Reproduction ANISCI 103
Popular in Intro to Animal Management
Popular in Animal Science and Zoology
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Jasa on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANISCI 103 at University of Massachusetts taught by Dr. Beltaire in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Intro to Animal Management in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Reproduction Ploidy of copies of each chromosome 0 Diploid 2 copies of each chromosome in body cells 0 Haploid 1 copy of each chromosome in germ cells 0 Mammals Females XX Males XY Male determines sex Male 22 Female ZW Female determines sex 0 Free Martin O Sterile female XX XY chimera born co tWin to a male most commonly in cattle although it has been reported in other species The testes develop before the ovaries Fetal testes produce Mullerian Inhibiting Hormone MIH which inhibits development of the female reproductive tract Heifer calf phenotype range of presentations Most commonly the heifer calf Will appear like a female but she Will have under developed internal organs small ovaries and uterus no cervix short vagina that ends in a blind pouch seminal vesicles 0 Chimera 0 Single animal that contains cells derived from 2 different 0 Selecting Breeding Stock 0 Testes o Heritability Estimates likelihood of a trait being passed from offspring to parent Additive gene effect multiple genes determine expression of a trait Nonadditive gene effect only 1 or a few genes determine expression of a trait Genetic Testing Genomics Single Nucleotide Polymorphism LH stimulate testosterone FSH stimulate estrogen Seminiferous tubules I Convoluted tubules Where sperm production occurs Interstital Leydi g cells I Outside seminiferous tubules I Produce testosterone responsive to LH Sertoli Cells I Inside seminiferous tubules I Produce estrogen responsive to FSH Spermatogenesis I Production begins at puberty and continues through life I Production of sperm 0 Puberty Species Variability I Bull 8 18 months weightage I Stallion 10 24 months ageseason I Stud dog 5 24 months agebreed I Tom cat 6 15 months ageseason I Ram 4 12 months BWseason I Buck 4 12 months BWseason I Need to know so we can separate from females so we don t can t unplanned pregnancies Sex Sorted Semen o X bearing sperm contains 38 more DNA than Y bearing sperm 0 The DNA of sperm cells are stained with a uorescent dye and then passed 60mph through a flow cytometer as drops of liquid containing a single cell Female Reproductive System Oogenesis production of eggs Estrous Cycle Intervals o Estrous Cycle time from the beginning of one heat period estrus to the next 0 Polyestrous animals that cycle continuously throughout the year Estrous Cycle Stages 0 Proestrus o Estrus o Metestrus some species 0 Diestrus amp Anestrus some species 0 Pregnancy 0 Correct timing of ovulation and breeding or sperm deposition is required to establish a pregnancy 0 If fertilization has not occurred within approximately 12 hours the oocyte begins to degenerate I Fortunately sperm travels to the oviducts very rapidly as soon as several minutes after ejaculation 0 Once the oocyte is fertilized it becomes a zygote o The embryo moves down the oviduct and eventually enters the uterus the day of entry into the uterus is species dependent o Implantation varies by species but generally occurs between 14 and 40 days in farm animals
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