Small Ruminant Management
Small Ruminant Management ANISCI 103
Popular in Intro to Animal Management
Popular in Animal Science and Zoology
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Jasa on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANISCI 103 at University of Massachusetts taught by Dr. Beltaire in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Intro to Animal Management in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Small Ruminant Management 0 Inventory of Sheep and Lambs O O O 0 Overall similar or lower than in the 1960 s Decrease in Australia New Zealand EU and USA Steady in China Increase in India Pakistan and North Africa 0 Production of Lamb Meat and Mutton O O 0 Overall increase of 65 since 1965 I 1965 11 billion lbs gt 2011 18 billion lbs Increase in China and India Steady in Australia New Zealand and EU 0 Industries 0 0 Sheep I Purebred Operations I Hobby Farms I Commercial Operations Meat lamb and mutton Fine wool high quality clothing Long wool rugs heavy clothing furniture Dairy Goats I Purebred Operations I Hobby Farms I Commercial Operations Meat cabrito and chevon Dairy milk and cheese Fiber and hair angora and cashmere Combination I Industrial I Biotechnology 0 Declining US Sheep Production Why 0 O O O 0 Its not as common to eat mutton and lamb theres no marketing Seasonal businesssporadic supply and demand Low demand for wool Difficulty in obtaining and keeping reliable herders Competition for public owned rangeland and increasing government regulation 0 US Sheep Industry Meat 0 O O O O Breeding sheep live on pasture and range Lambs born in the spring and weaned 8 wks Lambs graze on pasture Lambs enter grain finishing feedlots Slaughter 90 140 lbs when 1 yr of age US Sheep Industry Wool 0 Sheep need to be shorn once per year 0 Hair sheep need to be shorn more frequently 0 Quality grades fiber diameter fineness length strength uniformity color and contaminants Demand for the Wool in US 0 Wool is a keratin type protein fiber that grows from the follicles of the sheep s skin 0 Decreasing demand for wool due to competition with synthetic fibers 0 US increased over the yrs Meat Goat Production 0 11 breeds of goats raised in the US for meat 0 Major breeds Boer Kiko Spanish Tennessee Fainting 0 US farms average 30 goats 0 Does tend to remain reproductive for 4 to 5 yrs Marketing of Goat Meat 0 Direct sale of live goats to consumers 0 Direct sale to consumers including slaughter 0 Auction sale of live goats to consumers or processors 0 Process and sell meat Meat Processing Overview 0 US meat processing is regulated by the Federal Meat Inspection Act 0 In order to meet the federal requirements animals must be processed at plants inspected by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service FSIS Goal Ensure the production of safe truthfully labeled products as well as humane treatment of livestock processed Meat Handling Procedures 0 Human Slaughter Act in 1958 Voluntary for meat packers who did not sell meat to the federal government It required that livestock be rendered insensible to pain by a blow gunshot electrical or chemical means that is rapid and effective before shackling hoisting casting or cutting o Humane Methods of Livestock Slaughter of 1978 Slaughter of all food animals in USDA inspected plants Required livestock be rendered insensible to pain on the first application of the stunning device before being shackled hoisted cast or cut Required livestock suffer loss of consciousness by anemia of the brain caused by the simultaneous and instantaneous severance of the carotid arteries with a sharp instrument Ritual slaughter and blessingquot 0 Jewish Kosher slaughter and Islamic Halal slaughter Custom Exempt Cut and Wrap I Another option is to have animals processed using a state licesnesd Custom Meat Slaughter and Processing Facility I Producers sell live animals by weight in whole halves or quarters to a customer I Producer contracts with a state licensed custom slaughterer mobile or fixed facility to kill the animal already sold I Once clean the carcass is tagged and delivered to a state lice sensed custom meat facility for aging cutting wrapping and freezing until pic up by the customer I Custom slaughtered meat is uninspected and can t be resold I All packaged meat must be labeled not for salequot I Only the owner of the animal and their immediate family or non paying guests can consume it I It can t be sold at farmers markets to restaurants to grocery stores or donated to food banks 0 Fiber Goat Production 0 O O O Fibers mohair cashmere cashgora Angora goats produce mohair eece Goats not angora produce cashmere Wigged every 3 months 0 Angora Goats 0 000 o o o o 0 Moha o o o o 0 Produce Mohair meat and ctrl brush Breed originated in Turkey First imported to the US in 1840 Jan 2013 136000 Angoras in the US I gt 75 in TX Decreasing s in the US White horned or polled long droopy ears Bucks 125 175 lbs Does 80 90 lbs Top Exporters South Africa US and Turkey Clip wool or mohair produced in a single shearing Fleece grows 6 12inyr Fleece is shorn twice a yr 4 8 lbsclip Fiber becomes more coarse with age I Kid finer gt Yearling gt Adult I Elastic fiber dyes well used for suits sweaters home furnishings Top Exporters South Africa US