Horse Management ANISCI 103
Popular in Intro to Animal Management
Popular in Animal Science and Zoology
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Jasa on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANISCI 103 at University of Massachusetts taught by Dr. Beltaire in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Intro to Animal Management in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Massachusetts.
Reviews for Horse Management
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/12/15
Horse Management Cryptorchid ridgling rig or high anker Case 2 o Coggins Test positive 0 Treatment I Euthanize I Brandtattoo History 0 thippus 4 toes on front 3 toes on back teeth like goats 0 Evolution I Reduction in the number of toes I Increase in the size of the cheek teeth I Lengthening of the face I Increase in body size 0 75 of horses are used from personal use pleasure or showing 0 25 of horses are for ranching breeding racing and commercial riding 0 Three types of industries I Breeding I Training I Boarding stables Measure horses from the ground to their wither 0 Management Principles 0 Water twice daily if not constantly available I Avg 1000 lb horse will drink 10 12 gallonsday depending on many factors 0 Housing I Protect from weather extremes I Provide ventilationair flow I Be clean and dry I Be safe and well maintained visible fencing I Have space for exercise paddock corral pasture I Types of Housing 0 Barns o If box stalls 12 X8 or 10 X1039 0 Flooring well drained solid footing surface with some give when horses lie down clay sand rubber mats Wood is slippery when wet and can splinter cement and asphalt are also slippery when wet and can cause abrasions Three Sided Sheds 0 Face south away from the prevailing wind 0 Located on an elevated well drained site 0 Accessible for feeding and manure handling 0 Manure Management I Avg 1000 lb horse produces 50 lbs of manureday or 8 10 tons of manure per year I Manure should be picked up regularly from the horse s stall daily paddock and pasture I Store it spread it compost it sell it transport it 0 Nutritional Management Feeding 0 00000 O 0000 0 Teeth 0 Continuous grazers consume small amounts frequently and moving from place to place bw grazing Herbivore monogastric hindgut fermenter Stomach 10 of the total digestive capacity Small Intestines 30 of the total digestive capacity Cecum and large intestines 60 of total digestive capacity Generally a horse should receive a minimum of 075 1 of its body weight daily in roughage Avg 1000 lb horse will consume 75 lbs of feedday hay grain and pasture Body Condition Scoring I Avg horse of 5moderate 6moderate to eshy I Racing horses are good at 3thin 4moderately thin Don t overfeed Horse feed both hay and grain should be weighed USDA estimates that 90 of horse operations feed some form of grain Once grain exceeds 1 of body weight the grain should be fed in at least three equal portions spaced throughout the day Upper premolars and molars overlap the lower teeth mixer upper jaw leading to uneven teeth wear Sharp points develop on the upper outside and lower inside teeth edges I Treatment oat filed down 0 Feeding Management 0 O Foal growth protein energy minerals Young horse growth to maintenance good quality pasture or hay supplemented with grain and minerals Pregnant mare 1st and 2nd trimester maintenance good quality pasture or hay supplemented with grain and minerals 3rd trimester growth less fibrous bulky hay and increase concentrates Lactating mare and working horse good quality pasture or hay and more concentrates Amount of pasture per horse I Type of pasture Rule of thumb 1 2 acres per horse Horses graze unevenly over and under graze certain areas and they tear up sod I Pasture management For re growth leave about 13 of grass uneaten Subdivide pasture so horses graze a paddock for no more than 7 days leave about 2 of grass and allow it to grow 8 before it is grazed again O I Supplemental feed Hay silage grain protein pelleted and minerals Vitamins and Minerals I Vitamins Horses on good quality pasture rarely need vitamin supplements Horses on poor quality hay confined in barns or under tremendous stress require supplementation With A B D andor E Vitamins I Minerals Horses always require salt calcium and phosphorous Never PgtCa Free choice iodized salt blocks Ground limestone steamed bone meal defluorinated phosphate 0 Preventive Health Plan 0 O O O Hoof care Parasite control Dental care Vaccination Biosecurity protocol 0 Veterinary Care if ill or injured 0 Health Management Protocols 0 O O 0 Teeth regular