Seminar in Physics Education
Seminar in Physics Education PHY 3012
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nyasia Waelchi on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHY 3012 at Florida International University taught by Laird Kramer in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see /class/221803/phy-3012-florida-international-university in Physics 2 at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Activity Sheet Quiz Response Key 1 Nature of Science Quiz Answers The Questions below are adapted from Lederman NG 1998 The State of Science Education Subject Matter Without Context The Electronic Journal of Science Education 32 Stefan Jaschke httpwwwjaschkenetcf role of mathhtml The MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive htt turnbull dcsst Bob Jacobs httpww w chemistrycoach comg uotationshtm Rasmus Pagh httpwww daimi au dkDaghmathq uote html 1 Scientific and mathematical concepts such as atoms black holes and species are functional theoretical models drawn from human creativity rather than faithful copies of reality Lederman 1998 2 The distinction between observation and inference is clearly articulated and assessed in most undergraduate science courses Lederman 1998 3 Scientific hypotheses theories and laws can never be absolutely proven This holds irrespective of the amount of empirical evidence gathered in support of one of these ideas or the other Lederman 1998 4 There exists if I am not mistaken an entire world which is the totality of mathematical truths to which we have access only with our mind just as a world of physical reality exists the one like the other independent of ourselves both of divine creation Hermite Charles 1822 1901 cited in The Mathematical Intelligencer v 5 no 4 5 by natural selection our mind has adapted itself to the conditions of the external world It has adopted the geometry most advantageous to the species or in other words the most convenient Geometry is not true it is advantageous Jules Henri Poincare 18541912 Science and Method 6 A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light but rather because its opponents eventually die and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it Max Planck 1949 Activity Sheet Quiz Response Key 2 7 As far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality they are not certain and as far as they are certain they do not refer to reality Albert Einstein 18791955 In J R Newman Ed The World of Mathematics New York Simon and Schuster 1956 8 While mathematics is a convenience in relating certain types of order to our comprehensions it does not give us any account of their actuality Euclid39s geometry was once supposed to be an exact description of the external world The only world of which it is an accurate description is the world of Euclidean geometry Whitehead 9 The aim of science is to seek the simplest explanations of complex facts We are apt to fall into the error of thinking that the facts are simple because simplicity is the goal of our quest The guiding motto in the life of every natural philosopher should be Seek simplicity and distrust itquot Alfred North Whitehead The Concept of Nature 1926 10 It is a pity that the theory of algorithms and the theory of complexity which are now as fundamental to mathematics as are basic algebra and analysis is neither taught in math classes in high school nor in math departments at universities J aschke 2002 1 pi It is a pity that the nature of science is neither explicitly taught in high schools nor in undergraduate science departments at universities Lederman 1998not explicitly stated Ab I 37 Nature of ScienceNature of Mathematics Quiz There are multiple ways to support your answers to the following questions Therefore the quiz is not graded to the rightness or wrongness of your answers This quiz is graded on the extent to which you supported your answers with arguments and examples from your own beliefs and from articles we have read in this class Scientific concepts such as atoms black holes and species are functional theoretical models from human creativity rather than faithful copies of reality 39 FALSE w P at lli ovvlld ltllt 0L 39iftdtble Ln qrieinrbt l The distinction between observation and inference is clearly articulated and assessed in most undergraduate science courses TRUE SE Scientific hypotheses theories and laws can never be absolutely proven This holds irrespective oft e amount of empirical evidence gathered in support of one of these ideas or EUiE the other T FALSE lAC Walk39 il gl Ct rlth ll am llt94 pmle finquot i LXbK M yM XkL but hf TQRWqujvdw taxVP MA litK UNAS L WME There exists an entire world which