and Turkey 0 Cashmere Producing Goats O O O O O Cashmere soft down or fiber from the undercoat of non Angora goats No true breed but goats are selectively breed for production China and Mongolia lead in Cashmere production World demand usually is greater than supply Growth begins in late June and ends in December 00000 If fiber is not harvested it will shed naturally Shearing then dehairing machine Comb yield 4 6 ozgoatyr Solid colors are preferred Producers may I Sell fiber as a raw product through cooperative I Process and sell the fiber as yarn or woven products I Hire a commercial facility to process the fiber 0 Dairy Goat Production 0 Most commonly consumed milk in the world but the goat milk market in the US is relatively small Goat s milk is slightly higher in fat than cow s milk which increases the amount of cheese that can be produced gallon Goat s milk is easier to digest than cow s milk Uses milk cheese butter ice cream yogurt candy soap and other body products Goat s milk cheese fast growing market Goat Cheese I Chevre French for goat generic term for goat s cheese Breeds I Nubian Fat 4 7 0 Milk 1750 lbs Protein 3 I Alpine Fat 33 0 Milk 2100 lbs Protein 3 I LaMancha Fat 37 0 Milk 1800 lbs Protein 31 Dairy goats in their prime 6 8 lbs of milkday during a 10 month lactation A doe may be expected to reach her heaviest production during her 3rd or 4th lactation 0 Production 0 Breeding gt Gestation gt LambingKidding gt Nursing or Lactating gt Weaning gt Growing and Finishing Breeding 0 Seasonally Polyestrous Short day Breeders o Ewe I 17 days I Estrus 24 36 hrs I Diestrus 14 15 days I 21 days I Estrus 24 48 hrs I Diestrus 18 20 days 0 Transition irregular estrous cycles before and after the breeding season 0 Anestrus spring and summer no estrous cycling 0 Breeding 0 Length of breeding season varies by breed I Long mid summer to mid winter Rambouillet Merino Dorset I Intermediate late summer to early winter Suffolk I Short fall Southdown Chevoit 0 Most market lambs are Cross Breeds Hybrid vigorheterosis I Birth weight I Weaning weight I Post weaning weight I Survival of weaning Pounds of lamb weaned per ewe exposed 0 Common Breeding Strategies 0 Natural Service most common I Pasture breeding 1 ram 25 ewes 1 ram 35 50 ewes I Hand mating heat detect am pm rule bring together Teaser male vasectomized or aproned marking harness bug rag I 40 day breeding season tight lambingkidding A1 I Semen should be deposited in the uterus for good CR I Ewe 5 interdigitating cervical rings Doe 3 5 annular rings I Vaginal insemination Shot in the darkquot I Transcervical intrauterine insemination I Laparoscopic intrauterine insemination 6 Weeks Pre Breeding Management 0 O O O Wean all lambs or kids still with the ock Trim feet Acquire replacement females if necessary and quarantine Cull based on BCS udder health dentition lameness Acquire rambuck and perform a breeding soundness exam BSE Shear the ram Vaccinate females against Campylobacter and Chlamydia 60 days and 30 days pre breeding BCS 2 Weeks Pre Breeding Management 0 0 Treat females and males for parasites Flush females provide high quality pasture plus grain improve lambing s by 10 15 O 0 Tag crutch ewes remove wool from the dock and vulva House unfamiliar males together for 3 5 days to acclimate and decrease fighting Breeding Management 0 O O 0 Provide shade Provide feed with a free choice mineral supplement I Rams lose up to 12 BW during 45 day breeding period Use a marking harness to determine the of females cycling and evaluate the performance of males Record breeding dates to help predict lambingkidding Change color on harness every 17 21 days Re marking Pregnancy How longWhen O O O O 0 Pregnancy Evaluation Behavior no return to estrus when suggestive not definitive Blood Tests I Progesterone when Suggestive I Pregnancy Specific Protein B gt 30 days First half of pregnancy I Females in good BC feed to maintain or slightly increase BCS lower quality hay or silage without grain I Females in poor BC feed to increase BCS add grain Second half of pregnancy I Feed good quality hay and grain I Water I Energy I Protein I Mineral mix 6 Weeks Pre LambingKidding O O O In addition to hay feed grain daily rising plane of nutrition to prevent negative energy balance NEB Make sure there is plenty of trough space Avoid ditches narrow gates or any obstacles that would cause females to jump crowd squeeze or climb 4 Weeks Pre LambingKidding O O O O O Shear wool from around the head udder and hind end Prepare lambingkidding equipment Vaccinate against Clostridium perfringens Clostridium tetani Rabies Observe females daily and move ewesdoes with large udders or softening vulvas into individual jugs 5 x 5 Treat any ewes or does exhibiting signs of pregnancy toxemia NEB Energy Balance 0 0 Normally glucose homeostasis is maintained by bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates to VFA39s In the last 4 6 weeks of pregnancy I Decrease rumen capacity I Increase energy demand for fetal growth especially if multiples I Decrease feed intake insufficient or poor quality feed stress poor weather parasitism hypocalcemia or another dz I Increase fat breakdown lipolysis TG glycerol and NEFA s Liver 0 At parturition energy demands increase substantially I Increase