the air Circulatory System 0 along with the organ chances from gills to lungs the circulation system also chances to accommodate the metamorphosis in tadpoles there are 3 main sets of veins that deliver blood gt heart right atrium o fst anterior cardinal jugular blood from head gt heart 0 2nd vitelline blood from gut organs like liver gt heart 0 3rd posterior cardinal blood from rest of body like tail gt heart 0 the heart pumps blood through the external carotid arteries to head and then the aortic arches 36 send blood to gills and rest of the body I used to be 6 arches in aortic arches in gills but in tetrapods arches 1 and 2 are gone In adults there are 4 sets of veins that deliver blood to heart 0 3 of these veins that take blood to right atrium anterior cardinal jugular from head hepatic from gut organs from liver posterior vena cava from rest of body I o butt sends blood to left atrium I pulmonary vein returns blood to heart from lungs delivers rich oxygenated blood to heart 0 the aortic arches chances in adults I whereas in tadpoles they have arches 36 I adults now have lost arch 5 I arch 3 internal carotids I arch 6 pulmocutaneous arteries to lungs and skin to pick up oxygen Patterns of blood flow within the heart of an adult with LUNGS when blood first arrives in heart right atrium it s deoxygenated then it will go into the ventricle then pump blood into major blood vessel aorta this blood will then go to the lungs 0 it s channeled to go there because the spiral valve is a flap of tissue that directs blood to the right location lungs if it is deoxygenation it gets oxygenated in lungs then returns to the left atrium then it will go back into the same ventricle only has one ventricle the ventricle sends it through aorta where the spiral valve directions the blood the ventricle has both oxygenated and deoxygenated blood within but mostly separated within largely separated red blood blue blood NOT purple blood o the spiral valve also helps to keep the blood separated o summary right atrium to ventricle to aorta to lungs to left atrium to ventricle to aorta to body Patterns of blood flow within the heart of an adult with CUTANEOUS o the blood arrives into the right atrium and it s oxygenated o the left atrium doesn t receive blood from lungs because it doesn t use the lungs o the spiral valve of the aorta doesn t send any blood out to the lungs instead it allows all the blood to be distributed to the body o summary skin to right atrium to ventricle to aorta to body Amphibian s water intake and water loss o water uptake 0 they do NOT drink 0 rapid uptake through highly vascularized patch of pelvis skin pelvic patch I this patch allows use of very shallow water to uptake water 0 urinary bladder helps to reabsorb water back from the urine to prevent further dehydration I the bladder is large in terrestrial species to help recover water I bladders are typically 2030 of body volume I special example Australian frog Heleioporus eyrei has bladder size that is up to 79 of body size 0 preventing water loss 0 secrete lipid based compound that is waxy to reduce the permeability of their body to the outside environment They spread this lipid base over skin of body with legs 0 posture change I upright body posture to exposure themselves if it s wet outside o they use this time to call for mates I hunkered down posture saves them about 20 water loss that they would have if they were upright being hydrated helps evadeescape predators for desert amphibians frogs they may live underground for most of the year 9 or 10 months while there is no rain comes out for rainy seasons I aestivation prolonged torpor or dormancy of an animal during a hot or dry period Amphibian skin color 0 crypsis cryptic pattern 0 this pattern color or bumps that conceal animals to hide from predators or prey o aposematic patterns 0 many species have this pattern to show themselves off to warn predators that they are toxic I examples o newts are black on top but when threatened they spaz out and flip their tail up to show red showing the predator they are toxic o poison dart frog bright yellow blue and blue pattern on back of animal 0 mimicry o nontoxic but has some qualities of aposematic pattern to trick predators 0 doesn t have to use as much energy because they aren t making toxics they are only making skin patterns to trick predators Amphibian Reproduction and Development 0 3 different methods seen 0 internal caecilians males insert intromittent organ into female cloaca to deliver sperm 0 salamanders few external most internal but spermatophore I spermatophore sperm packet o the sperm packet often has a species specific shape for the cloaca of the female o males will bite and hold onto to females and insert spermatophore with feet o some cases females collect with cloacal lips to receive sperm into cloacal sacs spermatheca to store the sperm for months or years until environmental conditions are suitable enough for babies to succeed o frogs mostly use external fertilization via amplexus I male graps females with forelimbs and fertilizes eggs as she lays them I amplexus is maintained for hours 0 therefore males will grow huge forelimbs from hormonal release during breeding season to help hold onto the female but during the rest of the seasons the muscles are smaller because hormones aren t produced 0 courtship males convincing females to allow mating 0 male convincing female that he s the right one as he impresses her o salamanders males use pheromones abrade with teeth or use visual display 0 in frogs the displays related to courtship tend to be vocal display rather than visual I frogs have very