Physical Climatology MET 3102
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Eladio Hettinger on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MET 3102 at Florida International University taught by Hugh Willoughby in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see /class/221787/met-3102-florida-international-university in Meteorology at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
422009 Sunspots amp Faculae I In addition to the gradual brighteningofthe sun I Sunspots are dark ie cool spots on the surface ofthe I Associated with bright ie hot spots called quotFaculaequot I Vanwith an 11year cycle I Actually 22 yrs for a complete cy magnetic field alternates between max39ma I Causes small fluctuations in solar irradiance Sunspot Numbers to 1600 400 Years of Sunspot Observations r600 Modem Maxim um a Dalton Mvrimum Maunder Minimum l 1550 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 Wolf Number of Sunspots 10 X Number of Groups g5 maamnce Chan quot10 Solar Irradiance 19792005 422009 1955 1950 1995 2000 2005 mm nlSDHenjd n1z Wm7 Reconstructed Historical Irradiance Sunsputs reduce 5a E E a 5 3 Based upon hlsmncal recamsandma e 2gt39 satellite measurements I estimat s15a 3 T Maxrturmin variation in 5a quot3 is 05m 1 erZ even a duringlarge mudern W W s Works outta lt 01 mmmn r mm mm mm new m mum nemm WW An1mm mu rm mvaan m w n M n H 1mm mm Ma mam hummg 2 u an Me n n lbn Murmzlwnwux u a u um Wmva mm W n s m M m x 5 me x u 422009 Aerosol Optics Mnsl particles are biggeuhan he wavele gth nrvisible light 0407 my snlhauhey scatter Initially snme particles are alsn vadialinn 10 pm with time the larger particles fall nLIl Thuswhile he aemsnlm initially cause warming by quota in IR u ultimately leadsm surface mnling by scattering and ahsnvhing visible light at 25 km altitude in he suamsphere Oclqbcr 1978 Jun 1992 Opum Dspm mum a one mums me is in 3 tL1teLLLLg t law 1981 1931 was 1937 1959 ml m h v m L b Uu Effect of Eruptions on Polar Optical Depth 422009 Spikes Are Caused by Polar Stratospheric Clouds PSB Iceforms In very cold polar stratosphere In winter Mostly H20 but often comam mm amp sulfuric acid Krakalaur lndx inesla mm E L IUSG V aw amp mm Ice Ages amp Milankovitch Forcing Agassznypotnesnerl Global Ice Ages in 1340 based u on sedimentshrought confirmation of a sort 422009 Relative Seasonal Distribution of Insolation for D 235 90N EON Latitude m 0 905 inn Feb Mar pr May Jun Jul AuSep 0 Nov Dec obliquity Tilt of Earth s Axis Ca uses the Seasons Presently 2350 23560 H 21 kyl Stays lnearlyl fixed with 1 5quot pect tot e stars during 4 kyr e ear 7 Tilts toward the Sun in ummer 7 And away in winter Changes slowly e Oscillates from 229 to 2591 e Wl39 r period Orientation also rotates with 21 kyr period lPInzssionl Precession moves the perihelion and aphelion later in the year 21mm yr Denna 422009 The orbital Eccentricity oscillates from nearly circularlo elongated Cool summers when ice and snow don39t melt and mild but below freezing polar winters when lots of snow falls favor expansion of the ice Which translates to small obliquity middle of range now 9Perihelion in boreal summer like now 9Large eccentricity small now aomi Norman Nemavmse Aulrl Sm hem Nemsvhele Eccentricity of the Earth s Orbit Eccenlncuy c o m 0 800 gt706 7500 500 400 Thousands 01 years since V950 422009 Precession and obliquity of the Earth s Orbit Precession o 0 02 25 50 m rm 5 2 0 Thousands ov years slnce1950 mmm wquot from uquot Vosmk in com M y r m mm m m won mmnmmm1m w l l W I W v2 mm mm mm mm mm mm 2mm Home VOW39vmmlymm mu Present 02 3as Tmlpnmlvm shown 3901 The Notorious HockeyStick Diagram incurneural rmiuumwnsimulona lrelrumcmcl round slnwlallom M Mann er al 1559 wlm unaenanucs Jaime n aurald 18551990 Crawler and Lowery 7 in II will 3561980 Mann norm gnaw ileumlam bollhullli Minn mlzcm comm bnmhull uwnslnlclion 7 Mann am Jana mm moanalnilas M 7 lama m almanac 155mm oz 39yer Nx L or 7 oc or 2r an am am mm lam moo Iwn 1am 21 422009 Summary Sunspots amp Faculae 1122 year cycle Small effect I n r 15 cold year arge aerosol increases albedo cooling Small aerosol traps om warmin Milan o Climate depends upon orbit the axis n of solstice relative to perihelion and aphelion Eccentrlcltv ofthe orbit Cool summers and warm winters eccentric orbit perihelion in boreal summer and small obliquity lavor expan n o ice Insulation lsmost variable in summer in h h Iatltudes Past ice ages advanced slowly and retreated quickly 2 llulll ule meuieval optimum to the start of the industrial revolution For Next Time Read Chapter 12