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Geotechnical Engineering I

by: Dr. Haleigh Schumm

Geotechnical Engineering I CEG 4011

Dr. Haleigh Schumm
GPA 3.6

Luis Prieto-Portar

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Luis Prieto-Portar
Class Notes
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This 32 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Haleigh Schumm on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CEG 4011 at Florida International University taught by Luis Prieto-Portar in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see /class/221745/ceg-4011-florida-international-university in Civil Engineering at Florida International University.


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Date Created: 10/12/15
CEG4011 Geoteehnieal Engineering Lecture 08 The Formation of Soils L Prieto Portar 2008 The products of weathered rocks may stay in the same place in which case they are called residual soils or may be moved to other locations by rivers ice wind and gravity in which case they are called transported soils Residual Soils Residual soils are those that have weathered at their original rock and remained at their origin If the soil retains the characteristics of the structure of the parent rock it is called a sapprolite from the Greek 06175004 putrid soil This soil profile in Hong Kong shows the parent granite at the bottom and increasing degrees of weathered soil towards the top of the photo The top layer is the sapprolite The humid subtropical climate of Hawaii decays the parent Andesite igneous rock into a Saprolite This 15 feet thick Saprolites retain much of the parent rock s texture Areas with the heaviest rainfall may produce strata over 300 feet thick Fares liner Sandy my loam Ahorizon v Reddishbrown to yellawish sandy ampact B horizon day grading into Romd granite su 39 r retaining original granitic Chm an 55 minerah and texture 1 72 gradmg mm on 1 T ax J I r 35 quot r 4 ma n LIN m N unalmed make I V m v 391 A quot0 mm Mama w z 1 u t U v 1 1 3 5 by Vegetation Zone of leaching Zone of accumulation Partially decomposed parent material Unaltered bedrock Limestone A horizon Scale varies in this perspective PAINTED EV PIERRE M ION COMPILED BV DONALD CARRICK NGS CARYOGRAPHIC DIVISION The soils of the Continental United States P Mion NGS Cartographic Division National Geographic Sept 1984 l i SOIL GROUPS ALFlSOLS middleaged relatively fertile medium brown soils ARlDlSOLSmiddle aged desert soils low in organic matter ENTISOLSvery young undeveloped soils pale yellow to reddish brown HIST OSOLS very young organic peats and mucks dark brown to black lNCEPTlSOLS young few or faint horizons gray to red MOLLISOLSmiddle aged to young very fertile dark brown SPODOSOLS young nutrientpoor soils mostly sandy pale ash color ULTISOLS very old nutrientpoor distinct horizons yellow to red VERTISOLSmiddleaged clayey soils crack when dry dull colors MISCELLANEOUS bare rock salt flats and iCe fields 6 feet A ARIDISOL Soil pro les of the four C AiF39ISOL M MD ULTISQL most common soil types in the United States T ransgorted Soils Transported soils are classified according to the mode of transport and deposition into one of these groups 1 Glacial soils are the products of erosion and deposit by glaciers 2 Alluvial soils are transported and deposited by steams and rivers 3 Lacustrine soils are the deposits in lakes 4 Marine soils are the various deposits from wave action or currents in oceans and seas 5 Aeolian soils are deposits from wind transportation 6 Colluvial soils are rapidly deposited soils via gravity in the form of mudslides or landslides Glacial Soils The general ternl drift is applied to all deposits that are laid down directly by glaciers Drift is called till when unstratified composed of boulders weighing several tonnes to gravels sands silts clays and colloidal particles all mixed up The deposits of till produce topographical features called moraines and drumlins A terminal or end moraine is a ridge of till that marks the liJnit of the glacier s advance Whereas a great anlount of till spread out across a valley floor to form a gentle rolling plain is called a ground moraine Drumlins are smooth elongated hills composed of till pointing in t e direction from which the glacier advanced They are typically 8 to 60 m in height and up to 1 km in length The show up in aerial maps as dranlin fields f A L A 9 39i35 A ix fifg z f 5 a I 2 A Ek39aamrr ICE SHEETS INTHE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE Glacial maximum 1 1 shun Today there are only two large ice sheets there were extensive ice sheats sevr Yearruund sea ICE which LS Ihmted today on