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Daily Notes

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by: emory1

Daily Notes Sociology 101

Emory University

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Introduction to Sociology
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This 45 page Class Notes was uploaded by emory1 on Monday March 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Sociology 101 at Emory University taught by in Fall 2013. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at Emory University.


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Date Created: 03/21/16
 Deviance- any behavior that violates the norm of a group  The Causes of Deviance o Criminals are born, not made o Crime and deviance are inherent in some people o Genetic or biological explanations o Study of body types o Study of skulls o I.Q. o Recent genetic markers  Conservative perspective- genetic or biological explanation, you’re born with it, criminal are born so how does society deal with criminals, punish and incarcerate o Recidivism: once a criminal always a criminal o The failure of reform o Group rates of crime  The Solutions o Long prison terms o Harsh punishments o Capital punishments o More police and surveillance  Liberal perspective- criminals are made not born, from your environment, the conditions they live in, poor education or type of people surrounding them, how does society deal with criminals, education or things to rehabilitate, change the conditions they live  The Causes of Deviance o Criminals are made, not born o Focus on the social environment o It’s the environment that is broken, pathological o Social factors o Poverty o Peers o Education o Broken homes  The Evidence o The ecology of crime and deviance o Concentration of crime in neighborhoods o Concentration of crime in certain groups  The Solutions o Focus on rehabilitation not punishment o Changing the social environment o Job training, education, drug rehabilitation o Anti-poverty programs, urban renewal, midnight basketball  The Sociological Perspective  Deviance does not represent the breakdown of society or a malfunction with the normal functioning of social order, it is like any other behavior  Instead, deviance is part of the normal functioning of society; deviance is necessary and functional for society  Deviance can be explained by the same social processes used to explain normative, non-deviant, behavior  Patterns of Deviance 1. There is nothing inherently deviant in any action o Deviance inheres in the meaning attached to the act o Meaning (deviance) is defined by groups 2. There is nothing inherently deviant in any ‘deviant’ person o Most people commit deviant acts, but very few people are caught. 3. Most “deviants” are deviant only rarely 4. Of the few people caught committing deviant acts, few are arrested and prosecuted 5. Of the few who are arrested and prosecuted, few are convicted 6. Of the few who are convicted, few serve long-term sentences 7. The Paradox: o Society spends much time and energy calling attention to deviance and deviant acts, but resists putting people into the category of “deviant.” o Leads to the Functional Theory of Deviance  Functional Theory of Deviance- call attention to what’s normative o Deviance is not the breakdown of society or of normative behavior but a normal part of the process of social organization o Deviance is functional, indeed necessary, because it creates boundaries and calls attention to what is normative.  Commit deviant action, other people respond to strengthen the norm, necessary for society, creates boundaries for what is normative o Deviance can be explained by the same social processes as normative behavior:  Behaviors are not inherently deviant but depend on the meaning attached to the behavior by society  Deviance behavior is patterned and ordered, organized by rules and meanings in the same way as normative behavior  Deviant, or criminal, is a social status like any other social status o Since deviance is created by norms, there will always be deviance, can’t get rid of it, crime is the other side of existence of norms, every time norm is created crime is created… anomie- no norms, no deviance  Can not eliminate crime and deviance  Societies must constantly create crime and deviance o Society focuses on the crime not the criminal  Emphasize the crime but keep people from being labeled as criminals o Explains why deviance so public; to call attention to what is normative  The public fascination with deviance  TV shows o Explains the close relationship between deviance and proper or normative society,  Societies create the kinds of deviance they fear the most  Few people see themselves as “real criminals”  We all commit deviance, but we aren’t deviant  Property crimes not significant, how you steal it, who you steal it from… because society values property the most, you fear attacks on property most, so that’s why there’s the most around that  Societies built on religion have most crimes around religion o Crime Waves  A perceived sharp increase in the amount of a particular type of crime  A perceived sense of danger permeating society  School shootings  60 million kids in school, 12 get killed, yet we believe increase in school violence  Are crime waves real? No, it’s a perceived sense, an increase in attention paid to that crime… no increase it school shootings, but put on TV so seems like a lot  Why should there be crime waves? Call attention to norms of society, what society really values the most  Salem Witch Trials- witches started to appear, somebody would accuse someone else of being a witch, they would be arrested and given tests, then convicted and told they were put in public stocks or hung/burned, made to confess who else was a witch… No increase in number of witches, people perceived there were witches, Reinforce Puritan religion, religious colony… Massachusetts Bay colony became prosperous, industry, $>religion, non- Puritans to the area, dislike Catholics the most, crisis in Puritanism, so withes are discovered b/c Puritans value religion and witches are the opposite/other side.  Crisis in key institution, crime wave reinforces the key institution itself  McCarthy Trials- part of the Red Scare, communists everywhere, infiltrated industries, identifying people are communists and bringing them to trial and confess, rise of the Soviet Union creates threat for United States, communists are people who refuse to cooperate with the government  Natural History of a Crime Wave 1. The identification of the crimes  The realization that the crimes are everywhere  The evidence of the rapid spread of the crimes  The public rituals associated with the crimes o Identification of evil doers o Trials o Confessions  Becomes part of the culture through common knowledge and folklore  Resolution  Child kidnapping; stranger abduction  Child homicide  Child abuse 2. Realization that these crimes are everywhere: Rhetoric and Statistical Claims  Increased media attention  Increased political and legal attention 3. Evidence of the rapid spread of the crime  Expanding the definition of the crimes  Changes in the definition of child abuse  Expansion of the categories of abuse  New law for child abuse  Bus driver forgetting child= child abuse… child abuse has changes  Children calling other children bad names= bullying  Boys pulling girls hairs= bullying  Fetal abuse= mothers arrested for doing drugs/drinking during pregnancy… crime against children 4. The Public Rituals  Identification of child abusers  Arrests and trials  Confessions  Sex offenders can’t live near schools so live in bad areas together results in recidivism  Children on leashes 5. Embedding in the culture  Halloween sadists- put poison in candy, razor blades in candy… never a case  Taken for granted assumptions of child abuse  Popular media Would You Hire an Ex-Convict?  