Undst Physical World
Undst Physical World PHY 1020
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This 31 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nyasia Waelchi on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHY 1020 at Florida International University taught by Joerg Reinhold in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/221804/phy-1020-florida-international-university in Physics 2 at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Mass Density d mass m I ensmy m 7 p V 7 pi Material Density gcm3 Density kgm3 Gold 193 19000 Lead 113 11300 Iron 79 7900 Concrete 23 2300 Bone 18 1800 Ice 092 920 Mercury 136 13600 Water 10 1000 Ethyl Alcohol 079 790 Pressure force P F P i 1 Pa pascal 2 pressure 2 7 area A m Image hup enwuupemamgmmmage 5135213591 pg Weight of a Fluid Column Density p Height 11 W Way 039 Surface area A mm Cquot quot Volume V 11A Mass m pV phA Weight w mg phAg pghA F Upward iqrce duem39m In this example the area is arbitrary F w pghA Defme ressure P i i 7 h p A A A Pg The Mercury Barometer P pHggh latm 760 mmHg 760 Torr Vacuum or close to it 29921an 2 147 1131112 1013 kPa Tube of mercury Baromet c Wewgm of Atmosphe c mercury m tube preSsure Bowl of mercury Typical Pressures Atmospheric 101333 Pa 147 psi Hurricane Wilma 2005 88200 Pa At landfall FL 95000 Pa 10 m water 100000 Pa Tire pressure 207000 Pa 1 atm 30 psi 147 psi 30 psig Tire pressure is measured relative to 1 atm The absolute pressure is higher by one atmosphere Atmospheric Press LJ ure Variations ansmmdmnsndww u ansisndmmsm 7 analyzed mean Imus hPa na sis 12m UTC phase angle 155 degvees 4211 N L A is w v L 2quot J 3quot 4quot IIIIIIII I234557a9InnIzlaulslsnmwznzlzzza http enwikipedia0rg WikiImageTages gang luftdruck jp g Density of Air The density of air depends on its temperature and pressure At a temperature of T02273 15 K 32 F and a pressure of P021013X105 Pa 1 atm the air density is kg 3 m pmrld2928 Constituents of Air Component By volume By number Nitrogen N2 78 78 Oxygen 02 21 21 Argon Ar 09 09 Carbon dioxide 02 003 003 Incompressible Atmosphere For an incompressible uid p const we found P pgh Thus knowing the air pressure and density at sea level P 1013 x 105 Pa and p 129 k3 respectively we can calculate the height of the atmosphere 1013 105N h i X A18005 m pg 39129x981 or in other words we would reach the end of the atmosphere its surface before we would reach the peak of Mount Everest h 8848 m Image from httpenwikipediaorgwikiMountEverest 4 Barometric Formula Q y Q a P g P X e 8 km A J E u vloooo 7 Aircramcruising mm a a g MouMEverest 4 E 8000 r s 6000 7 MountMcK39Inley Mom man 4000 7 La Pu EoHvia Aircmlt cabin pmssurizad 2000 r Denvsr Colorado Sears Tower Op oor a x x x x x x x 02 04 06 08 1 12 14 16 18 pressure atm Building Dams Hoover Dam http enWildpedia0rg WikiImageHoover dam contour mapjp g http enWikipedia0rgWikiImageH00ver Pascal rinciple Pressure Pressure2 Work Work2 F F 7 11 71 Pm dez A F F2lei d2d1xf Archimedes Principle Pressure at top of object Ptop p uidghtop Force acting down on top R P A p uidghmpA up top Pressure at bottom of object Pbot p uidghbot Force acting up on bottom Fbot PhotA p uidghbmA h gt h gt Fbot gt F gt upward force but top top Fbot Flop p uidghbot hmpA p uidgHobjA p uidgVobj V buoyant force Fbouyant p uidgVobject Float to surface If F b gt mg gt p uidgvobj gt pobjectgvobject gt p uid gt pobject Sink to bOttom if F b lt mg gt p uidgvobj lt pobjectgvobject gt p uid lt pobject Fluid presses Fluid presses against whitrary against cbjec volume of uid of same shape force is greater ptessute is still at bottom of greater at volume due to bottom greater pressure ptoviding net upward force MBernoulli Effect d1 Work done change in mechanical energy W KE2 KE1 PE2 PE1 Fld1 FZd2 mv mvl2 mgh2 mgh1 diVide by volume V Ald1 A2d2 F1d1 Ed2 1 m 2 1 m 2 P1 P2 pv pvf 10th pgh1 P1 pvf pgh1 P2 pv 10th Air passes faster lower pressure Difference in pressure creates lift force Air passes slower higher pressure a Ski lumpel Vent no outside pressum on Sides oil a an Tosewer C Housemw plumbing Vents equalize h 0 50110081 Paste air De ection lace lower pressure Directm a spin Sim an higher pressure Direcmn a bull s mm d Thrown cumball lop View Microscopic Explanation of Pressure N particles in box With volume V L x W x H momentum transfer When bouncing off surface Ap 2mvC 2L t1me between bounces for one partlcle At 2 im ulseIF xAtA 2 F x o gt p mg p avg At 2L L V 2 6 For all N particles Fmg N mvquot L Fm mv2 mv2 L Pressure P gN x N x A LxA V The Ideal Gas Law We just found PV N KEWg The average kinetic energy of a gas atom is a function of temperature KEWg ng With k being the Boltzmann constant and temperature T measured in Kelvin Hot Air Ballon cont The ballon is open at the bottom Enside Poutside P latm The fabric of the ballon does not stretch Vhot Vcold V Ideal gas laW PV NkT PVhot PVcoldl const 3 N hotkThot N coldchold 3 N hot lt N cold There are less air molecules inside the ballon than in the same volume outside 2 pinside lt poutside 2 the ballon oats Hooke s Law F k M 2 all Tension and Compression I Compression i irii 7H7 Aii 739 Y gt j lt gtTenSIon Making things Bigger 2L i L Vummelt2Lgt3 1 80 Vammei3 2L Lquot L L I I L 7 2L L Area6 20 L Avea6L2 7243 7 2L L 21 Mutant Giant Ants scale up by 3 L a L39 3L A a A399A V a V3927V mpV a m39pV3927pV27m The cross section of the supporting legs increases by a factor of 9 However they now have to support 29 times the weight Image http enwikipedia org wiki Image Meateaterantf eedin gonhoney02 j p g Scaling in Nature Image from ImpumwikipeaimgMkiImageComparativeewofmehumananae1ephantjmme2CBenjaminwmerhouseHawkins2c1850jpg Question 20 A volleyball and a bowling ball are completely submerged in water Of course someone needs to push down on the volleyball Both balls have the same radius Which if either experiences the greater bouyant force Question 21 The volleyball has been released and now oats at the surface Which if either feels a greater buoyant f oree Question 22 The 20 N rock is lowered into the water but is not allowed to touch the bottom of the beaker How do the readings of the two scales change Question 32 A piece of wood is oating in water In which orientation does it displace the least amount of water Question 33 A Is any of the two beams under compression or tension ULJ BOON gt14