is the totality of mathematical truths to which we have access only our mind just as a world of physical reality exists both are independent of ourselves T FALSE r X V 15 ng magi95 Mites CF WalkF rmdm Cw ed lktMtW ampwdt WM mktmtxn ml lac dxce east lolc lbw3K lla rim Saw mm By natural selection our mind has adapted itself to the conditions of the external world It has VC adopted the geometry most advantageous to the species or in ct words the most k e e convenient Geometry is not true it is advantageous TRUE FAL E 39 oi stall Serge Nature of Math Nature of Science 1 Activity Sheet 2 6 A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light but rather because its 0 ponents eventually die and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it TRUE r tsra i Nd We re S fAZry T0xtjMZJI gti PM SwatE1 F Malli li vmab OW 193315 0r Q39mlcdoik ji Weemes LTQCWMC hQW Q W V39J m e Sim lilxe regepm39h Khmerr3 it w 30mm 85 r M New W e i l faITdES ar as they are lid15 LQNS a rnailmodus View renew lg ng mi radarWW O ple Jlr m THWMFB Whm uj wives SW36 banal le 7 As far as the laws of mathematics refer to re I u eyite not 0 39 certain they do not refer to reality 39 39 8 While mathematics is a convenience in relating certain types of order to our comprehensions it does not give us any account of their actuality Euclid s geometry was once supposed to be an exact description of the external world The only world which it is an accurate description is the world of Euclidean geometry TRUE A E lg 7 Ewlul l wLS l NlJW 5 3 MPuRM IBWkM a x quot ezwelr imam C a Y rm 7 m l I I h I I L3 er73 W mines PMMSHE die 31 incl1m 43gt We Wald CAN 9 are my gm mhms 78L objwk Swim a SiltLS t cimsml br W43 L hl dis 1 oitfw l reelka 394 9 The aim of science is to seek the simplest explanations of complex facts We are apt to fall into the error of thinking that the facts are simple because simplicity is the goal of our quest 7 5 t The guiding motto in the life of every natural philosopher should be quotSeek simplicity and Gift ESE A distrust itquot TRUE FSE a evr lc l Le 32 mm fl 3 7 4 c quot 3 K3 le 3W9IC CW 1 Ql l Pi 0amp3 hi ACME but M34403 SOqz ui bogglch Kmalwmiq ULJNJAOES W i ehmlcl marluth pewlghmi 39 44 10 It is a pity that the theory of algorithms and the theory of complexity which are now as fundamental to mathematics as are basic algebra and analysis i either taught in math classes in high school nor in math departments at universities FALSE Yes tit 04 p Li I impWM WC due gel514 s mm e eralrml 1 W Limp rm slateth Swift 11 It is a pity that the nature of science is neither explicitly taught in high schools nor in undergraduate science departments at universities TRUE F E hm A13 00C P m explam 31 WWW 0F 5 1mm Nature of MathNature of Scrence 01 J MA mom I mg eaglng vim 2 lWllmB 5W llxakit 55 1ka Dim Stungth Mgrmc 581551 x39 C e e l Scientific Evidence This activity is designed for you to make conclusions from a set of scienti c evidence You will create an explanation of what is occurring that is consistent with the evidence presented You will put your Conclusions and explanation on a white board l suggest that your explanation include pictures sketches to make your model of the situation clearer A scientist shoots a beam of protons at a thin gold foil The scientist hopes to make a model of the gold foil structure by observing how the protons interact with the foil As can be seen below the experiment takes place in an oval room The walls of the room emit a flash of light whenever a charged particle hits them The e mental layout can be seen below You are looking at the room from above r Thin gold foil Protons e er here going the A direction s own Vl K Walls that ash when hit by a charged particle Protons are sent in one at a time as shown above The protons move towards the thin gold foil Physics students are in the room and put a small x on the wall with a dry erase pen where each ash occurs Once the ash has been located the next proton is shot into the room Each proton enters with exactly the same kinetic energy The data from this experiment can be found on the back of this page Sample data is shown below to help you understand what is on the back of this page A ash is denoted by a small x Two ashes near the same point would have two small x93 See the examples below 39 Two ashes one ash Thing Bly39ihmhQlli 3 3 20m iffy quot AMquot Fara This is the data collected by the students There were a total of 82 flashes 1 What are your conclusions about the thin gold foil How does the evidence support your conclusion L H iff57lVQ aim P5453 th39QBWi e MW Spiel Peel 2 renew WW a PM am WWWdrth wetMl tunnels WW in wrla39t 11 Retreu xlml Sme ning