developed larynx and throat so that it can be inflated to allow calls to attract females I examples Hyla versicolor and Hyla chrysoscelis 0 these frogs look identical but aren t because different chromosomes they have different calls I downside to calls o high energy cost 0 attracts predators too notjust mates I upside o males with longest calls develop faster o the call is advertising good genes to females so the benefits of securing lots of mates must outweigh the risk of being eaten by predators that s why the call persists 0 eggs and yolk the fertilized egg 0 eggs are often deposited in nest sometimes guarded by female but not always 0 sometimes eggs are deposited on back of females into the skin I in pipa pia the skin on back swells up to protect eggs they hatch through the skin and come out of the back as froglets they can then live independently o gastric brooding frogs o 2 species of Rheobatrachus discovered in Australia 1973 and 1984 0 mother swallows fertilized eggs several froglets born via mouth after 67 week 0 mother doesn39t eat or produce gastric juices during this period 0 both species now extinct 0 standard normal pattern of development 0 3 phases of metamorphosis 1 growth 2 emergency of hindlegs 3 emergence of frog legs and repression of tail 0 process is mediated by endocrine system I the pituitary gland secretes thyroid stimulating hormone TSH I thyroid gland secretes thyroxine stimulates metamorphosis 0 final metamorphosis stage must be rapid since legs and tail together impede jumping and swimming which would increase vulnerability to predators o tadpole diversity 0 different feeding habits of tadpoles show corresponding specialization of the mouthparts 0 some species have multiple tadpole morphs I example is the spadefoot toad can be herbivore and carnivore morphs o in dry years faster developing carnivore may eat herbivorous siblings ensuring that some frogs metamorphose and escape ponds o global amphibian extinctions and declines o amphibian extinctions and population decline have increased dramatically through the past 20 years 0 some causes have been identify local I habitat destruction I pesticide use interfering with reproduction 0 several potential global causes I global warming eliminates cooler habitats in some places I acid rain higher mortality and deformities in amphibian larvae I disease especially infections by chytrid fungi c not exactly clear why infection of chytrid fungi levels have accelerated recently 0 possibly due to stress from the other factors 0 one idea to help this is to keep amphibians in captivity until it s safer to be reintroduced into normal habitats Lecture 14 Review o reptiliomorpha o terrestriality deeper skull and longer legs o amniotes nonamphibian tetrapods o examples I cats synapsids I turtle sauropsids I humans 0 continued independence from aquatic habitat Amniote Svnapomorphies what makes amniotes so special 1 named after the use of amniotic egg during reproduction a amniotic egg named after one membrane the amnion membrane i there are a total of 4 extraembryonic membranes that the embryo is surrounded by 1 amnion forms fluidfilled sac that cushions embryo 2 yolk sac connects to gut tube to provide nutrients a the function does change a little bit of those held within the mother 3 allantois connects to end of gut tube to helps provide a distinct location of all waste so that it s not floating around within the egg 4 chorion outer membrane against shell and aids in gas exchange b surrounded by shell or retained internally i not all amniotics have a hard shell it can just be that it s kept inside mother ii the shell or being kept inside mother helps to protect the egg from drying out resistance to drying out c unlike amphibians reproduction is not tied to aquatic habitat i no longer a restriction on where to reproduce ii they can reproduce anyplace they can live anyplace d all of these new qualities of reproduction and construction of these eggs help to allow the egg to be born anywhere and allow for diversity Other distinctive aspects of amniote function 0 astragalus a new bone in ankle that provides articulation between hind leg and foot 0 in human anatomy it s called talus o amniotes attach pelvic to body axis with 2 or more bones these bones are sacral vertebrae o unlike amphibians that have a single bone to connect the pelvic to the axis 0 more bones increases stability for locomotion on land 0 these chances helped amniotes invade land to live on land move through it and be more successful Distinctive aspects of amniote function 0 costal breathing ribmediated o contraction of muscles between ribs intercostals expands the ribs and brings them forward to increase volume With this increase in volume air is forced inside lungs inspiration 0 amphibious forcepump used body muscles for exhalation but not inspiration 0 trachea tubular connection to lungs through long necks 0 functions to reinforce with cartilage rings to prevent collapse 0 allows air in Amniote thloqenv o Major branches clades are sauropsids vs synapsids o sauropsids reptiles I example turtles croc lizards snakes dinosaurs and birds 0 synapsids mammals and fossil ancestors 0 major groups of amniotes distinguished by holes in skull temporal fenestrae o synapsids has eye hole 1 fenestra temporal fenestrae that is surrounded by 3 bones I postorbital jugal and squamosal o sauropsids display one of two conditions I either no fenestrae anapsid state c this is a primitive condition not a synapomorphy I or 2 fenestrae diapsid state 0 the upper fenestra bound by 3 bones o parietal postorbital and squamosal o the lower fenestra bound by 3 bones