Consequences of incarceration for the employment outcomes of black and white men-- Milwaukee  Past 3 decades number of prison inmates in US increased by more than 600%  12 million ex-felons in the US, representing 8% of the working- age population  2/3rds will be charged with new crimes and over 40% will return to prison within 3 years  Recidivism… limited future employment opportunities and earning potentials  10% incarceration rate for black men 1% white men in 2000  Young black men today 28% likelihood of incarceration during lifetime  The vast number of inmates translate into a large and increasing population of black ex-offenders retuning to communities and searching for work  The barriers these mean face in reaching economic self- sufficiency are compounded by the stigma of minority status and criminal record  The consequences of such trends for widening racial disparities are potentially profound  Study to test whether the effect of a criminal record differs for black and white applicants  Four male auditors, two blacks two whites  All identical credentials, differences attributed to race and criminal status  23 year old college students  Each team one was given criminal record and then they switched off  15 job openings each week  The same race testers applied to the same jobs  One member of the pair applied first and the other a day later  Felony drug conviction possession of cocaine and 18 months served in prison  Effect of criminal record among whites o Criminal record 17% callback o No record 34% callback o Criminal record reduces likelihood of a callback by 50% o White tester in criminal record condition went to a trucking service to apply for a job as a dispatched. The tester was given a long application including a complex math test which took 45 minutes and during this process several details about the application that needed clarification and checking with the supervisor about how to proceed o Secretary took it to supervisor to took over by the time supervisor looked it over he was told that the position was filled o Testers reported that employers’ responsiveness changed once they had glanced at the criminal record questions o Criminal records close doors in employment situations o One employer told a tester that he “liked hiring people who had just come out of prison b/c they tend to be more motivated, and are more likely to be hard workers o Another employer for cleaning company attempted to dissuade the white noncriminal tester form applying b/c it involved “a great deal of dirty work”… the tester with the criminal record was given the job on the spot  Effect of criminal record among blacks o African Americans suffer from lower rates of employment relative to whites o Criminal record 5% callback o No record 14% callback o Whites with criminal records received more favorable treatment (17%) compared to blacks with no criminal record (14%)  Race continues to play a dominant role in shaping employment opportunities, equal to or greater than the impact of a criminal record  Racial differences in the effects of a criminal record o Non-offenders to ex-offenders whites 2:1 o Blacks 3:1 o Effect of a criminal record 40% larger for blacks than whites o Employers already reluctant to hire blacks, appear even more wary of blacks with proven criminal records o Black testers were asked in person whether they had prior criminal history while no white testers were asked about their criminal histories up front  Blacks are less than half likely to receive consideration by employers, relative to their white counterparts, and black non- offenders fall behind even whites with prior felony convictions Religion and Morality in Weight Loss Groups  Culture and society affect us  Giving into temptation: guilt, confession and forgiveness, removing sins and guilt through good works, keeping them in line: surveillance  We aren’t born with ideas of what a “good” body looks like any more than we are born with ideas about what makes a “good” gift  Our ideas of “good” bodies just like our ideas of how we should talk to others are a result of being socialized into a particular society at a particular time in history  Women are more likely than men to learn that their bodies need to be customized—made smaller and reshaped—for they join weight loss groups in far larger numbers than men  Weight loss groups have characteristics similar to religion  Temptation, guilt, confession, sacrifice, ritual, good and evil morality  The struggle between good and evil or the sacred and the profane  Good person represented by an angel with a white gown and halo  Bad person as a devil with horns and a tail  Cake example, on the phone realizes ate almost whole cake, negative Gail finish it, positive throw it out… be your own best friend  Bad self gives into temptations and loses control  Good self withstands temptation  Like sex food poses particular difficulties in the battle against evil  Being bad is equated with giving in to sensual pleasure  To resist temptation you must deny yourself that pleasure  Food divided into good foods and bad foods  Bad foods lead to sins of overindulgence and loss of self-control  The dieter who withstands temptation is willing and able to deprive herself of tempting desirable foods  If overeating causes weight gain, then food restriction causes weight loss  Losing weight deprive self of pleasurable foods and experiences  Betty sacrificed what she wanted  Sacrifice similar to religion  Successful weight loss requires both reformed eating habits and regular exercise  Member exercise 20 minutes per day  Most members don’t exercise regularly and don’t feel guilty for not meeting the organizational expectations  Members don’t feel guilty if don’t exercise and resist the organization’s efforts to formalize the expectations of regular exercise, and as a result it is virtually impossible to induce and significant degree of guilt for not exercising  When members do see the errors of their ways or feel guilty after transgressions, meetings provide a forum for public confession  As members admit to the group the various ways they have cheated or broken rules, the meetings become a public confessional, with other members as witnesses  Linda