land in Greenland and in Antarctlm eral kilometres thick covermg much of to the polar regions exiended 85 Far south In the last million years during glacial northern North America northern Europe as Brillsh waters and lhe eastern seaboard mamma for example IBJJOO years ago Scandinavia Finland and northem Siberia of North America SEATTLE The extent of the last glaciation shows the drop in oceans and the ex tended shorelines There have been about 23 iceages during the past 26 million years With an average interval of about 100000 years lnlerglacial period retreat of glaciers a l r Cu uc o c w Mqu mummy an Hummcky mamw mm mm u 24 mm Lnutelbrmmen Valleyiu Switzerlaml caned by a glacier hung the last glacial pel iOd Glacier striatio s caused by rock fragments at the base of a moving glacier in eastern Greenland A drumlin near Elbridge New York The sharpened end at its left is oriented towards the North from which direction the glacier advanced Alluvial Soils Rivers carry deposits in direct proportion to their velocities High velocities common to mountain streams permit the transport of huge boulders whereas the same river reaching the ocean has such low velocities that it mostly carries silts and clays Streams will occasionally atten their course in mountainous areas This attening will decrease the ow velocity and hence force the river to unload the largest soils These ats are called terraces and are excellent sources of gravels and cobbles for engineering contractors As the river emerges from the mountains and enters a plain the velocity is greatly reduced and the consequent pile up of soil called an alluvial fun A line of alluvial fans may occur along the sides and base of a mountain chain which is clearly visible from a satellite This chain of alluvial fans is called piedmont French pied foot mont mountain In the plain the river meanders back and forth from an imaginary line towards the ocean The meanders occurs due to the differential between the ow velocity at the river s center and the turbulent velocities at the bottom and sides Higher velocities are attained on the outside of the turns which further erodes the river banks Eventually the meander is so curved that a large ow for example from a spring thaw will cause the river to cut through the curves in order to straighten the course The large bends now become lakes oxbow lakes cut off from further ows The lakes slowly fill up with deposits to become backswamps These swamps dry up an leave little trace of their soft soils Unwary engineers may attempt to place structures on these weak soils and experience high settlements and possibly structural damage FVIpolmnmlrallon The hydrological cycle Section Velocity variations in two planes in a stream The Aude River in SW France cum limestone gorge Zones ofmaximum turbulence in a stream 10000 gum quot Mpg313A 1000 DD V 3545 1 EU 5 d f y Uncon roliiated T 1D D39Jepn rti n A 01 06 1 4m I I r I 1 14 I 1 mm 001 006 U5 M ED Grain 5139 mm bl A Fla 2 t l A A Gravel emcl bm ders Clay and silt Fine sand Sand An alluvium fan at the Aachen See in the Austrian Alps Piedmont along Rockies at Salt Lake City Utah Main Scream Lake Tributary meats main sueam v Resistant rock Main Stream Ocean ultiman baselava l The ocean is the ultimate base level for a stream all others such as lakes dams etc are intermediate ca 1 Lr i lamalliitumn um n fin Ila1 Divide Valley wan River channel Fiend plain Narrow divide Rio Negro black meets the Amazon River blue showing different sediments The Mississippi delta Note heavy concentration of silts and clays close to the river s mouth THE CREATION OF COASTALTERRACES d UpHrcd Wilma s a Coml 9 when sea Invd gt5 v Lacustrine Soils Lake lacustrine deposition takes place as the river enters the large body of quiet water which forces a drop of the river s ow velocity to practically zero Shortly before arriving to the riverlake interface the velocity drop is sufficient to drop gravels in the river bed Engineering contractors exploit this characteristic to mine rivers After gravels coarse sands are deposited at the interface The liner deposits into the lake typically have shallow slopes of about 30 with medium and fine sands descending along the slope In the depths of the lake are found the silts and clays colloids will occulate when there is little turbulence As lake fill up they turn into a marsh or bag In cold climates they choke with undecayed vegetable matter that will ultimately produce peat Eventually the surface dries out and the lake disappears N 1C LO CCtIl0tion In liffle furkzulance M C C colloidoL ClOyS Topset Fc met Water surface Battamset W


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