Bone Physiology ANISCI 220
Popular in Animal Anatomy/Physiology
Popular in Animal Science and Zoology
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Jasa on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANISCI 220 at University of Massachusetts taught by Dr. Cousin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Animal Anatomy/Physiology in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Bone Physiology Functions of Bones 0 Provide support 0 Protection 0 Calcium 0 Hemopoess 0 Movement What s inside a long bone 0 Epiphysis I Articular cartilage I Spongy bone cancellous bone 0 Epiphyseal plate 0 Diaphysis shaft I Compact bone I Endosteum I Medullary cavity I Yellow marrow or red marrow I Periosteum o Epiphyseal plate 0 Epiphysis Inside the Diaphysis o 3 types of cells in the bone osteoblasts osteocytes amp osteoclasts o Osteoblasts I Precursors to the mature bone cells I Secrete essentail enzyme in the mineralization process called phosphatase gt bone builders o Osteocytes I Matured osteoblasts o Osteoclasts I Special giant multinucleated bone cells that break down the mineralized bone by secretion of destructive enzymes gt bone destroyers Producing Bone O O Osteoblast secrete osteoid a liquid that is I Fiber collagen type 1 osteocalcine I Ground substance chondroitin sulfate amp hydroxyapatite Osteoblasts also secrete an enzyme phosphatase that turn this liquid bone into solid The osteoblast trapped in their solidified matrix are now maturing into osteocytes Bone growth in the width of the bone can be done by adding layers on the outside Bone Chemical Composition 0 Matrix of Collagen mostly I Bone in a strong acid gt calcium is dissolved I What s left is a exible collagen matrix 0 Calcium Deposition I Microwave a bone gt destroy the collagen matrix I End up with a pile of dust calcium mineral of the bone I The dust resulting from the cremation of a body is 99 calcium from the bones 0 Bone Maintenance 0 O 0000 Bone extracellular matrix needs to be maintained Bones constantly break down amp rebuild the collagen amp minerals that they are made of Requires two types of cells osteoclasts amp osteoblasts Osteoclasts eat away at the bone s mineral coating amp collagen Osteoblasts lay new collagen amp coat the bone with fresh minerals Bone destruction amp creation is new ending gt constant breakdown amp replacement so human bones are never more than 20 yrs old 0 Bone Fractures O 0000 Healing I Hematoma formation day 0 I Fibrocartilaginous callus formation month 1 I Bony callus formation month 2 I Bone remodeling year 1 Faster in the young than the old Slower in the lower limb than the upper limb Faster in spongy bone than compact bone Types I Greenstick incomplete cast or splint I Transverse can be displaced or not cast I Comminuted need to have surgery little pieces have broken off I Compound bone goes through the skin open fracture
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