effective role model, regularly began discussion with stories of her own mistakes  Sneak donuts from coworkers  Debbie nearly ate entire cake at family party  First new members are socialized into the group and its procedures as they listen to members confess  Second, public confession bonds the group together, as members reassert their commitment to group norms and thereby highlight and strengthen the moral boundaries surrounding the group  Third, the group members are reinforced in their beliefs that there are good and bad ways of eating  In addition, public confession is a useful way to relieve stress for individual members  Through confession sinners receive forgiveness  By confessing their sings to others, whether it is to a priest, the church, or the larger community, sinners publicly admit the error of their ways and in return they receive absolution  Although members of weight loss groups don’t literally receive forgiveness for their sins, a sort of forgiveness is experienced as members admit their transgression to the group and simultaneously reaffirm their commitment to follow the rules in the future  Sins can be removed, atoned, or made up for by doing good works  Food is divided into the good and the bad  “Red-light” foods signal temptation, danger and sin  As members confess sins, mostly due to overeating or foods they shouldn’t have eaten  Exercise can be viewed as a punishment for overeating or for eating bad foods  Such sin is followed by guilt that can literally be worked off through the hard labor of exercise  Exercise is the payment made for the right to sin  Sin-guilt-punishment-forgiveness cycle, members can use exercise to earn points to eat more food or to eat “red-light” foods  If members feel they are being watched, it is less likely they’ll break rules  You’ll get your ten pound ribbon next week, everyone knew how close she was to losing ten pounds now she had to do it  Judy and her daughter watched each other on vacation  Run into members are restaurants or grocery store, so self- conscious about what she was eating or had in cart  Hiding food or trying to eat when no one else is around  Aware that their eating habits are viewed and scrutinized by others, members become conscious of their own behavior and do a good deal of self-surveillance  Members to monitor themselves  As most religious groups and parents come to find out, controlling members’ behavior through external means is highly inefficient and difficult  Religious groups and parents spend a lot of time instilling individual consciences in converts and children  If individuals watch themselves, the organization doesn’t have to  Record what you eat don’t cheat  Religion functions to explain the unexplainable, to provide understanding of the mystery of life  Religion does this primarily by appealing to the transcendent mystery and power of God  Weight gain is no mystery when members eat more than they think they should and indulge in high-calorie foods  Weight gain can be unexpected, members do what they are supposed to do, but don’t lose weight or even gain weight  Tendency to retain water, and the inconsistencies of body metabolism  High sodium is blamed for water retention  Body metabolism slows in response to deprivation  Taboos—potatoes early in the day and liver eaten once a week  Not sharing your body weight with others  Weight-in is a ritual, highly structured and predictable  After a members steps on scale the receptionist reads the scale and record the weight in the member’s record  “Good job, you lost two pounds” “Down another one this week”  Never tell actual weight, points to weight with pen… members read it  The division of the world into the sacred and the profane deeply colors their everyday experiences and infuses their speech with notions of right and wrong, good and evil  For Durkheim, community is at the core of all religion  In religion, community is defined, constructed, and experienced  Community is also constructed and reinforced in the weight loss group  As members share their frustrations and accomplishments, they make connections with one another  Group is a supportive community, similar to a church  As churches build fellowship and community through sharing food, food is also at the center of the weight loss group’s fellowship  A beverage table is set up at every meeting and members drink tea, coffee, and nonfat hot cocoa  Food is shared as members exchange low fat recipes, restaurants, and tricks of weight loss  While food is shared it is food restriction that unites members of the weight loss group Threatened Children  Hysteria of child abuse and how the issue was sold to Americans and the media  Child abuse include smoking, song lyrics, circumcision, drugs taken during pregnancy; custody disputes, a lack of TV for children, adhering to religious beliefs, parental child snatching, and gender-differences in teaching by parents  The author blames much of the hysteria on the media  Statistics inflated  Critically examine and criticize the exaggerated statistics, particularly those concerning missing children  Child abuse, incest, child molestation, Halloween sadism, child pornography  What is new is the level of attention they receive  In examining rhetorical tools used by child advocates when making claims aimed at raising public anxiety, the media's role in transmitting these claims, and the public's response to alarming statistics, the author contends that what is said about threats to children is subtly changed to fit the demands of journalistic and popular cultural formulas  When the public reinterprets what the media report, content and meaning evolve as claims are transmitted from one audience to another  By comparing images of threatened children presented in a wide range of data sources, including statements by officials and activists, criminal justice records, television news stories, popular fiction, and public opinion surveys, the author discusses how the cultural construction of social problems evolves  He demonstrates that campaigns to draw attention to threatened children generate public concern, but the meaning of that concern is not straightforward  For many people, expressing concern for endangered children serves to make fears about their own vulnerability more manageable in the face of larger social crises  The author concludes that a society mobilized to keep children safe is not necessarily prepared to protect children from ignorance, ill health, and poverty  Social problems such as child abuse "should be understood as concerns rather than conditions” The Fundamental Principles of Inequality  Differences between groups o Income o Ethnicity o Religion o Education o Age (difference) o Gender o Culture o Language o Hobby (difference) o Values (difference) o Appearance o Skin color o Height (difference) o Sexual orientation o Occupation  Jury studies- big part of criminal justice systems… supposed to be by your peers b/c you have the same standards  Went from a structure of equality to inequality  Some in jury talk more than others and others