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Honors Seminar IV

by: Enid Heaney Sr.

Honors Seminar IV IDH 2004

Enid Heaney Sr.
GPA 3.86


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Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Enid Heaney Sr. on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to IDH 2004 at Florida International University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/221762/idh-2004-florida-international-university in Interdisciplinary Honors at Florida International University.


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Date Created: 10/12/15
IDH 2004 Inhabiting Other Lives Notes on Female Genital Mutilation February 22 2006 Female Gentital Mutilation FGM or Female Genital Cutting FGC 7 are terms used to cover a wide variety of practices that involve cutting the genitalia of womenyoung girls Formerly known as female circumcision the former terms were used to distinguish the practice from male circumcision which is generally considered a much milder practice One of the most severe versions of FGM 7 clitoridectomy cutting of the clitoris and inflbulation cutting off the inner labia and stitching of the outer labia leaving a small hole is widely performed in Somalia This is what Aman experienced and described in graphic detail When is FGC carried out The age at which FGM is carried out varies FGM may occur during infancy childhood marriage or during first pregnancy FGM is typically performed on young girls who are between 4 and 12 years old Aman was circumcised at the age of 9 Where is FGC practiced FGC is practiced predominantly in 28 countries in Africa It is also practiced in some Middle Eastern countriesEgypt the Republic of Yemen Oman Saudi Arabia and Israel and among some Muslim groups in Indonesia Malaysia Pakistan and India Some immigrants practice various forms of FGC in other parts of the world including Australia Canada New Zealand the United States and in European nations How many women and girls in the world have been affected by FGC In the United States It is estimated that 130 million girls and women have undergone FGC In countries like Somalia Mali Guinea and Egypt the proportion of affected women is nearly 90 An estimated 168000 women and girls in the United States had either undergone FGC or were at risk for FGC in 1990 From 2005 UNICEF report 3 Million girls undergo FGM each year Are there any negative effectsconsequences Bleeding leading to shock isometimes leading to death Aminata s friend died within a week Infection difficult labor urine retention infertility sexual difficulty Why is FGC practiced Generally FGC is considered to be an important rite of passage into womanhood It is closely linked to a woman sgirl s sense of belonging as well as her purity Uncircumcised women are considered unclean Other rationale for FGC include beliefs that FGC enhances male sexuality curbs female sexual desire has aesthetic bene ts and prevents promiscuity and preserves virginity and that the clitoris is an unhealthy unattractive andor lethal organ In many societies that practice FGM it is thought that a womangirl cannot maintain sexual purity unless she is circumcised Clitoridectomy and inf1bulation reduce a woman s desire for sex thus ensuring her purity Is FGM required by Islam While many practitionerssupporters believe it to be the case Islam does not require female circumcision In fact FGM predates Islam and is not practiced by the majority of Muslims and actually cuts across religious and cultural lines FGM is practiced by Coptic Christians members of various indigenous groups Protestants and Catholics etc Religion however is often cited as one of the reasons for which practitioners support FGM Source httpwww4womangovfagfgchtm 4Woman gov The National Women s Health Information Center


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