New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Biology chapter 41 Animal Nutrition

by: Sophia Notetaker

Biology chapter 41 Animal Nutrition BIOC 0170

Marketplace > University of Pittsburgh > Biology > BIOC 0170 > Biology chapter 41 Animal Nutrition
Sophia Notetaker
GPA 3.5

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Biology chapter 41 Animal Nutrition
Foundation of Biology I
Barbara Barnhart
Class Notes
Biology, chapter 41, Animal Nutrition
25 ?




Popular in Foundation of Biology I

Popular in Biology

This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sophia Notetaker on Monday March 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOC 0170 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Barbara Barnhart in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Foundation of Biology I in Biology at University of Pittsburgh.


Reviews for Biology chapter 41 Animal Nutrition


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/21/16
Chapter 41 – Animal Nutrition I. Review A. Form and Function 1. amount of energy an organism uses in a specific amount of time 2. depends on size and activity of the organism 3. metabolic rate determines how much food is needed B. Types of Organisms 1. Autotrophs – an organism that obtains organic food molecules without eating other organisms or substances derived from other organisms (plants) 2. Heterotrophs – an organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or substances derived from them. a. Heterotrophs have diverse diets 1) herbivore – animals that eats plants or algae 2) carnivore – animals that eats other animals 3) omnivore – animals that eats plants and animals II. Nutrition A. An adequate diet must satisfy three basic needs 1. Provide chemical energy for cellular work 2. Provide organic raw materials to make important biological molecules (biosynthesis) a. Two types of organic molecules 1) Organic carbon (sugar) 2) (Organic nitrogen (protein) 3. Provide essential nutrients – things our bodies can not make themselves a. Malnutrition – result from a diet that lacks one or more essential nutrients b. Undernutrition – results of not eating enough Ch. 41 1 B. Four Classes of Essential Nutrients 1. Amino Acids  20 amino acid totals  We only have enzymes to synthesize(make) half of these rom food o We make them  The other half we need to get them from food in it prefabricated form o We cant make them o Those ones that we can not make are the essential amino acids  Without amino acids we experience protein deficiency  Big deal for vegetarians – most plants do not have all amino acids needed 2. Fatty Acids  We synthesis most of the fatty acids we need  There are some unsaturated fatty acids that we cannot make  Must get those from out diet  Do not see many deficiencies of fatty acids 3. Vitamins  Organic molecules  Only needed in small amounts  Human need 13 vitamins  Two types o Water soluble  Too much – removed in urine – harmless o Fat Soluble (A,D,E,K)  Too much – deposited in body fat, acculated and become toxic o A – Headache irritability, vomiting, hair loss, blurred vision, liver and bone damage o D – brain, cardiovascular and kidney damage o E – Anticoagulant effect increase (not clogging) o K – Liver damage and anemia A,D,E,K Ch. 41 2 4. Minerals ( CA, Zn, IRON  Inorganic nutrient that are required in small amounts o Just look at the Table o Iron Zinc Copper and Calcium Ch. 41 3 III. Four Stages of Food Processing A. Ingestion (act of eating) 1. Four main feeding mechanisms a. suspension feeders  Sift small food particles from water  Example is a clam b. substrate feeders  Animals that live in or on their food source  Ex. maggots c. fluid feeders  Suck nutrient rich fluid from a living host  Ex. Mosquito Ch. 41 4 d. bulk feeders  Eat large pieces of food  Ex. human B. Digestion – Breaking down of food molecules for absorption C. Absorption – Uptake of nutrients by body cells D. Elimination – Pass undigested materials out of digestion compartments IV. Digestive Compartments A. Intracellular Digestion-into a. Food Particles engulfed by endocytosis into food vacuole b. Food vacuole contains hydrolytic enzymes that came from fusion with a lysosome c. Prevents digestion of the cytoplasm d. Ex. Sponge-absorption B. Extracellular Digestion(humans ) a. Breakdown of food in compartments that are continuous with the outside of an animal’s body i. Simple Animals 1. Have only one opening – food and waste exit from same place 2. Have a gastrovascular cavity which functions in digestion an distribution of nutrients 3. Ex. Hydra ii. Complex Animals 1. Have two openings- in through mouth and out through anus 2. Whole tube is called alimentary canal a. Different regions can have difference functions ( digestion vs absorption) V. Human Digestive System (mammals) 1. Overview a. Alimentary Canal i. Tube open at both ends b. Accessory Glands i. Secrete digestive juices through ducts into the alimentary canal ii. Salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gall bladder Ch. 41 5 c. Peristalsis (peri – around) i. Rhythmic contraction and relaxation of muscles in wall of canal 1. Swallowing food. Pushing food down ii. Moving food down iii. Sphincters form at junction between specialized compartments to regulate passage of materials 1. Made of of smooth muscle and a door way to another organ 2. Oral Cavity, Pharynx and Esophagus a. Oral Cavity i. Teeth break food into smaller pieces (easier to swallow and increase surface area) ii. Presence of food stimulates salivary glands to release saliva which contain salivary amylase iii. Salivary amylase breaks down (hydrolyzes) starch and glycogen into smaller polysaccharide iv. Mucus in saliva protects lining of mouth from abrasion and lubricates food for easy swallowing b. Pharynx ( food and air) Ch. 41 6 i. Throat region – junction to esophagus