Cell Biology & Histology
Cell Biology & Histology ANISCI 220
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Jasa on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANISCI 220 at University of Massachusetts taught by Dr. Cousin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Animal Anatomy/Physiology in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Cell Biology amp Histology 0 Know all the organelles of the cell 0 Peroxisome liver cells use a lot 0 Lysosome 0 Everything in red need to know 0 Q passive membrane 0 Different shapes and functions of the different types of cells 0 The Tissues 0000 4 primary tissues Epithelia tissue epithelial cells Connective tissue fibroblast cells Neural tissue 0 Muscle tissue 0 Stains used in Histology o Stain used to see the structures of tissue is called histological stain 0 Typically contains a mix of two dyes I Combination of eosin amp hematoxylin EampH or HampE or variants 0 Cells amp their sub cellular compartments will preferentially take one or the other depending on their pH 0 Hematoxylin is a basic dye so it will stain acidic structures like the DNA nucleus appears blue 0 Eosin is acidic so it will stain the basic structures like the cytoplasm of cells or collagen fibers pink 0 Epithelial Tissues 0 Features I Apical side I Basal side I Tight junctions I Gap junctions I Cilia not all have them 0 Functions I Line many organs I Epithelial cells can provide any or all of the following function depending on the organ Protection they act as a barrier amp hence provide protection to the organism skin Secretion mucus secreted by salivary glands amp rarely excretion Absorption enterocytes of the GI tract Transportation transport of materials or cells along the surface of an epithelium by motile cilia or in the transport of materials across an epithelium to amp from the connective tissue Receptor function receive amp transduce external stimuli as in the taste buds of the tongue olfactory epithelium of the nasal mucosa amp the retina of the eye o Secretion vs Excretion I Secretion Production amp release of a useful substance by a gland or cell I Excretion Discharge of waste urine sweat carbon dioxide bilirubin or feces from the body through the kidneys skin lungs bowels etc 0 Types I Shapes Squamous cells appear at Cuboidal cells appear square Columnar cell appear rectangular I Number of Layers Simple 1 cell layer Stratified 2 or more cell layers Pseudostratified 1 to 2 cell layers I Presence of cilia can be seen in almost all types 0 Simple Squamous Cells I Alveoli in the lungs I Blood amp lymph capillaries I Parietal membranes that line body cavities 0 Simple Cuboidal I Ovaries I Kidney tubules I Ducts of the pancreas I Liver I Salivary glands I Testes 0 Simple Columnar I Lining of the digestive tract look for purple goblet cells that secrete mucous I Uterine tubules o Stratified Columnar I Vas deferens I Male urethra I Parts of the pharynx o Stratified Cuboidal I Mammary glands I Sweat glands I Pancreas I Ovarian follicles o Stratified Squamous I Non Keratinized Oral cavity 0 Throat Vagina Anal canal I Keratinized Outer layer of the skin epidermis Pseudostratified Columnar I Lining of the respiratory tract Transitional I Urinary tract lines the bladder amp ureters I Subject to stretching forces I Have round cells at the apical side Secretory Epithelia I Epithelial cells that secrete compounds can be found as single cells inserted into an epithelium Goblet cells are such cells I Most are organized in groups forming structures called glands or glandular epithelia Glandular Epithelia I A glandular epithelia is an epithelium made of cells that Will secrete compounds mucus sebaceous I Not all epithelia secrete things epidermis of the skin only sweatsebaceous glands do I A Method of Secretions tissue level Exocrine secrete outside the body skin lumen of the GI tract anything that has a direct contact With the outside world secrete on their apical side Endocrine secrete inside the body secrete on their basal side 0 Endocrine pancreas pituitary gland I B Type of Secretion exocrine glands only Serous secretions watery produce poorly glycosylated protein secretion serous gland often presents themselves as acini o Pleura lacrimal gland Mucus secretions viscous amp slimy o Goblet cells found sublingual salivary glands or the GI tract the mucus is usually lost during tissue preparation and hence the cells appear to be empty I C Method of secretions cellular level Merocrine exocytose of vesicles containing the product 0 Goblet cells in various epithelia Apocrine the cell sheds part of its cytoplasm Which breaks down to release its content 0 Breast epithelium Holocrine the cell disintegrates to releases its content 0 The cell dies in the process sebaceous glands Connective Tissue 0 Most abundant type of tissue o Composed of 3 distinct components Extracellular fiber collagen elastin Ground substance calcite crystals carbos anything but proteins Cells that are usually mesenchymal in appearance but not always 0 The ratio of all 3 direct the stiffness amp