become passive  The more active the more influential  Stanford experiment  Jim assumes he did well on test and better than Steve  Steve also thought Jim did better  Both supports the structure of inequality, Jim did better, Steve did worse  Those at the bottom also become a part of reinforcing the structure of inequality 1. Inequality is created by social interaction o Inequality is a necessary part of social organization o There will always be inequality, but no particular inequality 2. Any individual or group difference can be transformed into a dimension of inequality o Appearance o Race o Gender o Social Class 3. Inequalities generalize o Inequalities expand from one status characteristic to affect people’s perceptions and performances  The basis of stereotypes o Performance becomes a function of status  A self-fulfilling prophecy  Give test to boys and girls… it’s a hard test… boys do better than girlsboys will do better than girls  Increases pressure/reduces performances  Stereotype threat  Status effects performance 4. Inequality is supported both by those “at the top” and by those “at the bottom” o The people at the top enforce themselves on people at the bottom, but not true o Those at the bottom also become a part of reinforcing the structure of inequality o Inequality is affirmed by the perceptions and performances of those at the top and the bottom  Inequality not simply imposed and enforced from above o Inequality is affirmed by the feelings and emotions created in those at the top and the bottom  Feelings and emotions of the powerful and powerless  Compare to the Stanford prison experiment  Guards felt powerful, so acted powerful… prisoners felt helpless so let the guards treat them that way 5. Patterns of inequality are strong and stable o Once established, inequalities hard to change o Become a social reality o Generate their own justifications, an ideology o Cohesion among those at the bottom difficult to maintain o Emotions reinforce the structure of inequality o Stanford experiment rebellion… cohesion dissipated o Difficult to maintain cohesion at the bottom  What do the studies of jury deliberations demonstrate inequality? o Juror will have same standards as the criminals o Sociologists studied when jurors deliberated o Jurors did not know that sociologists were watching o Videotaped it  So what happened? o When people sit down, everyone in the jury room starts to talk (talks about thoughts and beliefs on case) o Almost everyone is contributing and everyone is listening to each other o EQUALITY OF PARTICIPIATION o Sociologists created data about how many times people spoke o As jury precedes  there is a transformation of the jury from a structure of equality, to structure of inequality  Some people in jury room talks more than others (become influential) and others become more passive (they listen to others )  Emerging power and prestige order  as the jurors deliberated it started off as a situation of inequality but then ended in emerging power and prestige order  At the end it was the judgments of a few people and everyone else went along with this Who is at top of prestige order and who is on the bottom? o Their occupation outside of the jury room affected this o Socio-economic status of jurors determined structure of inequality in the room o They didn’t try and impose their judgment on others o Their peers seem them as smart and logical  people wanted to accept these ideas o Recognize it by what they wear, vocabulary, how they speak, demeanor ▯ Equality of participation  to inequality of participation ▯ MIRRORED INEQUALITY IN COMMUNITY AT LARGE ▯ The difference was very subtle, some differences are more important than others ▯ What makes the difference between inequalities is what society say’s it is… Nothing inherently different between certain things, what matters are the meanings attached to it by society ▯ What do the studies of Bales groups demonstrate about inequality? ▯ He wanted to know what would happen when there was no inequality within the jury room?  Brought in 6 or 7 undergraduates from Harvard  Give them a problem to make a decision about it  Gave them problems that had no real answers o “should there be handguns?” o “is abortion illegal “  deliberate for an hour, and give him an answers – yes or no.  forcing an answer  he videotaped the proceedings What occurred?  In the beginning everyone started to participate  There was a structure of equality within the 6-8 people in the room  All had something to say in the beginning  After 10 or 15 minutes, this structure of equality transformed into structure of inequality  Power/prestige order had emerged (some people were more influential than others, and others sat back and passively participated)  Structure of inequality among students in this group  Students in this group didn’t have largely different status  all Harvard students ▯ So why was this happening?  There may be psychological predispositions  Some people are “leaders” and some people were “followers”  Residual Social economic status  Appearance  Maybe it’s the topic (wasn’t the topic, same power dynamic was reestablished after second meeting and different topic) ▯ Formed another set of groups with people who ended up at the top ▯ “leaders” and “intelligent”  exact same thing happened  in the beginning everyone talked  it took a little longer, but in the end a power and prestige ordered emerged again  formed groups of people who ended up at the bottom  everyone who is followers, still leaders come out of this Studies in Contrast Sensitivity:  Bring in two students  One from Stanford, one from a community college in California (Menlo college) Contrast sensitivity  ability to quickly tell the difference between shadings on certain pictures  The experimenter came in and said “this a psychological experiment and they want to study the concept of contrast sensitivity”  He made a point of telling students where the other goes to college (made inequality clear between the two )  Was an experiment on how status and inequality works  At the end of the experiment, he would ask separately how each participant did  The higher status person assumed he performed better, and that his opposing partner did not do so well  The lower status person assumed he did not do so well, and that his opposing partner did well ▯ Stereotype threat: is the idea that people who are subject to stereotypes often feel extra pressure to do well, which lowers their performance Collars felt like anchor on neck that was dragging me down… stereotype threat… always thinking in terms of collar Couldn’t think right with collars on, distracts from performance  Social inequality- unequal access to resources and opportunities in society  Social stratification- system of inequality in which groups of people are divided into “layers” according to their relative power, property an prestige  In a family men can make more decisions then women  Inequality and social class o In societies with a market economy, social class is the most fundamental form of inequality o Social class is centered on economics o The effects of social class are pervasive affecting all aspects of people’s lives o The effects of social class reinforce each other and cumulate, creating a system of social stratification based on social class o Income health… less disease/live longer, education, appearance, where you live, more friends, avoid crime, marriage, less divorce o What does the class structure look like? o Who is the “middle class”?  