floating at least yearly Feet regular farrier appointments 6 8 Wks Grooming Vaccination annual spring I Risk of disease consequences of disease I Effectiveness of selected products adverse effects I Cost of immunization vs potential cost of disease Deworming continuous or strategic I Adults small strongyles foalsweanlings parascaris equorum I Goals To limit parasite infections so horses remain healthy To control parasite egg shedding To avoid further development of anthelmintic resistance 0 Vaccination O No vaccine is 100 effective in preventing disease I Claims granted by the USDA prevention of infection prevention of disease aid in disease control reduction of pathogen shedding and reduction in severityquot Vaccination Without good management Will not prevent infectious disease Horses Within a population vary in degree and duration of protective response after vaccination Protection is not immediate and requires the appropriate of immunizations administered at appropriate intervals prior to significant exposure Core Vaccines O 0 00000 0 Protection animals from diseases that are endemic to a region or have potential public health significance Protect against virulenthighly infectious organisms andor those posing a risk of severe disease Have clearly demonstrated efficacy and safety Sometimes required by laW Eastern and Western Equine Encephalomyelitis EEENVEE Tetanus Rabies West Nile Virus Rabies Rabies Virus 0 0 Transmission and Pathophysiology I Virus enters through bites raccoon fox skunk or bat I Virus migrates up nerves to the brain Where it causes rapid progressive fatal encephalitis Clinical signs I Neurological Tetanus Clostridium tetani bacteria 0 Transmission and Pathophysiology I Bacteria in soil and manure enters through puncture wounds surgical incisions or exposed tissues such as the umbilicus of foals and the repro tract of the postpartum mare I Bacteria release neurotoxins that causes spasmodic contractions of the muscles and rigidity 0 Clinical Signs I Neuromuscular weak rigid o Treatable but fatal in 50 75 of cases 0 Become hypo sensitive so keep them in dark places stay calm and quiet West Nile Virus 0 Transmission and Pathophysiology I Virus is transferred by mosquitoes horses and humans are dead end hosts I Virus causes encephalitis 33 of horse cases are fatal I 40 of survivors have residual effects 0 Clinical Signs I Asymptomatic I fever I Neurologic impaired vision aimless Eastern and Western Equine Encephalomyelitis 0 Transmission and Pathophysiology I Virus is transferred by mosquitoes horses and humans are dead end hosts from birds and rodents I Viruses causes encephalitis O I 90 of EEE cases are fatal I 50 of WEE cases are fatal Clinical Signs I Head pressing I Circling I Inability to swallow I Irregular gait I Weakness I Paralysis I Convulsions I Death 0 Risked Based Vaccines 0 0000000 0 Vary regionally from population to population within an area or bw individual horses within a given population Equine Herpesvirus type 1 and 4 Rhinopneumonitis Equine In uenza Botulism Strangles Potomac Horse Fever Equine Viral Arteritis Rotaviral Diarrhea Anthrax Equine Infectious Anemia EIA or Swap Fever 0 O O EIA retrovirum transmitted by via blood sucking insects horse ies deer ies and mosquitoes contaminated needles or in utero from mare to foal EIAV reproduces in WBC s and the horse s immune system may attack and destroy RBC s anemia US 500 to 1600 new cases year Most infected horses show no symptoms but they are carriers that remain contagious for life There is no cure and no vaccine for EIA Clinical Signs I Fever depression anorexia fatigue weakness I Rapid RR irregular HR andor weak pulse I Edema swollen legs lower chest and abdomen I Low platelets and red blood cells pale or yellow mucous membranes mucosal petechial hemorrhage petechial pin point hemorrhage epistaxis I Sweating I Rapid weight loss I Colic I Abortion EIA has been associated with warm wet regions States with highest incidence of EIA Texas Oklahoma Arkansas Louisiana South Dakota Mississippi Minnesota Michigan Alabama and Florida Diagnosis I Identify antibodies in the blood by agar gel immunodiffusion AGID or competitive enzyme linked immunoadsorbent assay C ELISA tests I The AGID method is the gold standard and is commonly know was the Coggins test I Negative Coggins no detectable antibodies at the time of testing I Positive Coggins horse is infected and a carrier of the virus Positive Coggins I By law EIA is a reportable disease I All positive cases must be filed with the state vets and the federal APHIS of the USDA State by