texture of the tissue Tendon high fiber low GS gt exible Bones high fiber high GS gt hard Blood lowno fiber lowno GS gt liquid 0 Types of Connective Tissues Classical Dense Connective Tissue DCT o More fibers less cells Loose Connective Tissue LCT 0 Less fiber more cells Non Classical Bones Cartilage Blood Adipose tissues 0 Classical Connective Tissue Losse CT low GS amp mediumlow in fiber gt tend to have high amount of mesenchymal cells Areolar tissue packing material for organs moderate elasticity tear down easily primary ground substance is hyaluronic acid Adipose tissue brown fat amp white fat Reticular tissue lymph node spleen amp bone marrow Dense CT contains high fiber amp lowto GS gt tend to have low amount of mesenchymal cells Dense regular parallel collagen little ground substance few blood vessels gt anything that requires high tensile strength in one direction tendons ligaments fascia sheets Dense regular bundles of collagen interwoven randomly gt anything that requires medium tensile strength in multiple directions dermis capsule of joints covering of organs Elastic tissue contain elastin some types of ligaments require more elasticity than normal gt nuchal neck ligaments of horses 0 Non Classical Connective Tissue Cartilage gristles Ground substance chondroitin sulfate hyaluronic acid amp chondronectin Hyaline cartilage Elastic cartilage Fibrocartilage I Bones Ground substance hydroxyapatite Compact Cancellous I Blood Made of red blood cells erythrocytes amp white blood cells I Adipose tissue fat cells Found throughout loose connective tissue Tissues in which adipocytes are the primary cell type are designated adipose tissue Adipocytes play a key role in energy homeostasis Two types white amp brown The Membranes O O O Composed of a epithelial sheet anchored to an underlying connective tissue Typically line body cavities separate organs amp cover surfaces 4 Types mucous mucosae serous serosae cutaneous synovial In two general locations surface epithelium amp its underlying connective tissue are regarded as a functional unit called a membrane The term membrane in histology should not be confused with the plasmic membranes of cells The designations mucus amp serous should not be confused with the nature of the gland secretion Mucosa I Lines cavities that connect with the outside of the body namely the alimentary canal the respiratory tract amp the genitourinary tract I Consists of Surface epithelium with or without glands A supporting connective tissue called the lamina propria A basement membrane separating the epithelium from the lamina propria Sometimes a layer of smooth muscle called the muscularis mucosae as the deepest layer I Made of stratified squamous or simple columnar on a bed of loose connective tissue called lamina propria I Secrete exception of bladder large quantities of lubricating mucous I This secretion is usually performed by globlet cells the secretion is made of water electrolytes amp mucin Function is to lubricate amp trap unwanted particles dust germs Serosae I Lines the peritoneal pericardial amp pleural cavities I These cavities are usually describes as closed cavities of the body although in the female the peritoneal cavity communicates with the exterior via the genital tract Structurally consists of Lining epithelium named the mesothelium A supporting connective tissue A basement membrane between the two Serous memebranes do not contain glands but the uid on their surface is watery Made of simple squamous epithelium on a bed of loose connective tissue The secretion is very watery water amp electrolytes exudate Name of serosae depends on which cavity you re talking about Pleural thorax Peritoneal abdomen Pericardial heart Lines the body cavity walls amp the organs One continuous sheet folded over The sheet in contact with the cavity wall is the parietal layer amp the sheet that contracts the organ is the visceral layer Problems with the serosae Effusion excessive amount of uid in the serosae ascites effusion in the peritoneal cavity Adhesion abnormal connections between parietal amp visceral layers due to a lack of exudate between them gt extremely painful In the abdominal cavity the visceral layers of serosa merge to form a supportive ligament called the mesenteries that secure the organs to the body wall amp form a framework for the passage of blood vessels amp nerves Examples of the mesenteries Omentum attach the stomach amp colon to the abdominal wall Small bowel mesentery packages the small intestine together 0 Cutaneous skin Epithelium is the epidermis amp is keratinized stratified squamous epithelium The connective tissue part is the dermis amp is irregular dense rich in collagenous reticular amp elastic fiber Separated from the other mucosa bc of mechanical amp waterproof properties amp lack of mucus secreting cells 0 Synovial Found exclusively in the joints Have no epithelium Connective tissue manufactures the synovial liquid that participates in the shock absorption properties of these joints
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