Skeleton System ANISCI 220
Popular in Animal Anatomy/Physiology
Popular in Animal Science and Zoology
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Jasa on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANISCI 220 at University of Massachusetts taught by Dr. Cousin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Animal Anatomy/Physiology in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Axial Skeletal Skeleton System 0 Includes skull vertebrae cervical thoracic lumbar sacral coccyx sternumsternebrae manubrium xyphoid process ribs true false oating Skull 0 Skull cranium two kinds nerocranium amp Vicerocranium 0 Bones of the Cranium Visible temporal occipital frontal amp parietal Invisible ethmoid sphenoid o Facial Bones Maxilla Mandible Nasal Ethmoid plate Inferior nasal concha turbinate Palatine Vomer Lacrimal Ethmoid Palate o Auditory Bones amp Hyoid Malleus Inous Stapes o Other Features Sutures joints that link the bones together fronto parietal Condyles protuberances bumps on bones occipital condyle Meatus hole in the bones to let nerves amp other things through accoustic meatus Foramens holes in the bones to let nerves amp blood vessels through mental foramen Zygomatic arch composed the extension of two bones the zygomatic amp the temporal the mandibular condyle sit on it When the mouth is closed 0 Skull Deer Turbinates Also called concha Meant to increase the surface of the nasal epithelium that con act the air inhale gt increase its moisture content before going into thelungs 0 Teeth Canines 2X5 Incisors 2X2 Canines 2X4 Premolar I 2X2 Molar 0 Teeth I Carnivores front teeth sharp to help shred the meat I Herbivores front teeth at Vertebrae I Transverse process is usually perpendicular but it can have a little bit of an angle 0 Cervical Vertebrae I 7 in mammals 12 in birds I Cl is called the atlas Holds everything I C2 is called the axis Turns the neck I C3 C7 are about the same shape I All other C are name by position I Only vertebrae With transverse foramen Which forms a canal for the vertebral artery Thoracic Vertebrae I 18T in horse 12 in humans I Only vertebrae that connects With the ribs I Typically have a long spinous process amp short transverse process I Anticlinal vertebrae vertebrae Whose spinous process is aligned With the rest of the vertebrae I In horses spinous process is found underneath the Withers in cats its found underneath the shoulder blades Lumbar Vertebrae I 5L in humans 8L in horses I Long transverse processes in quadrupeds I Thick body in bipeds weightforce bearing I Orientation of the facets allow for eXion side bending amp extension I Limited rotation Sacrum I Made of fused sacral vertebrae I The number of these fused vertebrae depend on the species I This number can be inferred by counting the number of intervertebral foramina I Sacrum articulates With the 2 innominate bones to form the pelvis Coccygeal Vertebrae I Caudal end of tail Ribs I They articulate dorsally With the thoracic vertebrae I True ribs vertebrosternal rib attaches directly to the sternum I False ribs vertbrochondral rib attaches indirectly to the sternum I Floating ribs don t attach to the sternum Sternum First bone manubrium Last bone xiphoid process Middle bone sternebra Where the ribs attach to the sternum costochondral junction Appendicular Skeleton o Plantigrade walk on their entire feet 0 Di giti grade walk on their digits 0 Unguligrade walk on hooves Forelimb 0 Includes Scapula Humerus Radius Ulna Carpus Metacarpus Phalanges proximal medial distal o Scapula Shoulder blade 0 Humerus o Radius Capitulum or capitellum in quadrupeds articulates with the head of the radius Trochlea articulates with the ulna fits with the trochlear notch The anneal process of the ulna fits into the supertroclear foramen when the limb is extended The head articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula The oclearanon process is found under the elbow From proximal to distal Olecranon process Trochlear notch Anconeal process Coronoid processes Shaft Styloid process Next to the ulna From proximal to distal Proximal articular surface Shaft Styloid process o Carpus Metacarpus amp Phalanges I From proximal to distal Carpals Metacarpals Digits o Proximal phalanges 0 Intermediate phalanges o Distal phalanges I DewclaW is the remnants of the 1st digit 0 Sesamoids I Small round bones found generally in the limbs I Provode tendon protection amp provide mechanical advantage I The biggest sesamoid bone is the patella o Pelvis I Sacrum amp 2 innominate bones o Femur I Proximally the head of the femur fits into the pelvic s acetabulum I Distally the lateral condyles fit into the tibia I The trochlea articulate With the patella Femoral trochlea or trochlea of the femur o Tibia amp Fibula I Tibia Tibial Head Tibial tuberosity attaches the patella ligaments Shaft tibia Medial maleolus Lateral maleolus Tibial condyles I Fibula Fibular head 0 Shaft fibula o Tarsals o Metatarsals amp Proximal amp Distal Phalanges Visceral Bones 0 Formed in soft organs viscera 0 Ex I Os penis in the penises of dogs the female of some species also have an os clitoris I Os cordis in the hearts of cattle I Os rostri in the snouts of swine 0 Types of Joints 0 Fibrous I Non movable I Ex Sutures of the cranium o Cartilaginous I Slightly movable I Ex symphysis pubic mandibular intervertebral disk 0 Synovial I Highly mobile joints I Subtypes Hinge elbow atlantoocipital Gliding anything involving at bones wrist Pivot atlanto aXial joint gt no joint Ball amp socket shoulder hip Movements by the Joints 0 FleXionExtension I Extend flex 0 AbductionAdduction I Abduction towards the lateral I Adduction towards the median o Circumduction o Rotation 0 Other Movements Bipeds only 0 Radius moves around the ulna type of ligaments to allow this annular ligament of the radius amp radial collateral ligament o Supination thumb away from the median o Pronation thumb toward the median
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