State Requirements I Many states require proof of a negative Coggins test before a horse can be exhibited at a fair shown raced or even trail ridden in the company of other horses I Some states require a negative Coggins test before a horse can be sold or moved within the state from place to place for any purpose I A few states require all horses within the state be tested once a year 0 How do we identify individual horses 0 000000 0 Tattoo inside of lips Branding Write down markings Names on halters Coggins Test documentation Name official registration Microchip I Between the poll and withers I Certain breed associations require certain chips I Can migrate Neck Band 0 Reproduction O O O O Seasonally Polyestrous long day breeders Cycles about every 21 days Puberty I Fillies enter puberty around their 2nd spring range 12 18 months avg 15 months I Season Fillies born early in 1 season may reach puberty as soon as the next season begins 12 months I Nutrition poor nutrition delay I Breed ponies mature earlier I Fillies are usually not bred before 2 3 years of age Cycle starts when the pineal gland senses more daylight decreases melatonin and takes off P4 does not stop ovulation LH actually peaks 2 days post ovulation 0 Transition Before and After Breeding Season Behavior variable estrus signs erratic absent persistent Spring Transition ends with the 1st ovulation of the year To know if she has ovulated high levels of progesterone in blood or you see a CL 0 After Fall Transition Winter Anestrus GnRH lowbaseline FSH random uctuations Estradiol baseline small follicles LH baseline Progesterone baseline Estrus behavior absent or erratic 15 20 of mares will cycle throughout the year 0 Estrous Cycle Avg cycle length 21 days 18 24 days Follicular phase Estrus 4 7 days Shorter at peak season 3 days Receptive to a stallion for breeding 0 Signs in heat planted ears forward urination 0 Signs not in heat kicking Estrus behavior depends on low P4 Luteal phase Diestrus 14 15 days Follicle development occurs in waves Follicle Wave Emergence 5 10 follicles 4 6 mm grow 2 4mmday until largest reaches 20 25 mm Deviation o Ovulation Occurs 2 days before the end of behavioral estrus LH finally peaks 2 days post ovulation then decreases over the next 5 days A rapid process 10 min evacuation o Fertilization occurs in oviduct stays there for 5 6 days 0 Approach to Breeding Management 0 History age breed past use VX deworming feed housing 0 Medical history metabolic diseases injuries medications duration of treatment 0 Repro History Status maiden older never had a foal barren been bred before but hasn t for a while foaling Prior pregnancies EED Embryonic early death death of before 40 days of age abortion stillbirth dystocia healthy foal Current stage last cycle interestrus interval the time bw ovulations Behavior estrus detection method Method natural or Al stallion fertility per cycle season and method Mare and Stallion Owner Expectations communication budget 0 Breeding Options 0 Natural Breeding Pasture breeding Hand breeding Advantages higher conception rate Disadvantages have to deal with stallion and mare Fresh Cooled shipped 24 hours Frozen shortest life span 6 l2 hours Advantages a lot more selection you know the semen is good Disadvantages more expensive lower conception rate especially frozen semen Breeding Management 0 Oocyte remains viable for 12 hours post ovulation o Sperm fresh or cooled shipped semen sperm remain viable for potentially days in the mare s repro tract 0 Best time for breeding or insemination with fresh or cooled shipped semen is 24 48 hours BEFORE ovulation 0 Best time for A1 with frozen semen is within 6 hours of ovulation 0 Natural Breeding 0 Advantages Limit training required Limit the of foals per stallion increase value genetics Limit widespread disease transmission 0 Disadvantages Risk of injury to mare stallion and handlers Risk of disease transmission transportation of animals Limit on evaluation of semen Limit on use of semen breedings overbreeding exhaustion 0 Method AI Depends on stallion availability most stallions breed 2xday Start on 2nd day mare is in heat and breed EOD until ovulation If limited access breed as close to ovulation as possible 0 Advantages Efficient use of semen time and resources Increase of mares bred per ejaculate foals per stallion Increase genetic pool Minimize risk of injury to mare stallion and handler Almost eliminate risk of disease transmission to the stallion minimize risk of disease transmission to the mare O I Allow complete semen evaluation Identify poor semen quality