Introduction to Visual Arts: Chapter 11
Introduction to Visual Arts: Chapter 11 115-01
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Suzannah Hudson on Monday March 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 115-01 at Brigham Young University - Idaho taught by Geddes, Matthew J in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Intro to Visual Arts in Art at Brigham Young University - Idaho.
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Date Created: 03/21/16
Chapter 11 Sculpture: Sculpture confronts us with the third dimension, with the concept of depth In the round: a freestanding work that can be viewed from any angle, for it is finished on all sides, such as Maman the spider Relief: a sculpture in which forms project from but remain attached to a background surface. Bas-Relief: a technique in which the figures project only slightly from the background (coin) High-Relief: a technique in which the figures project more boldly from their background In the round, bas-relief, and high-relief are traditional categories for classifying sculpture The Four Basic Methods of making a sculpture: Modeling, Casting, Carving, and assembling Armature: a framework around which the sculpture is built. This framework provides structure and stability, especially when a plastic material such as wax, newspaper or clay is being used as the medium. Frontal Pose: Where the sculpture seems to only be able to move forward and backward, up and down, and not being able to turn in any other direction Close Figure: There is no negative space, the arms and legs are kept against the body. Stif Open Figure: Allowed the sculpture to be more alive, having the arms stretched out, the legs bent into diferent directions, free form. Environmental: Some sculptures create an environment, ones that you can enter and interact with. Or a work of art made for a specific place using natural materialsthound there, especially the earth itself. Conceptual: 20 Century idea, the art work is the idea of the art, the concept. The artwork doesn’t have to be permanent. Such as Christo and Jeanne-Claude. Kinetic: Sculpture itself deals with movement, where we don’t have to move around, but he sculpture does. Mobiles Light: Using light to create sculptures. Such as lasers, electric tubes, and LED lights. Example: fireworks. Fuzzing the Lines: things we may see and don’t realize that they are sculptures. Such as the Eifel Tower, Lady Liberty, Opera House in Sydney. Modeling: Considered to be an additive process, in which the medium can be added and subtracted. Sculptor starts with a simple framework or core or nothing at all and adds material. As children, we did modeling with play-doh or clay Most common material is clay Clay is easy to mold and form when moist, but once it starts to harden and dry, (Terra Cotta: Terra (Earth), Cotta (cooked), when the sculpture is put in kiln and fired) it becomes hard. It’s the easiest because it is easy to add to it, subtract to it, and change it. It is a plastic medium, which deals with moisture. Plasteline: Clay + Oil/Wax Assembling: Considered to be an additive process, in which the medium can be added and subtracted A process by which individual pieces or segments or objects are brought together to form a sculpture Two types of work: parts of the sculpture are simply placed on or near each other and/or constructing, in which parts are actually joined together through welding, nailing, etc. Carving: Considered to be a subtractive process in which one starts with a mas of material larger than the planned sculpture and subtracts or takes away material until only the desired form remains. More aggressive than modeling, more direct than casting Sculptor begins with a block of material and cuts, chips, and gouges away until the form of the sculpture emerges. Most common material is wood and stone, a rigid medium Maquettes: a sculptor's small preliminary model or sketch. Casting: Involves a mold of some kind, into which liquid or semiliquid material is poured and allowed to harden. Most common material is metal, specifically bronze Through casting, the sculptor can achieve smooth, rounded shapes and a glowing, reflective surface Most common method for casting metal is called Lost-Wax process. Casting is known as the replacement method Just as with prints, each casting is considered an original work of art, and a limited edition may be declared and controlled Any material that can be poured and then hardened can be used for casting glass/clay/plastic resins/metals, Mold Making Cire Perdue: another term for lost wax The Human Figure in Sculpture: A basic subject for sculpture Reason for most sculptures being of humans: lives are short, and the desire to leave some trace of ourselves for future generations is great. Second reason: “presence,” to portray a being in sculpture is to bring it into the