and trachea c. Esophagus – food tube) i. Passageway for food to stomach ii. Has both striated (swallowing) and smooth (peristalsis) muscle d. Epiglottis i. Flap of cartilage that covers glottis (trachea) when swallowing ii. Closes trachea when swallowing 5. Summary a. When person is not swallowing, the esophageal sphincter muscle is contracted, epiglottis is up and the glottis is open allowing air to flow through trachea b. Swallowing reflex is triggered when bolus of food reaches pharynx. c. Larynx (respiratory tract) moves upward, epiglottis tips over glottis to prevent food from entering trachea d. Esophageal sphincter relaxes and allows bolus to enter esophagus e. After food enters esophagus, larynx moves downward, epiglottis moves up and trachea is open f. Peristalsis moves bolus through esophagus to stomach Ch. 41 7 C. Stomach – 1. Location – Just below the diaphragm 2. Function a. Stores food and begins digestion of proteins and only b. Can contain 2 liters of food and fluid 3. Gastric juice (pH 2) a. Hydrochloric acid i. Disrupts extracellular matrix in meat and plant materials ii. Low pH denatures proteins exposing peptide bonds ( hydrogen) b. Pepsin i. Protein digesting enzyme ii. Forms from pepsinogen in combination with HCL iii. Breaks peptide bonds iv. Breaks down food 4. Stomach Wall a. Protected from hydrochloric acid by secreting mucus b. Cell division adds new epithelial layer every 3 days c. Ulcers arise when mucous lining is disrupted by a bacterial infection Helicobacter pylori – bacteria’s name C. D. Small Intestine a. Major organ of digestion and absorption Ch. 41 8 b. Longest compartment of alimentary canal c. Has a small diameter HINT HINT WINK WiNK 1. Three Regions a. Duodenum i. 10 inches ii. Chyme (food) enters from stomach iii. Chyme mixes with digestive juices from pancreas, liver and gall bladder 1. Pancreas a. Makes protease enzymes (trypsin and chymotrypsin) that break down proteins 2. Lovers and gall bladder a. Liver makes bile that digest lipids (fats) – gall bladder stores bile b. Jejunum i. 3-6 feet long ii. Absorb products of digestion c. Ileum i. 6-12 ft long Ch. 41 9 ii. Absorbs products of digestion d. Remember that peristalsis ( moving things down) is still moving chime through small intestine e. Take a long time to complete digestion and to facilitate absorption i. Occurs in the inside lining of small intestine which is very highly folded ii. Tissue = epithelial 2. Structures inside small intestine a. Villi i. Finger – like projections located in the lining of the large fold of the small intestine b. Microvilli – each epithelial cell of a villus has it own finger – like a projection c. Villi and microvilli increase the surface area which increases the rate of nutrient absorption d. Villi and microvilli contain blood vessels and lacteal ( a lymphatic vessel) e. Nutrients are absorbed through epithelial tissue of villi/microvilli, then absorbed through 1- cell thick wall of capillaries i. Amino acids and sugar enter blood stream ii. Fats and cholesterol enter lymphatic system Ch. 41 10 There is a small area so it increase surface area for absorption D. Large Intestine a. Alimentary carnal with the large intestine b. Small intestine connects to large intestine at T-shaped junction i. Colon – leads to the rectum 1. Absorbs water – causes water to become solid - feces ii. Cecum 1. Pouch that ferments ingested material 2. The appendix is an extension of the cecum iii. Rectum 1. Stores feces until they can be eliminated c. Have E.coli in large intestine i. Produces Vitamins (K biotin and folic acid) ii. Produces methane and hydrogen sulfide gas(odor) VI. Digestive Adaptations A. Dental Adaptions a. Assortment of teeth b. Type and location depends on diet iii. Carnivores - Sharp, pointed teeth to cut and rip iv. Herbivores – broad, rigid teed to grind v. Omnivores – combo of both B. Stomach Adaptations a. Length of the alimentary canal depends on size b. Herbivores alimentary canal is longer than that of carnivores i. So we can digest the materials C. Symbiotic Adaptations a. Mainly in herbivores b. A lot of energy stored in cellulose but animals do not have enzymes to digest cellulose c. Many vertebrates have digestive chambers house that large populations of microorganisms (bacteria and protest) that do digest cellulose d. Ex. deer, sheep, cattle, ruminants VII. Homeostasis - keeping internal environment constant A. Ties to nutrition because this maintenance will determine where energy from food goes B. Eat food to get energy – energy in the form of ATP C. But to get ATP must break food down Ch. 41 11 a. Oxidation of carbohydrates, protein and fat i. Electron lost due to oxidation are fed into cellular respiration D. Too much energy intake a. Stores excess energy (calories) as glycogen and fat E. Too little energy intake a. Break down stored glycogen (oxidized it) to get the energy you need. F. Homeostasis regulated by hormones a. Insulin i. Tells body to store glycogen - insulin lowers then glucagon raises ii. Reduces blood glucose levels b. Glucagon i. Tells body to break down glycogen ( breaks down sugar) ii. Increases blood glucose level G. Energy from food (calories) way out of balance a. Undernourishment – when diet is very deficient in calories over extended amount of time b. Over nourishment i. When diet consists of excessive intake of calories, large amount of excess stored as fat ii. Obesity – global health problem lead to 1. Diabetes, Cardiovascular problems 2. Color and Breast Cancer H. Regulation of Homeostasis a. Controlled by hormones (insulin and glucagon) which go to control center in brain that affect out feeling of hunger or full b. Can help homeostasis with exercise and diet c. However some is hereditary i. Genes for hormones may be defective Ch. 41 12


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.