Improve semen quality with extender Disadvantages I Increase cost of equipment I Requires stallion training I Increase risk to collector I Increase risk of widespread disease transmission 0 Pregnancy Diagnosis 0 0 Behavior no return to estrus I Tease daily starting at days 15 24 post ovulation I False silent heat mare with foal persistent CL I False Pregnant mare may show heat Hormone Assays I Progesterone I eCG I Estrone sulfate produced by the foal Palpation per rectum Ultrasound Palpation I 11 14 days first exam count CL s and look for twins manual twin reduction before fixation If another CL crush one of them the smaller one I 16 days repeat twin check if necessary I 25 days heartbeat check I 58 70 days fetal sexing Filly hyperechoic 2 mm clitoris closer to tail Colt hyperechoic penis closer to umbilicus 0 Pregnancy 0 O 0 Length 335 345 days avg 340 about 11 months May be as short as 305 days or as long as 400 days with the delivery of a live foal Foals born lt32O days of gestation are classified as premature with a survival rate of 70 75 Most mares gt70 foal bw 10pm and 2am 0 Management of Pregnancy O 0000 0000 Mild exercisenormal activity through preg Proper diet increased in the last trimester Ideal BCS 59 palpable but not visible ribs Vx EHV l at 3 57 and 9 months Vx booster EWT WNV at 10 months I Boost colostrium immunity Deworm at 10 months Caslick s removed gt2 weeks before foaling Shoes pulled Foaling kit prepared Preparation for Foaling o Foaling area quiet clean stress free well bedded and draft free 0 Ideally familiarize the mare with her new area 4 6 weeks before foaling o Familiarize yourself with the mare frequent observation to detect changes with special emphasis on the udder abdomen tailed and vulva Monitoring Horses 0 Placenta detaches readily so foals rarely survive extended labor 0 Watch horses continuously Physiologic Changes Before Foaling o Edema distention of teats and milk veins waxing leaking 0 Check milk spike in Ca means she s going to foal very soon 0 First time moms may not follow this Stages of Foaling 0 Stage 1 Preparation 30 min 6 hours I Myometrial contractions I Cervical dilation I Physical discomfort Anxious restless sweaty up and down paw at ground lift tail roll I Fetal signal increase cortisol I Maternal response hormone cascade increase uterine contractions I Fetal response adoption of the birth positionquot I Position foal rotates from dorsopubic to dorsosacral I Presentation cranial longitudinal I Posture extended extremities I Ferguson s Re ex fetal pressure on the cervix is detected and relayed to the hypothalamus and posterior pituitary via sensory neurons oxytocin I Fetal is in the birthing position and mare uterus is contracting rupture of the allantochorion at the cervix I Stage 1 ends when the water breaks 2 3 gallons of allantoic uid note the time 0 Stage 2 Foal Delivery lt20 min I After water breakage see the foal s forelimbs within 5 10 min in the white amniotic sac I Avg 20 min I One foot appears first with the other foot 4 6 inches behind soles ventral I Shoulders are difficult to pass I Strong uterine and abdominal contractions I Tear away the amnion I Clear uid from the foal s nasal passages I Make sure the foal is breathing and sternal I Ends when the foal is delivered I Let the mare rest Don t break the umbilical cord natural breakage allows vessel spasm for closure After breakage coat the umbilicus in 2 3 iodine or 25 chlorheXidine Always be aware of the mare s attention to the foal keep the foal bw you and the mare 1 2 3 Rule Foal stands within 1 hour Foal nurses within 2 hours Mare passes placenta within 3 hours Make sure the foal passes meconium 0 Stage 3 Passage of Fetal Membranes lt3 hours Typically 1 hour mare may appear colicky Do not manually remove the placenta Tie the placenta up Give injection of oxytocin to help pass placenta Examine the fetal membranes Should weigh 11 of the foal s weight Retained if not passed within 3 hours medical emergency Approximately 2 10 of mares Retained placenta RP or Retained fetal membranes RFM predisposes the mare to metritis endometritis laminitis sepsis and death 0 Post Foaling Management 0 Foal Nurse then slowly transition to hay and grain 10 days to 3 wks of age Reach about 50 of adult weight during the 1st yr Wean foals 4 6 months of age Castrate colts lt1 2 yrs of age Feed for lactation Breed her back when 1st post partum estrus or foal heat 5 12 days 1st post partum ovulation 6 18 days Mare uterus requires 15 days for repair to support another pregnancy
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'