General Meteorology MET 3003
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emely Wiza on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MET 3003 at Florida International University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/221789/met-3003-florida-international-university in Meteorology at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
MET3003 Lecture 1 Meteorolgy amp the Atmosphere lOJANOS Objectives 1 Class logistics 2 Introduce professionscience of Meteorology 3 Discuss origin amp Composition of Earth s Atmosphere 4 Introduce daytoday weather Reading Ahrens Chapter 1 Introduce HEW amp Class Pass out Syllabus Topic Schedule tDiscuss Students Name Major Goal Text Essentials ofMeteorology 4th Edition by C Donald Ahrens BrooksCole Meteorology meteoros lofty logos discourse Aristotle 350 BCE Usually considered the science of daytoday weather Climate The science of average weather but the average doesn t stay steady Ie Ice ages el Ni o etc Divided into applied and physical Physical meteorology EM radiation structure amp composition clouds amp precip atmospheric electricity but not weather Aeronomy Upper atmosphere with emphasis on composition and interaction with solar radiation Synoptic Meteorology Daytoday weather and forecasting Dynamic Meteorology Equations that describe atmospheric motions What kind of people are meteorologists 0 Weather weenies Applied mathematicians and computer nerds Journeymen usedtobe Sleepwalkers More minorities and women nowadays Who hires meteorologists 0 National Weather Service NWSNOAA o Academia 0 Military 0 Broadcasting competitive National Centers for Environmental Prediction 0 Industry amp Consulting Of ce of Meteorology 0 Of ce of Hydrology FIU Program Since MODERNIZATION not a growth industry Interdisciplinary Still if you re called to be a forecaster GO FOR IT o Synergy with NWS and NHC MET3003 Lecture 1 Meteorolgy amp the Atmosphere lOJANOS o Emphasis on applications to engineering social science computer science environment policy COMPOSITION IF THE ATMOSPHERE Table 11 Composition of the earth s atmosphere below 100 km Molecular Content Constituent weight fraction of total molecules Nitrogen N2 28016 07808 7551quoto by mass Oxygen 02 3200 02095 2314 by mass Argon A 3994 00093 128 by mass Water vapor H20 1802 0 004 Carbon dioxide C02 4401 325 parts per million Neon Ne 2018 18 parts per million Helium He 400 5 parts per million Krypton Kr 837 1 parts per million Hydrogen H 202 05 parts per million Ozone 03 4800 0 12 parts per million HISTORY of the ATMOSPHERE 0 Original atmosphere composition 45 Byr ago was probably like the sun or the atmospheres if the gas giant planetsiMostly Hz and He 0 Present atmosphere is de cient in He Ne Ar Xe amp Kr 0 First atmosphere lost when the Moon was formed as a result of impact by a Mars sized object 0 Second atmosphere formed by outgassing from the solid Earth largely through volcanoes o Vented gasses are 85 H20 10 C02 some HZS and S02 N2 S02 HZS etc in volcanic emissions and air pollution oxidize quickly and form sulfate compounds in the solid Earth Argon and Helium in the modern atmosphere are the result of radioactive decay in the crustie of Potassioum40 for Argon40 Carbon dioxide is increasing as a result of burning fossil fuels Ahrens Fig 13 04 ppm annually reaching 3759500 ppm in 2200 Preindustrial 280 ppm MET3003 Lecture 1 Meteorolgy amp the Atmosphere 10JAN05 Manna Lou Hamii coz Concentmtion ppmv I I 1950 1970 1990 2010 Year Some Dave Keeling and Tim Whorf Swim lmtitution of Oceanography About half the C02 released by human activities stays in the atmosphere Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere Ahrens Fig 17 HEIGHT km PRESSURE ma TEMPERATURE K Fig Ln Vertical xeiupcmuie pro le for the us Standard Atmosphere Troposphere Lowest 10 midlat to 16 km tropics Where the weather happens Tropopause is top boundary above 75 of the atmosphere MET3003 Lecture 1 Meteorolgy amp the Atmosphere 10JAN05 Lapse rate Temperature decrease with height in the Troposphere standard 650 C per kilometer in the troposphere Inversion Negative lapse rate temperature increases Stratopsphere Temperature constant at 750 to 780 Cthen increases with height to 45 50 km where it is about 75 C Warmed by 03 absorption 3060 km of solar UV Stratopause is top boundary above 99 of the atmosphere Mesosphere Temperature decreases with height reaching lt 80 C Mesopause is top boundary above 999 of the atmosphere at 85 km Thermosphere Above the mesosphere Temperature increases greatly because 02 absorbs sunlight but radiates inef ciently Boundary of Space 100 km Ionosphere Overlaps Meosphere and thermosphere Ahrens Fig 19 re ects AM radio at night but during the day extends lower 100 km 9 60 km and absorbs most energy Ozonzosphere Ozone layer 3060 km produced by sunlight breaking up 302 9 2 O 202 9 203 Protects us from solar UV PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN THE ATMOSPHERE Pressure is the weight of air above usiHydrostatic law Units of pressure mb hPa hectoPascal 100 Ntm2 100 kg m s39zmz Nobody uses inches of mercury except pilots setting their pressure altimeters Divide pressure in Pa by acceleration of gravity 98 m s39z to get weight of air above in kg Decreases with height About 12 the surface value at 55km 3 at at 11 km 78 at 16 km 1516 at 22 Normal sealevel pressure is 1013 hPa At the top of Mt Everest 9 km above sea level the pressure is 300 hPa 70 of the air is below the summit Density is the mass of air per unit volume 122 kg m393 at 1013 hPa and 15 C Gas law relates pressure density and temperature E RdT or p T K T C p a 27316 Ra is a constant speci c to dry air So density decreases with decreasing pressure but not as fast as pressure in the troposphere because the temperature decreases too INTRODUCTION TO WEATHER AND WEATHER ELEMENTS Temperature pressure humidity clouds precipitation Visibility sunlight winds ClimateAverage Weather plus likelihood of extremes MET3003 Lecture 1 Meteorolgy amp the Atmosphere lOJANOS Motion of longlasting systemscyclones amp anticyclones 9 weather maps Hurricanes amp midlatitude cyclones Other storms eg thunderstorms move but not as far before they die In midlatitudes storms move west itoeast in the tropics easttowest Fronts Boundaries between air with different temperature and humidity weather tends to happen along fronts Cold Move from air to warm air Blue with points in direction of motion Warm Move from Warm to cold Red with rounded bumps in direction of motion Occluded Cold front catches warm front purple with alternating bumps amp points Stationary Not movingalternating warm amp coldfront symbols Station models Show wind clouds temperature with numbers and special symbols Isobars Lines of constant pressure Winds tend to blow along isobars
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