ffwj lcdpkoit i i V J E1 2 Make a model of the thin gold foil that l 3 consistent with th experiment and your prior knowledge about matter 39 Put your conclusions and model on a Whiteboard LA Seminar Week 4 Using the questions gleaned from earlier in the term projected analyze the questions using these questions 1 How do these questions elicit student ideas To what extent would each question allow you to better understand where a student is in hisher thinking 2 Write learning goals that seem to coordinate with each question This will more clearly articulate the where are we going to piece of the formative assessment model 3 Are there questions that go together If so are there larger goals for the entire activity or series of questions If so state those in words 4 Given your responses to 2 and 3 would you classify the goal as content an attitudes beliefs or nature of mathscience or something else 5 Pick one question Anticipate one or two possible student ideas about this question Given that idea and your stated goals what are your ideas for how do we get there Week 3 Activity Sheet 1 tissue Questions to honest the Reading to the beaming Assistant Experience Redish E 1994 Implications of cognitive studies for teaching physics American Journal of Physics 62 9 1 Lil List some of the concepts that have beencovered in the classtutorialrecitation section in which you are an LA T L met v s iAWm A a i 73quot F K are lt 393 at L a V39 r 1 in ti tquot if 71V the i 7 r f 1rquot quot fJJ iw Va 1 l I M Vb I l W t 7 r 2r i v a s w rm r ms ha 0t mi 3 U r L What evidence do you have that students bring prior conceptions and prior experiences to V 17 3 specific problem solving situations in your classCorollary 13 The student is not a I i 39 tabula rasa blank slate Each one comes to as having had experiences with the physical i 7 world and having organized these experiences into mental mpd ls I pi i V J 9 4 ff 97quotth pr Nu quot L 39lquot w 36gt r quot Iquot Jul quotm quot gt 1 re a 1 fr V i v ii 3 is f hf Wmlph it Wwa tiff cing ith and ngmi in I r 39 4 r g 1 5 e Ayetw nqve at a t P V quotWax iyiei l I 7 a u Ex K1 n j 73 LB J I i a quotlr rc A I What are some of the differences between your students mental models and the target concepts for the class Principle 1 39 strong form People tend to organize their experiences and observationsinto patterns or mental models 9 W 2 ny 91F NV f f d Nd 3K 1quotquot in L in A CmFA fay 39i 1 V K v u 1 h fr 5 Inigf C51 1quot t 31 w 34quotquot iii N ifi J 1lt r i7quotii1 391 1 F M Lil m A x Eff Cm z Gym l tom 3 r e in f mil 2 ii 75 1 quotIquot 7 quot9L3 iii fj easiwww quot1 t on 2536 M 39 What information do you think you would need from a student in order to help him change his mental model about one of the target concepts How would you use this information Principle 3 It is very di icult to change an established mental model substantially T r 3915 3quot f Vp CI I a ig i39r Q 3 J I 1 J rf unii e if Errf d B quot i i V t v r l 39 I x v hiLQiP NXH 397 Jr M 391 mi 9quot p i N if t i if X I l L ll e39c bl K N V l 3 To g Kimmy Hm Siwimii if 39i i m W dings 7VC MB Her 5 if i 397 M my 3 v i 39 M V i PM 2 A K Alr39v FFW1 e J 1 1 L 394 f g N 51 V39 v p39 444 j I v p a What 18 your mental model of what it means to you to learn we gt 3quot 2 f m j physicsmathematics astronomy biolo gy geolo gy chemistry aiuwrlm 33w 39 i Nki f will girl x fl393 FLAquotmm 5 if LAKE V 39iwl f j I I ale pt39vnrtva J rifew 4 g 3 Veg k in my a Quidt x quot n r 31 1 I v Nquot N i t39 l L J i V J i 33 n A l 4 gt r l Flui i 3 T j 1 J 7 z 2i 1 J 5C mtquot yttv39l MV J 3 y f f glyph1x31 A 1 iii9 3quot iii 11 139 1 i i f all 13 2 a Week 3 Activity Sheetl principles and Somliariea metrented by Radian Principle 1 People tend to form mental patterns People tend to organize their experiences and observations into patterns or mental models Corollary 11 The goal of teaching is to have students build the proper mental models for doing science Corollary 12 It is not sufficient for students to know the relevant current statements of science They also have to be able to gain access to them at the appropriate times and they have to have methods of cross checking and evaluating to be certain that the result they have called up is truly relevant Corollary 13 The student is not a tabla rasa blank slate Each one comes having had experiences with the physical world and having organized these experiences into mental models Corollary 14 Mental models must be built People learn better by doing than by watching something be done Corollary 15 Many students do not have appropriate mental models for what it means to learn science Principle 2 It is