world, to give it a presence that is close to life itself Sculptors are often called on to memorialize the heroes and heroines of a community, people whose accomplishments or sacrifices are felt to be worthy of remembrance by future generations Among the human images that artists are most often asked to make present in the world through sculpture are those connected with religion and the spirit realm The human figure is also the most common subject of traditional African sculptures, but in fact the sculptures rarely represent humans, and instead, usually represent spirits Western culture is marked as well by a tradition of sculpting the human figure for its own sake and of finding the body to be a worthy subject for art, which we owe ultimately to the ancient Greeks Contrapposto: meaning “counterpoise” or “counterbalance” sets the body in a gentle S-shaped curve through a play of opposites. Such as Michelangelo’s The Dying Slave. Implies the potential for motion inherent in a living being. Since the Renaissance, the body has continued to serve as a subject through which sculptors express feelings and ideas about the human experience Primitivism: Many young artists, such as Andre Derain, Matisse, and Picasso became interested in African art, such as sculptures, masks, utensils, weapons, ornaments, and such. Primitive: refers to something that is less complex, less sophisticated, or less advanced than what it is being compared with – an earlier stage of it. Artists admired all thing primitive, and hoping to renew art by taking it back to its infancy, artists looked to the “primitive” arts of Africa and Oceania, which they believed to be instinctive, unchanging, and primordial Working with Time and Place: People, too, have worked to sculpt the landscape. We have shaped places for religious purposes or for aesthetic contemplation and enjoyment Christo: Husband and wife time, wife’s name is Jeanne-Claude Most recent work is The Gates, a project for New York City’s Central Park. They are careful to emphasize that their art is not just the end result, but the entire process from planning through removal, including the way it energizes people and creates relationships Their body of works consists of “projects” most of which have been colossal Often they wrap things – large things – such as The Gates, Australian coast, clifs and all, with erosion-control fabric; they have wrapped a bridge in Paris with silky champagne-colored fabric Christ Javachef was born in 1935 in Bulgaria Studied at a fine arts school, traveled over Europe, and started to “wrap” things in Paris, where he met his wife Henry Moore: English Sculptor, 1898-1986 Most popular sculptor of the post-war period Often used abstract form to draw analogies between the human body and the landscape Used direct carving, something he derived not only from European modernism, but also from non-Western art. He abandoned the process of modeling (often in clay or plaster) and casting (often in bronze) that had been the basis of his art education, and instead worked on materials directly. He was influenced by Surrealism. Post Impressionism The influence of Impressionism taken in many diferent directions Artists: Vincent Van Gogh, Cezanne, Gauguin, Toulouse-Lautrec Vincent Van Gogh: Hospital Room in Arles & Self Portrait, Wheatfield, The Starry Night. Large brush strokes, texture. Cezanne: Mount Sainte Victoire. Blocks of paint, structural Gauguin: Maternity. Switches colors, and using them wherever he wants them to be. Sand is blue, sky is yellow, clouds are pink. Toulouse-Lautrec: Posters. Flat, 2-D, lots of organic shapes and lines. Fauvism: “Wild Beasts,” arbitrary color. This name came from what people called these artists. The artists did not call themselves this. Artists: Matisse, Roualt. Matisse: Portrait of Lydia Delectorskaya, The Red Room. Colors are extreme, bright, and arbitrary. Going for abstract. Roualt: The Old King. Used to be a window artist. Thick black lines, bright colors. Cubism: The breaking down of subject into diferent facets…. shown simultaneously. A rejection of linear perspective. Artists: Pablo Picasso, Juan Gris. We can see all diferent planes and sides all at once. Lots of geometric shapes. Dada: Nihilistic movement / deliberate irrationality, anarchy, and cynicism. Brought forth from WWll. It was irrational, made no sense, made fun of everything. Artist: Marcel Duchamp. th The Armory Show: 69 Regiment Armory, New York 1913. Marcel Duchamp’s Nude Descending A Staircase, Kandinsky’s Composition #2 (completely abstract, no subject matter). Surrealism: Fantastic dreamlike paintings. Salvadore Dali Persistence of Memory, Lobster Telephone. Abstract Expressionism: “first American artistic movement of worldwide movement.” Artists: Jackson Pollock Convergence (splattered paint), Mark Rothko.
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