In the US almost everyone thinks they are middle-class  The US median household income in 2005 was $43,300 and in 2009 it was $49,777  Income ranger for “middle class” is $35,000 to $80,000  Richest Quintile 50.3% (170K)  Second Richest 23.2% (78K)  Third Richest 14.6% (50K)  Fourth Richest 8.6% (20K)  Poorest Quintile 3.4% (12K)  Top 20% make 50% of the total income o Income- amount of money you make in a year o Wealth- the assets you own o Stocks, bonds, savings, retirement accounts, home equity, auto equity, real estate, business equity, mutual funds o Wealth generates income o Two measures of wealth  Net worth- all assets minus liabilities  Net financial assets- excludes home and auto equity o Richest 85% of the wealth nd o 2 12% o Middle 2% o 2 nd poorest .2% o Poorest .1% o Very unequal distribution of wealth READINGS The Importance of Being Beautiful  Social stratification- a groups system of ranking  All of us find ourselves ranked according to a variety of dimensions, from our parents social class when we are young to our own achievements or lack when we are older  Hairstyle, cars we drive, speech, walk, clothing, appearance/attractiveness  National Israeli TV network fired a competent female broadcaster because she was not beautiful  Beauty has powerful effect, getting job, grades, promotions  Attractive generous, trustworthy, sociable, modest, sensitive, interesting… halo effect  Unattractive mean, sneaky, dishonest, antisocial, poor sport… horns effect  243 female university students  7 year old pelted a sleeping dog with a sharp stone until its leg bled… animal limped away yelling in pain, the child continued the barrage of stone  243 women asked to assess the seriousness of the child’s offence and to give their impression of the child’s normal behavior  Clipped to half of the reports were photos of 7 year old boys and girls who had been rated high in physical attractiveness… the other half low attractiveness  The opinions of the adults were influenced by the appearance of the children  One reported happened to be an angelic-looking little girl… she appears to be a perfectly charming little girl, well mannered and basically unselfish she plays well with everyone but like everyone else a bad day may occur… her cruelty need not be taken too seriously  I think this child would be quite bratty and would be a problem to teachers. She’d probably try to pick a fight with other children… she would be a brat at home. All in all she would be a real problem  Tendency was to judge beautiful children as ordinary well behaved kids unlikely to engage in cruelty in the future, the unbeautiful as chronically antisocial, untrustworthy, and likely to commit similar transgressions again  Children respond by conforming to the teacher’s expectations  Dion thinks that adults must realize to what extent their opinions of a child can be biased by the child’s appearance  Who started classroom disturbance, who broke the vase… adults identify the unattractive child as the culprit  $10,000 worth of merchandise had disappeared and it was an inside job  after intensive investigation, which included a lie detector, Jurens was certain he had caught the thief  24 year old and gorgeous a lithe princess with high cheekbones, green eyes, long black hair  The employer dismissed Jurens proof with his comment “You’ve made a mistake. It cant be her”  A lot of people refuse the believe that beautiful can be bad  If a beautiful women is on trial, you practically have to show the judge and jury a movie of her committing the crime in order to get a conviction  Difficult defending a man charged with assault or wife-beating if he’s a brutish-looking hulk  Pleasant and neat-looking defendants were fined an average of $6.31 less than those ho were messy  Physically appealing defendants were given prison terms almost three years less than those who were unattractive for the same offence  Beauty or lack of it influences a person’s entire life  Flawless infant irresistible, receives inordinate amount of attention and love  Constantly picked up cuddle and cooed to  Unattractive baby may suffer neglect and rejection which can have an enduring effect on its personality and mental health  Born with visible physical defect… reluctant to touch, fondle, or give their child normal displays of affection  Nursery school unattractive kids not as liked by peers… accused of fighting a lot, hitting other students, yelling at the teacher  Unattractive scared them the most  Grade school teachers tend to judge their students based on looks  400 grade 5 students examine identical report cards  Half the students cards had a photo attractive boy or girl other have ugly  Beautiful children high IQ more likely to go to college and had parents who were more interested in education  Give beautiful more time, friendliness, inflated grades, encouragement  College 60 male students handed 700-word essay on the effects of trdevised violence on therdehavior of childrerd  1/3 attractive male… 1/3 ugly women, 1/3 no photo  No photo average marks  May be able to get away with inferior work if you are beautiful  Good-looking women fall in love more often and have more sexual experiences than others  Beautiful women are indeed sexually warmer simply because of experience  Six foot two or taller earned 12% more than men under six feet  Tall men dynamic, decisive, powerful, born leaders  Most glamorous girl hired  Best qualified is not chosen  Photos of promotions in the Globe and Mail business many women attractive  8/10 give appointment to pretty girl with photo on her card  Attractive women hid beauty no make-up, dressed poorly, hair messed up  Arguments failed to change men points of view  Made self alluring as possible  Tight fitting clothing, tasteful makeup, using identical argument had little difficultly persuading second group of men  Elderly attractiveness influences the way they’re treated in nursing homes  Better care to attractive ones  289 doctors, nurses, social workers, therapists with photos of 8 attractive and unattractive women and men  Ask to speculate what kind of patients they would be  Good looks cooperative, better motivated, likely to improve… given more time and attention  Beauty is equated with success  Assumptions about the personality of the bank teller, the delivery man, or the waitress by their looks its human nature Showing my Color  Circumstances we inherit at birth called social capital affect what happens to us in life  Born rich poor or in between  Single mother married parents, parents who go to college or don’t  Life chances- how the background factors that