energy demand for lactation I Decrease feed intake I More fat breakdown lipolysis o Ewes are at great risk for Negative Energy Balance NEB I Maternal tissues preferentially use lipids for energy metabolism thus sparing glucose for fetal demands I Ketone Bodies Acetone Acetoaceteate B hydroxybutyrate gt exported for use by other tissues as energy 0 If a ewe continues not to eat fat breakdown continues until production of KB s overwhelms use by other tissues 0 KB s accumulate in the bloodstream and spill into urine and milk suppress the appetite and cause metabolic acidosis o Liver s ability to export fat as VLDL is compromised so the liver itself accumulates fat fatty liver 0 Sick Ewe anorexia weakness depressed neurologic star gazing blindness tremors ataxia teeth grinding head pressing recumbency and death 0 Urine sample ketones 0 Blood hypoglycemic low glucose increased NEFA s increased BHB 9ketone body LambingKidding 0 Check as frequently as possible 0 Stage 1 preparation 1 6 hrs 0 Stage 2 fetus delivery 30 min 2 hrs 0 Stage 3 Placenta delivery 1 12 hrs Post LambingKidding 0 GOO 000 0 After delivery make sure babies are breathing Strip dam s teats Dip umbilicus Make sure babies stand and nurse within 30 mins to 1 hr I Colostrum tube feed if necessary Keep babies warm and clean Provide fresh water and hay for moms Clean the lambingkidding environment Keep good records Process Lambs O O O 0 Ear tagging Weight of lambs Tail docking Paint branding Castration o Elastrator Band rubber ring 0 Burdizzo 0 Surgery Post Lambing to Weaning 0 Offer creep fee starting at 7 days of age 18 20 protein calcium to phosphorous ratio of 2 21 and Coccidiostat o Vaccinate lambs CDT 4 8 and 12 wks of age 0 Wean depending on marketing and breeding strategy Urolithiasis Winter born lambs wean 2 3 months of age to see in the spring marketed 30 50 lbs Spring born lambs wean 3 5 months of age to sell in the fall marketed at 100 150 lbs Finished on pasture or in a feedlot o Uro urine 0 O O O Lith stone Lasis condition Urine highly saturated solution of solutes or minerals Urolithiasis occurs when a stone becomes too large to pass through the urethra urinary blockage 0 Something causes minerals to precipitate gt stone Urine too concentrated decrease consumption of water or increase of water loss Timing of castration Certain combinations of minerals certain salts become unbalanced diet Low Ca to P ratio High concentrate grain P low roughage diet Alkaline urine Ex 0 Calcium carbonate uroliths clover rich pastures with plants that contain oxalates oxalates bind Ca precipitation Goats 0 Magnesium ammonium phosphate struVite uroliths high grain high P diet P Mg NH4 stones feed lot animals 0 Urine pH forage eaters have high pH urine precipitation low pH increases solubility of certain salts 0 Prevention Always provide clean fresh water salts Delay castration to 6 months if possible Acidify urine ammonium chloride biochlor monitor Adjust diet Grass hay CaP 11 Alfalfa hay CaP 51 Limit grain Coccidiosis O O O Coccidia protozoa parasite variable species pathogenicity Incidence present in most ocks animals develop immunity Clinical signs I Diarrhea yellow green bloody straining I Loss of appetite I Weakness I Poor body condition I Death Diagnosis fecal oat and egg count not straight forward indicator age affected 3 7 wks Treatment antibiotics uids Prevention I Avoid overcrowding I Don t house inside or in small areas for long periods of time I Minimize stress I Good sanitation I Avoid overgrazing I Creep feed with a coccidiostat Clostridium O O 0in gate anaerobic gram spore forming bacterial rods Cause disease by releasing toxins Clostridium tetani Tetanus O O O O Source spores in soil and GIT of normal animals Pathogenesis spores inoculate a wound germinate and produce tetanospasmin Toxin diffuses through the bloodstream to nerves where it interferes with signaling for muscle relaxation contraction I Types B amp C young lambskids calves piglets ingest spores germinate in the GIT and produce toxins Toxin ulceration in ammation and hemorrhage in GIT bloody diarrhea death I Type D sheep ingest spores that germinate in the GIT and produce E toxin Over eating of high energy feed milk grain lush pasture promotes bacterial proliferation Toxin necrosis edema and hemorrhage in the brain kidneys GIT diarrhea death Clinical signs stiffness temors lockjaw sawhorse stance death Tx Antitoxin Penicillin Sedatives Muscle relaxants Supportive care Openclean wound 0 External Parasites 0 00000 Lice itching wool damage Sheep Ked bloodsucker Sheep Bot Fly nasal cavity Mites burrow into skin mange Ticks ears skin Treatment dips sprays dusts injectables 0 Internal Parasites 0 Roundworms Hookworms Tapeworms Lungworms Liver ukes Sheep I Graze poop walkquot I Tend to develop immunity to worms more quickly than goats o Goats I Prefer to browse I Feeding preference protects them from the worms until we force them to graze o TreatmentPrevention drenches injectable topicals 0 Plans scheduled calendar vs strategic 0 Strategic Deworming o FAMACHA deworm animals showing clinical signs of parasitism by Haemonchus contortus barber pole worm using a color chart to estimate anemia o BCS o Fecal egg count 00000
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