Digestive Anatomy & Physiology
Digestive Anatomy & Physiology ANISCI 103
Popular in Intro to Animal Management
Popular in Animal Science and Zoology
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Jasa on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANISCI 103 at University of Massachusetts taught by Dr. Beltaire in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Intro to Animal Management in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Digestive Anatomy amp Physiology Case 2 0 Farmer Dutton one of my best milkers calved this morning Now she s down and can t move 0 She s hypocalcemia milk fever parturient paresis Nutrition the study of how the body uses nutrients in feed to sustain life 0 feed accounts for 50 75 of the total cost of raising livestock Balanced ration diet contains all the nutrients an animal needs in the right proportions and amounts RationDiet Formulation 0 Animal signalment 0 Feed 0 Cost 0 Ammm Nutrients 0 Water 0 Carbohydrates I Major energy source Simple Carbos 0 Easy to digest 0 Sugar NFE cereal grains corn Wheat oats barley rye sorghum Complex Carbos 0 Starch main energy source for swine and poultry Dietary Fiber cellulose o In roughages alfalfa orchard grass bluegrass o Difficult to digest require host and microbial interaction 0 Main energy source for ruminants and hindgut fermenters o Lipids Fats and Oils I Source of Energy 225X the energy value of carbos Essential fatty acids Fat soluble vitamins Structural component of cells and hormones I Easy to digest I Triglyceride Water Glycerol 3 Fatty Acid Chains Free fatty Acid FFA Non Essential Fatty Acid NEFA 0 Proteins I Chains of amino acids I Essential amino acids amino acids that animals can t make they need them in the diet I Semi essential amino acids slowly produced by the animal from other amino acids I Non essential amino acids produced by the animal as long as it has the elements 0 Minerals I Elements other than C H N O inorganic I Ash remaining after feed is burned I Purpose components of bones and teeth and an important part of the body s enzymes I Macrominerals Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Sodium Chloride Potassium Sulfer I Microminerals Copper Iron Selenium Zinc Cobalt Fluorine Iodine Manganese Molybdenum I Supplemental minerals are provided in various forms such as salt trace mineralized salt oyster shells and bone meal 0 Vitamins I Classification Fat soluble tend to be involved in regulating body functions vision blood clotting tissue maintenance and growth done development Water soluble tend to be used more for body metabolic regulation Dry Matter DM feed With all the moisture removed must convert this to As Fed Basis to feed Energy 0 Di gestibility amount of nutrients in feed that are absorbed from the digestive tract TDN Total Di gestible Nutrient kg or lb DE Digestible Energy Mcal Megacalories 1000000 calories ME Metabolizable Energy Mcal 0 Net Energy indicator of the true energy of a feed cal Crude Protein 0 All the nitrogen in the feed true protein non protein nitrogen NPN 0 Due to the presence of microbes in the rumen ruminants can use NPN to 000 make true protein 0 For monogastrics and young animals knowing the CP is of less value than knowing the specific amino acids in the feed 0 Forage Available Feed sRoughages High fiber gt18 crude fiber when dry Lower TDN 50 65 Fresh pasture green chop Dried hay straw Fermented silage corn legume grass 0 Concentrates o Forage Low fiber lt18 crude fiber when dry Energy feeds or protein supplements Highly digestible 80 90 Energy feed grain and by products Protein animal or plant Feed Components Roughages High fiber lower digestibility Nitrogen is the limiting nutrient for plant growth Air 79 N2 however it s not in a form that plants can use Legumes Nodules on roots contain bacteria able to take N2 from air and transform it into ammonia NH3 that converts to ammonium NH4 Ex Clover alfalfa soybeans peas beans Non Legumes Can t use N2 from the air Typically contain less protein Ex Corn silage fodders bluegrass prairie grass 0 Concentrates Low fiber energy or protein dense high digestibility Protein Supplements 2 20 Protein Animal Proteins o 2 47 CP 0 More balanced amount of essential amino acids 0 Ex Meatmeat scraps bonemeal bloodmeal Vegetable Proteins o g 47 CP 0 Ex Soybean meal peanut oil meal Energy Feeds lt20 Protein Grains and By Products 0 Ex Corn oats barley rye wheat 0 Feed Analysis 0 0 Physical Analysis sight smell feel color particle size mold foreign matter odor texture moisture acidity and so on Lab Analysis chemical drying burning or wet chemistry procedures that determine the major chemical components of feed 0 Energy Balance 0 0 Normally glucose homeostasis is maintained by bacterial fermentation of carbos to Volatile Fatty Acids FAT TG s gt NEFA s gt Liver produce acetyl CoA gt glucose energY Rumen Feed gt VFA s gt Propionic Acid gt Oxaloacetate gt glucose 0 Frothy Bloat O 0 Green forages alfalfa and clover contribute high levels of rumen degradable protein and carbos Which are rapidly fermentable This causes a drop in the pH of the rumen an increase in gas production and a binding of protein molecules into a surface film over the rumen contents These events contribute to the production of froth and subsequently trapped gas