surround our birth affect our fate in life  Race—ethnicity is a major divide, opens and closes doors of opportunity and privilege  Primary source of identity, unites us with people and separates us form others  We are not born with an awareness of race of ethnicity we learn from others around us which can be a jarring experience  Account of how he learned he was black in a white society  Alabama as a child first saw water fountains marked “white” and “colored”  Water came out clear just like at home in Ohio  Segregation…. There are places white people don’t want colored people to go  Plenty of segregation in the North (Ohio) but no signs, which made it cheaper and easier to deny  Public swimming pools closed to nonwhites… across town to the separate-but-equal pool for colored  The steel miller had separate picnics from white and colored employees  Wanted to go to amusement park but little colored kids cant go there “I wish I was white”  Growing up in different reality then white friends  White friends happily discussed weekend at LeSourdesville Lake  Colored cant go there (black) oh that cant be (white) have you seen colored people there  By high school the park relaxed with its racial prohibitions  White people of low income, high insecurity, or fragile ego could always say that no matter how badly off they felt, at least they were not black  Segregation helped them uphold and maintain this illusion of superiority  Don’t be showin’ yo’ color… acting out or showing anger in a loud uncivilized way… lost their cool… went off  Colored, negro, black, African America, person of color  Some blacks are nationalists and don’t want anything to do with whites, some assimilationists and don’t want to do with other blacks, some integrationists who move in and out of various groups with ease  Black people can go anywhere they choose as long as they can pay the bill when they get there  Three year old cute… overnight going to turn from cute and innocent to a menace the most feared creature on America’s urban streets… a young black male  Stereotypes blacks bad, whites good, Asians good, latino try to be bad like blacks  Black or latino trying to make good grades “trying to be like whites”  Successful blacks accepted by whites Oprah Winfrey, Michael Jordan, Michael Jackson  1967 school integration peaked and has declined ever since  Economic segregation has proceeded without interruption, distancing poor blacks not only from whites but also from upwardly mobile blacks making the isolation and misery of poor blacks worse  One out of two black children lives below the poverty line, compared to one out of every seven white children  Black infants die at twice the rate of white infants  Million inmates nation prisons half black  The decline of industrial America, low-skill, high-pay jobs has left much of black America split in two along lines of class, culture, opportunity, and hope  Mulligan stew… everything in the pot, stirred, nothing melt, you could distinguish from carrots or potatoes, each maintained its distinctive character  Each loaned its specific flavor to the whole, and each absorbed some of the flavor from the others… that flavor always unique always changing is the beauty of America to me, even when the pot occasionally boils over  Some nationalistic and ethnocentric, others pluralistic or multicultural  A comfortable identity serves to provide not only a sense of belonging and protection for the individual against the abuses of racism, but also a sturdy foundation from which the individual can interact effectively with other people, cultures, and situations beyond the world of blackness  Cannot forget how persistently the rudeness of race continues to intrude between me and that dream, I can defy it, but I cannot deny it Moving Up from the Working Class  Get ahead in life, go to college, achieve goals  Parents give up luxuries and necessities… work hard sacrifice pleasures  Childhood socialization of sociologists form working-class backgrounds—people who have, by most standards “made something” of themselves, but not necessarily the ways their parents intended  Early socialization within a class culture has deep and abiding effects  When individuals socialized within a working-class family environment, they can expect to experience “culture shock” when they achieve upward mobility that takes them out of their class of origin and into the foreign terrain of middle-class culture  Parents class location most influence of socialization b/c directly linked to the nature of the resources that a family possess and makes available to its children  Capital assumes 3 forms, economic, cultural and social  Economic capital refers to materials of wealth or economic power, a form of capital which is immediately or directly convertible into money  Cultural capital refers to a broad range of knowledge about the world within which an individual lives  Social capital refers to the network of social connections that can be effectively mobilized by the family for its use  Bourdieu’s distinction between “high” and “low” cultural activities,  High… attending concerts/plays, taking dance lessons, listening to classical music  2/3 had experienced none of these activities during their childhoods  2 out of 10 had experienced one of them… no respondent had experienced more than three of them  High culture is directly related to the family’s position in the class structure  Socialization in working-class homes very different from middle- class or upper middle-class homes, beyond the level of material consumption (economic capital)  Middle-class taught different set of values and are themselves valued differently  Working-class children heavily influenced by the occupational experiences of their parents… important that children are able to support themselves… ardid appearing weak by asking for help  16 respondents 1/3 no material deprivation during their childhoods… 15 respondents did feel a sense of deprivation  Aware of income differences b/c student asked why he wore the same thing everyday  Father died became poorer and poorer, no new clothes, smaller meals  Couldn’t go to Jewish summer camp JCC… to girl scout camp because it costs less… only one present on Hanukkah not eight  Cultural capital is based on values, knowledge, and meaning  Parents encouraged them in their early educations  Working-class parents tend to leave education to the professionals while middle-class parents stay more involved with their children’s education  Working-class kids simply do not see the same career opportunities that middle class kids see  Limited information about what is available and what the requirements are for seeking it  Limited aspirations… white working class male in a stable home made him secure and comfortable… believed in the American Dream which meant he could do or be almost anything he wanted  Class system is institutionalized in the family  Values, expectations, and aspiration are formed and reinforced through interaction with family, friends, and teachers  Teachers and family didn’t influence about