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Date Created: 10/12/15
PSY24OO Cognitive Psychology By Professor Prunier 5 Week 1 Chapter 1 amp 2 Introduction to Cognitive Psychology Cognition is the mental activity that describes the acquisition storage transformation and use of knowledge Cognitive Psychology is the scienti c study of cognition Levels of Analysis from large scale to small 0 Social interactions 0 Behavioral movements 0 Mental the Mind 0 NeurologicaPhysioogica the physical brain 0 Neurochemical functions of the brain 0 Molecular atoms and cells functions There are two de ned types of people when it comes to decision making A Maximizer will search for as many options as possible for the situation in order to come up with the best outcome A Satis cer will search for the cheapest option in order to receive the guickest outcome Handedness A consistent hander will always use their dominant hand for most if not all of their daily activities An inconsistent hander wi alternate between hands regularly with different activities and it has been discovered that these individuals have better episodic memory they can recall past events more clearly History of Cognitive Psychology Mary Caukins 18631930 0 Used real words to study the limitations of memory 0 Paired Associates Task 0 Remembering words better when there is a relationship between them I ex Sowing and needle or cat and mouse 0 Recentic Effect 0 Giving a list of words and seeing how many words people can recite 0 Typically they can only recall the last few words William James 18421910 0 The rst real psychologist 0 Wrote the rst psychology text book 0 The Principles of Psychology 1890 Functionalism o How do things work 0 The belief that the mind has the function of helping people adapt to the environment 0 More practical than science John Watson 18781958 0 Behaviorism 0 People learn through stimulus and response 0 Learning through observation Cognitive Revolution This was the era that rejected behaviorism as the sole explanation of behavior Noam Chomsky 1928Present 0 Human language is biologically driven and too complex to be explained by behaviorism O Context clues 0 Using the surrounding words in a sentence to determine the meaning of a word you ve never seen before Jean Piaget 18961980 Stages of Cognitive Development 1 Sensorimotor Birthage 2 a explore with senses lack object permanence i once the object leaves their sight it no longer exists to them 2 Preoperational ages 27 a Language develops but limited use of logical thought 3 Concrete operational ages 711 a Understand concrete logic and reasoning 4 Formal operational ages 11up a Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypotheses systematically George Miller 19202012 I quotThe magical number seven plus or minus twoquot I A person is limited on how much information they can retain at one time 0 Ex Phone numbers and license numbers Emergence of Computers 0 New metaphor for the brain 0 Our cognitive processes work like a computer 0 Beginning of Al Arti cial Intelligence and computer science Herbert Simon 19162001 I Nobel Prize Winner 0 Bounded rationally 0 The mind is limited by 3 variables I The amount of information available I The limits of their cognitive mind I The time constraints on the situation Alan Newell 19271992 0 Invited the rst computer program in 1956 O The Logical Theorist I Functions included list processing meansends analysis and use of heuristics to limit the search space Steven Pinker 1954Present The Blank Slate 2002 o The mental world can be grounded in the physical world by concepts of information computation and feedback 0 The mind cannot be a blank slate because blank slates cannot do anything 0 An in nite range of behavior can be generated by a nite combination of programs in the mind 0 Universal mental mechanisms can underlie super cial variations across cultures 0 The mind is a complex system composed of many interacting parts Information Processing AtkinisonShiffrin Model 0 Fundamental theory 0 External sensory events music someone speaking traf c I Selective attention 0 Sensory memory I All information can be lost within a second or two 0 Short term memory I Unrehearsed information can be lost within 15 to 30 seconds 0 Long term memory Information is retained inde nitely although some information may become dif cult to retrieve after a long period of no use Connectionist Approach 0 Parallel Distributed Processing PDP 0 Neuralnetwork 0 Brain processes everything at the same time 0 Ex Sight and sound 0 Brain processes everything at the same time 0 Ex Sight and sound Cognitive Neuroscience 0 Lesion studies 0 Comparing an individual with a damaged brain to an individual with an undamaged brain 0 Mapping the brain 0 Computed tomography 0 Magnetic resonance imaging MRI TopDown Processing 0 Bottomup processing 0 The stimulus characteristics are important when you recognize an object 0 Analyzing the object by its components Topdown processing 0 A person s concepts expectations and memory can in uence object recognition 0 Using past experiences to recognize objects Topdown processing an reading 0 Our mind proofreads and corrects mistakes without us knowing quotSmart mistakesquot 0 Change blindness Failing to detect a change in an object or scene 0 There was a white chair and now its black 0 lnattentional blindness An external change in the object or scene 0 A girl joins a group of guys without undetected Speech Perception Characteristics 0 Phoneme the basic sounds of a word 0 There are 4045 different phonemes that make up every word sound in the world 0 Word Boundaries every word has a start and nish 0 Variability in Phoneme Pronunciation O Phonemic restoration 0 Visual cue talking and driving 0 It is more dif cult to drive while talking on the phone with someone versus talking to that same person while they are in the passage seat 0 McGurk Effect auditory illusion using multiple senses to understand a situation Theones 0 Special Mechanism Approach categorical perception 0 Phonetic module something made just for sound analysis 0 General Mechanism Approach 0 Use same mechanisms for speech as for sound
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