reasonably easy to learn something that matches or extends an existing mental model Corollary 21 It is hard to learn something that we do not almost already know Corollary 22 Much of our learning is done by analogy Corollary 23 Touchstone problems and examples are very important Principle 3 It is very difficult to change an established mental model substantially Corollary 31 In order to change an existing mental model the proposed replacement must have the following characteristics it must be understandable it must be plausible there must be a strong conflict with predictions based on the existing model and the new model must be seen as useful Principle 4 Since each individual constructs his or her own mental ecology different students have different mental models for physical phenomena and different mental models for learning Corollary 41 People have different styles of learning Corollary 42 There is not a unique answer to the question What is the best way to teach a particular subject Corollary 43 Our own personal experiences may be a very poor guide for telling us what to do for our students Corollary 44 The information about the state of our students knowledge is contained within them If we want to know what they know we not only have to ask them we have to listen to them 1 Week 7 Activity Sheet Metacognition and Argumentation in the Classroom Setting Schoenfeld A 1987 What s All the Fuss About Metacognition In A Schoenfeld Ed Cognitive Science and Mathematics Education Hillsdale N J Lawrence Erlbaum Associates 189215 JimenezAleixandre M Rodrigues A Duschl R 2000 Doing the Lesson or Doing Science Argument in High School Genetics Science Education 84 757792 39v List some characteristics of Metacognition that are productive for learning role of teacher actions of students timing involvement of others and self etc WW Arecal x A List some characteristics of Argumentation that are productive for learning role of teacher actions of students timing involvement of others and self etc 2 Mm l I i I 4AJ 1m WK JN 39 I V ifquot Wight m quot a 4 i 4 r quot on f I a 7 1i iquot i iQ a f A f i 39 39 Jquot R A f rq 1m 1quot r w 2 0 x 4quot g 3 R m N a e ii piit 39i R Z L I i amp S I I 0 A 7 W N O n e 3677 ioi w x 39 SgLGEL p Questions 0v H E r 39 J 1 What evidence do you have that students were metacognitive in their thinkin g f m Gr icri l E 0 q c iiic Ocmicrm iii ction 6quot PW 54 Si fan sUquot iiiHAW 0 Clquot if P WW i Uquot E3740 We 9 65quot i A m iguana Pg ll H YB i b I a PM quot i if it t Cccul Witin Slams earl Ye H 96H WWW i I t i Tic TWCiLwrx 0 vii CFCAX Surface E X i i L Cw w igm it L m l m gawv 0 Q g tad l giggizm X sitS ST39 39i What examples of argumentation did you see Madam NW1 Mi j Q x 1 e We CFfie o W chmg f tramii N quotIS mi Wtinlch wit aquot 6947 3c M aked C39 it Pr Liam m 733 iii Purbicm So previous Pypcmmmi 53 Eglitvzi S 0i rue 339quot iii We CVii i M N U VS MN J 7amp0 7 gt50 L1 2 V V a 1 pwsm s DYU 0M 39in 3 quot W23 4quot Eli 1 5 i Ifquot C SDLW i552 l l 3 r quotf 14 Lz 39 5 7 in Mm C min 3 m 105 Oil if iiiquot if 16239 un C i Mi SAW a I C 2 Week 7 Activity Sheet 3 Was the collaborative activity in the movie one in which someone more knowledgeable was teaching JlJ Mi SR5 the others If so explain If not why notz f and i0 mm 5M6 W wsiibrisw EH quot7 A i i re 3 d 51 p w N arrmp 393 V l 12 I 3 A 39 g Cartham twi Ci Rikki ih wi i til 39 5 ifiimfwi PwLif im 7 quotmn r W x la 1 b 1 r r r F V 3 V i Rainy 00 1 C dig llai Pdfe 019 1quot V J r4 I L39T A FT A a l j 4 The students began with rudimentary ideas about pushes and ended with the idea of superposition of L 39 39 lawwquot Himy forces Where did this knowledge come from 7 i i quot A ix ilii Hfl39l r Ly L i f N J M ii i iiiw cwh Niacn mtitm italmen I l F g i if I 00 ii i Jv l 3 N 1 0i 139 49 quotii if i 1 j r mi L L l u I y 2 r 3953 a J V Etc iii it tsw Wadi iU39 6161 nt quotle l A 495 1 1L0 00m A Cot a Sixty 3Mquot 13 J i 54 mg a ixrmirt i In what ways do the courses you are taking andor In what ways do the courses you are taking working with provide opportunities for andor working with provide opportunities for Metacognition Argumentation z 39 i39 V V i l x r L 39 quotl Si Arrimij oi C DU okCilVQ I 6 SEQ t VJ 3 0 C Wt i Ed r rwquot L h Mglmio 3 M13 SUiVC J39Y39l i iifi i ai 00 quot 1 ALSOJ 3 quot Myths 39iia i tcing What can a teacher do to ensure that students engage What can a teacher do to encourage argumentation among students in the classroom in metacognitive behavior iUe clxssroom u SP W P quot n xa 1 5 i L am 01le slim mi in i 5 L0 i itquot ii 3 Viquot if sii 39x39 395 in I ifquot I l 0 fn
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