ALL of Chapter 5
ALL of Chapter 5 HNES 250
Popular in Nutrition science
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Nursing and Health Sciences
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Dosso on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HNES 250 at North Dakota State University taught by Elizabeth Hilliard in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Nutrition science in Nursing and Health Sciences at North Dakota State University.
Reviews for ALL of Chapter 5
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/12/15
Chapter 5 Notes Power Point FillIns Slide 2 0 DP 2F 3F 4T Slide 4 0 Diet 0 Storage 0 Glycerol 0 9 0 Not Slide 6 0 Saturation Slide 8 0 Saturated 0 Unsaturated 0 Even 0 Dairy Slide 10 0 Hydrogen 0 Double 0 Solid Slide 13 0 Double 0 Omega3 0 Omega6 Slide 14 Not Shown Slide 16 Not Shown Slide 21 0 Firmness 0 Stability 0 Rancid Slide 23 0 Hydrogens 0 Trans Slide 25 0 Hydrogenated Slide 27 0 Saturated 0 Cholesterol Slide 28 0 Food 0 Body Slide 31 The headings on 30 and 31 should both be lecithin 0 Phospholipid 0 Liver Slide 35 0 Vitamin D 0 Cells Slide 39 0 Lipoproteins Slide 42 0 Largest Slide 43 0 Adipose 0 Shrink Slide 44 0 High 0 Bad Slide 45 0 Drugs 0 200 Slide 46 0 KNOW THIS CHART Slide 48 0 Smoker 0 Obesity 0 Saturated Slide 49 0 Protein 0 Good Slide 14 0 Body 0 6 0 3 Slide 16 0 Deficiency Slide 50 0 Efficient 0 Glucose Slide 51 0 Unlimited Slide 52 0 Rest Slide 54 0 Fat 0 Glucose Slide 55 0 Ketone Slide 56 0 Ketoacidosis Slide 57 0 EtOH 0 NOT Slide 58 0 killer 0 LDL Slide 61 0 Obesity 0 Lipid Slide 65 0 40 0 Fried 0 Baked Slide 67 0 Canola 0 Olive Slide 70 0 Fat Slide 71 0 Sensible 0 20 Slide 72 o 35 0 10 Slide 74 0 Visible Slide 75 0 Margarine 0 Cheese 0 Fried 0 Slide 77 0 Animal 0 Meats 0 Milk 0 Slide 87 0 Saturated 0 Kcalories 0 Trans 0 Margarine 0 Slide 88 0 Cholesterol 0 Inhibit 0 Absorption 0 Chapter Review 1 990999993 OUUUUUOUODgtUU 10 B NOTES NOTES 0 Reduced fat 25 less fat 0 Fat Free doesn t mean NO calories 0 Olive oil vs corn oil 0 Olive oil will provide more monounsaturated fatty acids than corn oil 0 They are both vegetable oils so they will have similar effects 0 Corn oil has polyunsaturated fats 0 Butter has saturated fat and is made from milk 0 Margarine has trans fat and is made from oils 0 Trans fat makes it more solid 0 Corn oil doesn t have any trans fat and is lower in saturated fats 0 Sterols are rings 0 Sterols are poorly absorbed 0 Phospholipids and triglycerides are chains 0 Phospholipids have a phosphate group 0 Triglycerides O 3 fatty acids usually different on a glycerol background 0 Plenty of Carbon and Hydrogen little oxygen 0 Water is a byproduct of making triglycerides O Classified by 39 Chain length 0 Short chains like less than 6 carbons are dairy products 0 Long chains like 14 24 carbons are meatsfish O 18 carbons long are the most common 0 There are always an even number of carbons in the chain if between 4 24 carbons long 39 Saturation 0 Saturated means NO double bonds has maximum of hydrogen solid at room temp 0 Coconut and palm oils are saturated despite physical appearance 0 Unsaturated means it has at least one double bond liquid at room temp because they are not as tightly packed together 0 1 double bond monounsaturated 0 Multi double bonds polyunsaturated O O O I Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid the first double bond is on carbon 3 I Shape cis or trans Omega 3 Omega 6 fatty acids cannot be produced by our bodies therefore they only come from our diet Monounsaturated olive Polyunsaturated corn sun ower ect Table 5 1 on Slide 20 I A different way of naming fatty acids Antioxidants help keep food good for longer 0 BHT BHA Vitamins E amp C Hydrogenation O O O Inserting more hydrogen so that double bonds break and bond with hydrogen I Results in more saturated fats I Sometimes it only changes the double bond from natural cis to unnatural trans Cis same side Trans opposite side Phospholipids O O O O O Soluble in both water and fat Phospholipids are used in the cell membranes as a barrier Also has a glycerol backbone Has 2 fatty acids and a phosphate attached to glycerol Lecithin I This is the most known phospholipid I It has phosphate choline on its glycerol I Lecithin supplements are not absorbed intact Sterols O 0 Cholesterol is the most well known sterol Cholesterol is only found in animals Cholesterol is similar in structure to Vitamin D I If sun is present Vitamin