o postorbital squamosal jugal and quadratojugal 0 these fenestra evolved independently 0 know that having fenestra are independent synapomorphy by the fact that they are surrounded by different bones don t need to know the bones I the two groups have independently evolved from each other Why is it advantageous to have temporal fenestrae hole in side of head 0 the hole helps with jaw motion allows for jaws to open and close easier and with more power because hole in skull roof allows bigger jaw closing muscles to spread onto skull roof 0 the jaw muscles originate from the inside of the jaw roofing bones to attach to lower jaw to allow movement the muscles expand out and over the the topside of the head to allow an increase in size and to prevent the bulge of muscle when it contracts to have plenty of room to contract 0 humans have temporal fenestral o we have one of the largest fenestrae 0 you can feel the muscles were the temporal fenestrae allows muscles to expand by placing hands above ears and clinching jaw as if chewing Other differences between sauropsids and synapsids 1 method of increasing locomotor stamina a basic problem that tetrapod inherit from ancestors bending lateral This limits staminaendurance because it interferes with breathing As an animal bends laterally only one of the lungs are able to inhale oxygen Therefore you can only really use one lung at a time So if you don t use both lungs it holds you back from having maximum stamina b To increase stamina sauropsids and synapsids change i sauropsids bipedality walk on 2 feet 1 by walking with 2 feet the trunk motion is removed so that both lungs can be sued 2 examples birds and dinosaurs 3 however crocs and monitor lizards use different methods 4 however many sauropsids still experience low stamina ii synapsids upright posture with flexing back up and down 1 examples kangaroos 2 excepts humans 3 allows both lungs to inflate at once 4 this upright posture creates bending dorsalventrally because they bend their back a when legs are bent under body the lungs have positive pressure so the air is gained b when legs are in front of body there is negative pressure so that air leaves lungs 5 new muscular feature evolved diaphragm a sheet of muscle that separates lung cavity from abdominal cavity with other organs b new functional capacity related to breathing i when the diaphragm muscle is relaxed the volume inside the lung cavity is small ii when it contracts it flattens out to increases volume and decreases pressure of lung chambers to aid in inhalation c using the diaphragm is completely independent of locomotor function so there is no conflict 2 lung structure a both sauropsids and synapsids increase in internal surface area they have more than amphibians b sauropsids faveolar lungs i single branches to common spaces with several small chambers that branch off in that space c synapsids alveolar lungs i repeated branching to tiny chambers alveoli 1 alveoli the location of gas exchange within lung d both types of lungs increase internal surface area but they increase differently independent evolution 3 skin structure integument a both have alpha keratin protein but differing skin structures ultimately affect social and reproductive behaviors b sauropsids i unique beta keratin proteins that form hard surfaces of scales and helps with feathers ii no glands no sweating no milk glands iii males make up most of parent care c synapsids i NO beta keratin proteins so no scales or feathers ii they have smooth skin where hair emerges due to alpha keratin iii also several types of glands to produce variety of secrets sweat and milk glands 1 sweat released when hot to cool off body 2 mammary glands females take care of young mostly a direct maternal care may explain why care by males are rarer in synapsids than in sauropsids 4 excretory system a function of excretory system remove nitrogenous waste products and locations of water conservation b sauropsids i waste excreted as uric acid thicker form like bird poo ii conserve water the blood travels to kidneys through glomerular to go through bowman s capsule and tubules then finally the bladder where the waste precipitates out the water is largely resorbed in the bladder back into the body iii salt excreting glands remove excess salt from body 1 mostly found in seabirds sea turtles sea snakes 2 glands found in face and tongue iv also penis is not urinary strictly on intromittent organ meaning only used to introduce sperm to female c synapsids i waste excreted as urea liquid urine conserve water water is extracted in loop of henle inside of nephrons within kidney 1 instead of tubules there is a LONG loop of henle for the waste to flow through 2 the loop of henle becomes more or less permeable to water depending on how hydrated the body is 3 the control of the loop of henle is important because the loop of henle is the last resort of extracting water before waste leaves the body no water absorption in bladder 5 sensory perception and brain structure a retina cell types rods and cones b sauropsids color vision is highly developed 1 depends on rods and cones a rods broad sensitivity b cones sensitive to particular light wavelengths responsible for color perception 2 strong vision but weaker smell 3 vision controlled by region called optic tectum large in brain c synapsids strong sense of smell but lack of vision primates are the exception poor vision some 2 cone types primates have 3 1 possible passed through nocturnal phase in evolution small optic lobe therefore the visual processing performed mostly in cerebrum
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