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Cameron 1 SOC 101 Study Guide Test 1 Chapter 1 o What is Sociology 0 Study of society Howard Becker Sociology is the study of people quotdoing things togetherquot because neither the individual nor society exist independently from one another 0 Looks at Institutions Structures in our society such as education economics and politics Helps better understand our social relationships 0 One of the social sciences Disciplines that examine the human or social world Include Economics Psychology Geography Communication Studies Anthropology History and Political Science 0 Helps develop sociological perspective A way of taking a sociological approach or thinking sociologically about the world quotPut on sociologist hatquot 0 Society A group of people who shape their lives in patterned ways that distinguish their group from other groups 0 Sociologist Person who studies society Interested in all aspects of society 0 Culture Shock 0 Occurs when you experience a sense of disorientation upon entering a new environment 0 Behaviors that seem typical in one society or culture may seem very strange in another culture Sociological Imagination o A quality of the mind that allows us to understand the relationship between our situation in life and what is happening at a social level 0 Term coined by C Wright Mills Says quotTo understand social life we must understand the intersection between biography and historyquot Beginner39s Mind 0 Clearing our minds of stereotypes expectation and opinions so that we are more receptive to our experiences 0 Opposite of the expert39s mind 0 Term coined by Bernard McGrane Levels of Analysis O 0 Cameron 2 Microsociology Examines smallgroup interactions Sees how these interactions impact larger institutions in society Macrosociology Examines largescale social structures Determines how these structures impact groups and individuals 0 The MicroMacro Continuum Levels of Analysis Order from macro to micro Society Culture Social Institutions Social Inequality Groups Roles Socialization Interactions Self Sociological Theories O Propositions that explain the social world and help make predictions about future events 0 Also called approaches schools of thought paradigms or perspectives Sociology s Roots o Auguste Comte OOOO Said that sociology needed to be treated like other scienti c disciplines 1st sociologist Laid the groundwork for future sociologists Harriet Martineau Social activist Traveled the US and wrote about radical social changes for this time period Translates Comte s work into English 0 Made his ideas available to England and America Herbert Spencer First English speaking sociologist Believed in evolution Coined term quotsurvival of the fittestquot Social Darwinism His philosophy that societies evolve through time by adapting to their changing environment Emile Durkheim Established sociology as an important academic discipline Interested in the social factors that bind and hold people together Studied the correlation between social isolation and suicide Karl Marx German Philosopher Political activist Designed and contributed to the Con ict Theory Believed that capitalism was creating social inequality between the bourgeoisie class and the proletariat class Bourgeoisie Cameron 3 o Owned the means of production like money factories natural resources and land Proetariat 0 Workers 0 This inequality leads to class con ict 0 Max Weber Interested in how society was becoming industrialized Concerned about rationalization Applying economic logic to all human activity Believed that contemporary life was full with disenchantment The result of dehumanizing features of modern societies 0 George Herbert Mead Interested in the connection between thought and action and between the individual and society Suggested that the meaning we give to objects are social processes 0 People interact and meanings come from these interactions 0 Erving Goffman Interested in how the self is developed through interactions with others in society Used term quotdramaturgyquot Describes the way that people strategically present themselves to others 0 Schools of Thought 0 Paradigms Schools of thought Ways of thinking or theoretical quotumbrellasquot Provide a broad explanation for the way things work 0 Structuralfunctionalism Society is viewed as an ordered system of interrelated parts or structures which are the social institutions that make up society Institutions family education politics the economy etc Each structure meets the needs of society by performing speci c functions 0 Con ict theory Social con ict is the basis of society and social change 0 Symbolicinteractionism Interaction and meaning are central to society and assumes that meanings are not inherent but are created through interaction 0 New Theoretical Approaches o Feminist theory Looks at both gender inequalities in society and the way gender structures the social world Considers remedies for these inequalities o Queer theory Cameron 4 Categories of sexual identity are social constructs No sexual category is fundamentally deviant or normal 0 Postmodernist theory Social reality is diverse pluralistic and constantly changing Chapter 2 0Overview of Research Methods 0 Quantitative Research Translates the social world into numbers Numbers can be studied mathematically o Qualitative Research Uses nonnumeric data to understand social life Examples include texts interviews photos and recordings 0 The Scienti c Approach 0 The Scienti c Method Procedure for acquiring knowledge Emphasizes collecting data through observation and experimentation Steps 0 Identify a problem or ask a question Review the literature Form a hypothesis and identify the variables Choose a research design or method Collect data and record information Interpret your results Disseminate ndings Literature Review Hypothesis Variables and Operational De nitions 0 Help Determine 0 Correlation A relationship between two variables 0 Causation A relationship where one variable causes another to change 0 Spurious Correlation A relationship that seems to appear between two variables but is actually caused by some external or intervening variable 0 Paradigm Shifts