going to college  Parents interested in seeing their children do better than they had done  Social capital the potential to mobilize resources to one’s advantage through social ties  Academics from working class backgrounds often lack the information needed to achieve upward mobility but this is in large part due to their limited access to a network of social ties with people who know the answers to their questions  College became aware of class for the first time, no one able to help her find financial aid, fill out application forms, apply for scholarships, no one read scholarship essays, missed scholarship deadlines, 10-15 pounds due to lack of food  Jewish life working-class most friends middle… education was most meaningful aspect of life  Oldest girl child working class babysit younger children, clean the house, do dishes, cook, mow the lawn, rake the leaves even though had a job and sports  Options were nurse, teacher, nun, mommy or secretary ultimately be just a mommy anyway The Poor Pay All  Poverty… marriage likely to break up, sicker than others, children more likely to drop out of school and get in trouble with the law  The functions of poverty o Societies dirty work will be done… no other choice low wages o Dirty dangerous underpaid jobs o Willing and unable to be unwilling so they take these jobs o B/c poor work at low wages they subsidize a variety of economic activities that benefit the affluent o Poverty creates jobs for a number of occupations and professions that serve or “service” the poor, or protect the rest of society from them o Pawn shops, the sale of drugs, cheap wines o The poor buy goods others do not want and thus prolong the economic usefulness of such goods—day old bread, fruits and vegetables that would otherwise be thrown out, secondhand clothes, deteriorated automobiles and buildings… also provide income to doctors, lawyers, teachers who are too old, poorly trained, or incompetent to attract more affluent clients o Poor can be identified and pushed as alleged or real deviants in order to uphold the legitimacy of conventional norms o Lack political and cultural power to correct the stereotypes that other people hold of them thus continue to be thought of as lazy, spendthrift, dishonest by those who need living proof that moral deviance does not pay o The poor offer vicarious participation to the rest of the population in uninhibited sexual, alcoholic, and narcotic behavior in which they are alleged to participate o Poverty helps to guarantee the status of those who are not poor o The poor aid the upward mobility of groups just above them in the class hierarchy o The poor facilitate and stabilize the American political process… because they vote and participate in politics less than other groups, the political system is often free to ignore them o Dirty work could be done without poverty, either by automation or by paying dirty workers decent wages o With more affluence the poor would probably obtain more political power and be more active politically o Alternatives dysfunctional for affluent members… poverty fulfills a number of positive functions The US Upper Class  Republican party, consider each other equal, charitable efforts  Social register… who’s in, who’s out… list of wealthy people… club membership… universities attended… year graduated… children schools they attend and address  Prep schools, country clubs, debutante balls, service organizations, charitable organizations… maintain upper-class cohesion  Boarding schools made it completely possible to control social and educational environment of the students  Parents could be assured their child would be raised away from the distractions of the large cities and their hordes of newly arrived aliens  Ivy League schools…secret societies, private eating clubs  Yacht clubs… country clubs golf, swimming, tennis  Debutante balls… series of parties, teas, and dance held by upper-class families  Upper class has a distinct set of institutions that provide social and physical separation from the rest of society… set of values beliefs in young and old  Affirm cultural and group solidarity within the upper class and delineates class boundaries Nickel and Dimed  Middle-class people hard to understand what life is like for the poor  Enjoy health insurance, paid vacations, and sick leave  Late models of cars, have credit cards, bank accounts, and closets full of clothing  Price increases force poor to go without oranges and milk  Ehrenreich found out what it was like to be poor… left behind everything that normally soothes her ego and sustains the body, home, career, companion, reputation, ATM card… now low-wage job  Application—divorced homemaker whose sole work experience consists of housekeeping in a few private homes  Earn $7 an hour… can afford to spend $500 on rent… trailer home with no air conditioning, television, fans  Heartside hotel… discount for living… work 2-10pm make $2.43 an hour plus tips  10 days in livable lifestyle, Gail boss… waitress  Jerry’s food place  Pick up spicy chicken sandwich from the Wendy’s drive-through  Be careful with money  Housekeeping in hotel Poverty and Behavior Aspirations of brothers and hallway hangers  Social mobility is the measure of where we start and where we finish  Ex. being born in the working class and reaching the upper- middle class in adulthood  Since the US has a class system, mobility between classes exists  Inter and intra  Hard to change your economic position overtime  Once inequality is established hard to change  Rhetoric says that everyone can make it, but that just doesn’t happen  MacLeod wants to explain why low-income kids aren’t able to move upward socially o He wants to explain how poverty and inequality are reproduced  Focus on two groups of people o Hallway Hangers o Brothers o Low income housing project o Everyone in Clairedon Heights is the same o Hallway hangers- pessimistic about future, drugs, gangs, drinking, hang-out and get into trouble, fights o Conform to the typical picture of kids who live in public housing, societies picture of lower-class kids in poverty o Brothers- do get into trouble, no drugs/drinking, value school and education, work hard, optimistic about future, sports/activities, societies picture of regular middle-class kids o Typical way people explain the behavior of low income kids is in terms of economic and social conditions in which they live o Growing up, everyone is poor, housing is bad, broken families… liberal theory of crime… grow up like this and end up like this… criminals made not born o MacLeod rejects “economic determinist” perspectives o Aspirations- goals you set, expectations for where you want to be in the future o Hallway Hangers and Brothers very different aspirations o Behavior is a function of their aspiration o Expectation for their future act back to determine their present behavior o Family, school, peers, work  Aspirations  Behavior  Future  o Brothers- steady middle-class job, marry, have children and a family, a house in the suburbs, education, go to college, to get