D can be made from cholesterol Cholesterol can be used to make Vitamin D SeX hormones and Bile Cholesterol is important in our diet in moderation 0 Short train and medium chain fats can be absorbed thru blood but the really long chains must be absorbed via lymph first I Lipoproteins 0 Mix of protein and lipids so that it can be transported Chylomicrons VLDL LDL HDL View Slides 40 41 Chylomicrons Slide 42 O Largest and least dense 0 Has mostly triglycerides O This is transformed into VLDL in the liver after going thru the body via blood VLDL Slide 43 0 Has less Triglycerides 0 Is smaller than chylomicron O Travels thru blood and back to liver to be converted into LDL LDL Slide 44 O Smaller than VLDL 0 High in cholesterol 0 Absorbed into peripheral tissues muscles fat stores and mammary glands 0 It is considered to be the bad cholesterol 0 Most cholesterol lowering drugs target the LDL I Optimal levels of LDL is ltlOO 0 Some will go back thru blood and back to liver to be converted into HDL HDL Slide 49 0 Less cholesterol 0 High in protein SLIDE 14 16 0 Essential fatty acids 0 Know the linoleic and linolenic acids I Important in growth and development Lipoprotein fatty protein 0 Used for transportation of fats O A protein combines with a lipid making it more soluble in the blood Saturated and trans fats have the largest effect on our cholesterol levels Per gram unit of fat we get 2X the calories It is easier to use glucose from the diet for energy than to use the stored up fat No limit to how much fat we can store in our body Using fat occurs during lighter activities because there is more oxygen available to help burn the fat Glycerol and amino acids can be used to make glucose during fasting states however eventually if no glucose is present in the diet the body will break down muscle 0 Protein is found in muscle skin heart lungs ect so we can t afford to have them broken down Oxyloacitate is needed to breakdown fats completely these come from carbohydrates 0 If fat isn t completely broken down it becomes a ketone AVOID EXTENDED PERIODS OF FASTING AND DON T DO LOW CALORIE DIETS IF YOU RE TRYING TO LOSE WEIGHT 0 Losing 1 2 pounds a week is optimal for a diet 0 Anything more than that means you re losing muscle or water Ketones build up during fasting or low carb diets O This can cause health problems blurry vision coma ect Plaque can be built up in arteries and lead to heart problems 0 Plaque can be made of fat or glucose 0 This decreases the area of which blood moves through this artery which makes the heart pump harder Optimal ranges 0 LDL lt 100 O HDL gt 40 0 41 For every 4 units of total cholesterol you should have at least 1 HDL Sometimes low fat foods are worse because they are higher in calories Monounsaturated fats are the best type of fat for you Its best to get Omega s from your diet and not supplements Exercise will help burn calories The optimal way to lose weight is to decrease calories and increase exercise Cancer 0 Total Fat is linked to certain cancers most likely a promoter I Ovarian breast and prostate I Plant based fat is better than animal fat 0 Total energy intake and obesity are big in uences Fat We need 20 at least of our energy from fat But don t over do it more than 35 is too much Saturated fat should be 10 or less of energy intake 0 Cholesterol should be 300 mg or less TLC Therapeutic lifestyle change diet 0 lt7 saturated fat 0 Total fat 20 35 I 10 poly unsaturated fat I 20 Mono unsaturated fat 0 Add plant sterols into the diet at 2 gday Using plant oils is better than solid butter 0 Most plant oils are unsaturated 0 Coconut and palm are saturated oils 0 Sun ower and corn have polyunsaturated fats 0 Olive and canola have monounsaturated Cut off fat from meat OOO Low fat products typically contain more sugar and are equally bad when it comes to calories 0 EX Low Fat Peanut Butter Avoid trans fats 0 Indicated by the word hydrogenated 0 If it s less than 12 a gram it doesn t have to be listed on the label Omegas are common in fish and ax however these are less common in the American diet so supplements are common 0 However it s hard to judge how much should be in a supplement Eggs have lots of cholesterol approximately 200mg Cholesterol comes from animals not plants Sterols can come from plants Essential amino acids come from protein Fat is the primary source of energy for aerobic actiVities because glucose runs out quickly Energy dense foods provide satiety