o A change in the way we think about some aspect of life 0 Caused by research 0 Term coined by Thomas Kuhn Methods How Do We Gather Data 0 There are different ways to collect information about a topic 0 Each method has bene ts and limitations Cameron 5 0 When beginning a research project it is important to consider which method will work best 0 Ethnographic Methods Ethnography Studying people in their own environments Helps to understand the meanings they give to their activities 0 Two Steps 0 Researcher participates in and observes a setting 0 The researcher takes eld notes written account of what goes on 0 Participant observation The researcher observers and becomes a member in a social setting 0 Interviews Involve direct facetoface contact with respondents Can generate large amounts of qualitative data Researcher identi es a target population of interest Selects a sample of people to be interviewed from that population Can use openended or closedended questions Openended 0 Let respondents talk as much as they like about the question Closedended 0 Give respondents a choice of answers 0 Surveys Questionnaires Administered to a sample of respondents selected from a target population Research tends to look at largescale social patterns Employs statistics and other mathematical means of analysis 0 Existing sources Any data that has already been collected by earlier researchers Available for future research 0 Experimental Methods 0 Experiments Formal tests of speci c variables and effects Performed in a setting where all aspects of the situation can be controlled 0 Have Experimental Group and Control Group Experimental Group 0 Participants that receive the experimental treatment Control Group 0 Participants that do not receive intervention so they can be compared with the experimental group 0 Sociological Research Methods Cameron 6 0 These methods can be used outside the eld of sociology o The Scienti c Approach Most sociologists believe they should not let their personal beliefs in uence their research Valuefree Sociology Researchers should identify facts without allowing their own person beliefs or biases to interfere Term coined by Max Weber 0 Conducting Sociological Research The American Sociological Association 0 Created a code of ethics 0 Helps researchers avoid bias and adhere to professional standards to protect respondents from harm Institutional Review Board 0 Group of scholars who meet regularly to review and approve the research proposals of their colleagues 0 Make recommendations for how to protect human subjects 0 At most universities where research is conducted Chapter 3 o What is Culture 0 Culture The entire way of life for a group of people Includes language standards of beauty hand gestures styles of dress food and music Culture is learned 0 Passed from one generation to next through communication not genetics It is hard to see our own culture We may not recognize the extent to which it shapes and de nes who we are 0 Ethnocentrism Occurs when a person uses their own culture as a standard to evaluate another culture Leads to the view that cultures other than our own are abnormal 0 Cultural relativism Process of understanding other cultures on their own terms instead ofjudging according to one s own cultures Helps sociologists see others more objectively Components of Culture 0 Two categories Material Culture 0 Includes the objects associated with a cultural group Cameron 7 0 Tools machines utensils buildings and artwork Symbolic Culture 0 Includes the ways of thinking and ways of behaving 0 Ways of Thinking Beliefs values and assumptions 0 Ways of behaving Norms interactions and communication Allows us to communicate through signs gestures and language 0 Signs or Symbols 0 Used to meaningfully represent something else Traf c signal or product logo Gestures 0 Signs we make with our body that carry meaning Hand and facial gestures Language 0 System of communication using vocal sounds gestures and written symbols 0 Most signi cant component of culture because it allows us to communicate o Shapes our communication and our perceptions of how we see things 0 SapirWhorf Hypothesis ldea that language structures thought and that ways of looking at the world are embedded in language 0 Values 0 Shared beliefs about what a group considers worthwhile or desirable 0 Guide the creation of norms Norms 0 Formal and informal rules about what kinds of behavior are acceptable and appropriate within a culture Formal A law or rules for a game lnformal Not written down and unspoken Speci c to a culture time period and situation 0 Types of Norms Can be distinguished by the strictness with which they are enforced Folkway Loosely enforced O Cameron 8 Involves common customs or procedures that ensure smooth social interaction and acceptance More Carries greater moral signi cance Closely related to the core values of a group lnvolves severe repercussions for violators Taboo Engrained so deeply that even thinking about violating it evokes strong feelings of disgust horror or revulsion for most people 0 Enforcing Norms SancUons Positive and negative reactions to the ways people follow or disobey norms 0 Positive Rewards for conformity 0 Negative Punishments for violators Helps establish social control Establishes the formal and informal mechanisms used to increase conformity to values and norms thus increasing social cohesion Variations in Culture 0 Multiculturalism Values diverse racial ethnic national and linguistic backgrounds Encourages the retention of cultural difference within society rather than assimilation 0 Dominant Culture The values norms and practices of a group that are the most powerful in terms of wealth prestige status and in uence 0 Subculture A group that is differentiated by its distinctive values norms and lifestyle Example Vegetarians o Counterculture Group that openly rejects or activity opposes society s values and norms Example KKK Cameron 9 0 Cultural Change 0 Cultures usually change slowly and incrementally Change can also happen in rapid and dramatic ways 0 A subculture can in uence the mainstream and become part of the dominant culture 0 Something that is dominant can change to a counterculture