job o Hallway Hangers- expect middle-class job, be in prison, labor or manual jobs, dead o Peoples expectations for the future acting back to determine the present o Self-fulfilling prophecy- people develop certain beliefs and act on them and they become true  MacLeod argues that four factors (social institutions) shape the boys’ aspirations o Family life o School o Work o Peer groups  Hallway Hangers and Brothers have notably different home-lives  Self-confidence have significant others treat you, parents, siblings  Conceptions of future come from how they arrived in projects and how long there  Parents of brothers came into projects more recently  Parent’s educational background  Role of siblings  Parental “surveillance” or guidance  Two parents vs. Single parents (family structure)  School experiences o Hallway Hangers, less likely to graduate, don’t follow the rules, don’t see school as paying off so don’t develop educational aspirations like brothers o Teachers principals put them into the track that’s appropriate, lowest level o People respond to others by the status they have o Conforming to school rules and goals o Acceptance of the “achievement ideology” o The efficacy of schooling o The existence of equal opportunity o Brothers accept the idea that if they work hard in school get a good education will get a good job ^^^  Peer groups in Clarendon Heights o The brothers and Hallway Hangers have different kinds of peer groups o The peer groups engender different kinds of behaviors o The peer groups are important for their identity o Hallway Hangers don’t get rewarded from family or school, but sense of self and identity from each other o World is against them, no place to go back to, so they become important to each other, strong peer group o Society with each other, significant others Poverty and Social Mobility  Social Mobility is the measure of where we start and where we finish.  For example, being born in the working class and reaching the upper-middle class in adulthood.  Since the U.S. has a class system, mobility between classes exists.  MacLeod wants to explain why low-income kids aren’t able to move upward socially.  He wants to explain how poverty and inequality is reproduced  The Hallway Hangers and Brothers differ in several ways: o Characteristics o Aspirations o Behaviors  How can we explain the differences in behavior?  MacLeod rejects “economic determinist” perspectives.  Brothers’ aspirations o Middle-class jobs, family, raise children to go to college, be middle-class, own a house, etc.  Hallway Hangers’ aspirations o They think they’ll be dead or in jail. o “Leveled Aspirations”  People’s aspirations for the future – not their present conditions – explain their behavior. o Like a self-fulfilling prophecy o But, the question is whether it comes true. . .  Thus, it’s not economic determinism.  MacLeod argues that four factors (social institutions) shape the boys’ aspirations. 1. Family life 2. School 3. Work 4. Peer groups Family Life in Clarendon Heights  The Hallway Hangers and Brothers have notably different home- lives.  Parents’ educational background.  The role of siblings.  Parental “surveillance” or guidance.  Two parents vs. Single parents (i.e., family structure).  How long they have lived in the projects. School Experiences  Each group of boys approaches school differently.  Completing High School.  Conforming to School rules and goals.  Tracking.  Acceptance of the “Achievement Ideology” 1. The Efficacy of Schooling 2. The Existence of Equal Opportunity Work Experiences  The Brothers and Hallway Hangers have different attitudes and experiences regarding work.  Aspirations vs. Expectations for future employment.  The boys’ employment experiences.  Parents’ and siblings’ jobs. Peer Groups in Clarendon Heights  The Brothers and Hallway Hangers have different kinds of peer groups  The peer groups engender different kinds of behaviors  The peer groups are important for their identity  Family Aspirations   Behaviors: School 1. Hallway Hangers (delinquent) Work 2. Brothers (Middle Class) Gender, Power, and Conversation Patterns  Men attempt to maintain a one-up position, often using verbal challenges and expecting verbal opposition  More direct approach when criticizing another’s idea  Women soften criticism  They expect and use compliments and praise for others’ ideas  Gender differences are due to socialization  Learn different styles of speech growing up  Mishaps when taking to the opposite sex  Differences in power between individuals affect how the other speaks  Women disclaimers and qualifiers in speech  Disclaimers­ statements expressed before an opinion or idea that indicate the  speakers uncertainty concerning others responses to the idea  Ex. “I know this might sound stupid but…” “I may be wrong but…”  Qualifiers are adverbs that weaken the strength of the speaks opinion  Ex. “maybe” “perhaps” “sort of”  Tentative forms of speech ^^  Women minimal response that support other speakers  Ex. “yeah” “mhm”  Men take up the floor time  Men interrupt women more than women interrupt men  Dominating the floor and interrupting are dominant forms of speech  Men also use directive forms of speech  Less likely to qualify idea, instead they simply offer their ideas  Men smile and laugh less often than women  Women tentative supportive style  Men dominative directive style  Tentative means doubt about opinion/confidence… affects speakers influence  Socialization approach­ they are given “male” and “female” names and toys, wear different colors, clothes and hairstyles, and are expected to do particular “boy-like” or “girl-like” activities  These differences are reinforced by parents, peers, teachers, and the media  Boys and girls are taught appropriate ways to talk  Girls learn to care about creating and maintaining relationships and learn more  indirect ways to criticize others and to be more polite and encouraging toward  others in conversation  Boys learn to assert dominance and to attract and maintain an audience by using  commands, directives, and insults  Boys learn to feel comfortable in challenging others and one­upping each other  Boys and girls learn different styles of speech through the different expectations  that peers and parents have about the way boys and girls should talk  Situational Power Approach­ the power that each individual holds in a given  situation determines their speech style  Max Weber power­ the ability to realize one’s will even over the resistance or  opposition of others  Ex. bosses have more power than their subordinates, and judges than lawyers…  judges can get lawyers to comply to their wishes even when the lawyers disagree  People who have more power in a given context are likely to use a more  directive/dominate speech style, while those who have less power use a tentative  style  Teachers and students, parents and their children  Men and women in similar power positions should have similar speech patterns  Talk differently to your peers than you do


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