Introduction to Visual Arts: Chapter 9 Part 1
Introduction to Visual Arts: Chapter 9 Part 1 115-01
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Suzannah Hudson on Monday March 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 115-01 at Brigham Young University - Idaho taught by Geddes, Matthew J in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Intro to Visual Arts in Art at Brigham Young University - Idaho.
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Date Created: 03/21/16
Chapter 9 Notes In the world of art, the computer and camera were born yesterday Images created by a camera or created on a computer belong entirely to our own modern era Cameras rely on the light reflected from an object and, under controlled circumstances, project an image of that object onto a surface Photography: The earliest record of the principle behind photography is from a Chinese th philosopher named Mo Ti, who lived during the 5 century B.C.E Alhazen discovered that: light travels in straight lines and that light reflects objects passing through the narrow opening of the iris, projecting an image of the outside world onto a surface in the dark interior. It wasn’t until the Renaissance when a practical device was developed; called the Camera Obscura, Latin for “dark room.” It was Leonardo Da Vinci who first suggested the arrangement of a portable camera obscura A camera is a little tight box with an opening at one end to admit light, a lens to focus and refract the light, and a light-sensitive surface to receive the light-image and hold it The camera obscura could not hold the image Joseph Nicephore Niepce, a french inventor, he managed to record a fuzzy version of the view from his window after an exposure of eight hours. His photo was considered the first permanent photograph. Heliograph: sun-writing, a signaling device by which sunlight is reflected in flashes from a movable mirror Daguerreotype: Jacques Mande Daguerre was the one who created this name, recording an image in his studio that was clear and sharp. A copper plate coated with silver iodine was Daguerre’s light-sensitive surface that captured the image. The plate had to be exposed to sunlight for only 10-20 minutes. England was the next to improve upon the final image. Vienna created an improved lens that gathered 16x more light Before the camera, people would have to sit and have their portraits painted The daguerreotype was a blind alley to photography, creating a positive image, where the lights and darks were correct. The future of photography was in negative images By the 1880’s the camera had advanced, allowing people to take a picture quicker In 1888 George Eastman created a camera called Kodak that changed photography forever Kodak was lightweight and handheld which meant it could be taken anywhere. SLOGAN: “You press the button; we do the rest.” Camera came with loaded film Users would take the photos and send the camera back to the company to have the photos developed and printed, then returned to the users with their camera, photos, and reloaded film Photo journalism: around 1900, the first process for photomechanical reproduction (newspapers) came into being. Quickly became concerned about more than just getting a photograph to illustrate and article. Often create a significant body of work around an event, a place, or a culture. Dorothea Lange: FSA of the U.S. Department of Agriculture subsidized photographers to record conditions across the nation during the Great Depression and World War ll. She was one of them In one summer, she traveled 17,ooo miles She devoted her attention to the migrants who had been uprooted from their farms by the combined effects of Depression and drought Best known image is the Migrant Mother Alfred Stieglitz: An American pictorialist and photographer He was dissatisfied with pictorialism Concluded that; for photography to be an art, it must be true to its own nature; it should not try to be painting The Steerage His photography became known as “pure” or” straight” photography Ansel Adams: Spent his life photographing landscapes of the American West, especially the national parks Autumn Tree against Cathedral Rocks, Yosemite Believed that a good photographer had to be able to visualize the finished composition in advance Adams emphasized that photography was a product of science, and that only by understanding the science of it could photographers produce art Practiced photography as an art Man Ray: Trained as a painter, initially learned photography to document his paintings When he turned his attention to the art of photography a year or two later; he threw his camera away Instead of using a camera, he returned to the dark room to experiment with the light-sensitive paper that photographs are printed on He invented a technique called rayograph Color in photography was not used until around the 1930’s, only used in advertising. Robert Mapplethorpe: Was known for elegant photographs of flowers, portraits of well-known people, and highly stylized male and female nudes Had an X portfolio of homo-erotic photos and sadomasochistic sexual practices Celluloid: a transparent flammable plastic made in sheets from camphor and nitrocellulose, formerly used for cinematographic film. Editorial Photographs: the pictures in a magazine that aren't ads. The photographs that go along with the articles – even the cover of the magazine. Gallery 291: an internationally famous art gallery that was located at 291 Fifth Avenue in New York City from 1905 to 1917. Carte de Visite: a small photographic portrait of someone, mounted on a piece of card. Eadweard Muybridge: Hired by governor of California to get proof that a horse has all 4 feet off the ground at some point while galloping Set up 24 cameras, each connected to a black thread stretched across the racecourse History Section (Baroque): 1600’s Emotional/Ornate (Versailles) Rembrandt, Reubens, El Greco Bernini: his own David sculpture, Borghese Museum Reuben’s triptych: Crucification of Christ, Antwerp Belgium El Greco: (Dominikos Theotokopolis), Christ on the Cross Rembrandt: oil paintings Versailles (ordered to be built by Louis XIV): Hall of Mirrors Rococo: 1700’s Aristocracy in Decline Ornate/Theatrical (Secular) Fraggonard, Watteau Best word to describe ROCOCO: cute Boucher: Allegory of Music Colors are soft and pastel, mythological, marbles Watteau: The Love Song, L’indifferent Fraggonard: The Swing Neoclassicism (revival of classical thought), Romanticism (anti- classicism. A deeply felt style which is individualistic, beautiful, exotic, and emotionally wrought), Realism (drama) Neoclassicism: Ingres (the apotheosis of homer), Jacques Louis David (the death of Socrates) Romanticism: Delacroix (the death of Sardanapalus), Gericault (the raft of the medusa) Realism: Daumier (the third class carriage), Millet (the gleaners), Homer (snap the whip)