Swine Management ANISCI 103
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Jasa on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANISCI 103 at University of Massachusetts taught by Dr. Beltaire in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Intro to Animal Management in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Swine Management History 0 Very important source of fat and meat during the colonial times Farming over Time 0 Breed to be longer and bigger 0 Get more meat from the loin o 90 of the market hogs are crossbred I Better growth rate carcass yield and larger litters 0 Continuous farrowing weaning the piglets earlier 0 Feed efficiency has increased Industry 0 World s dominant meat producing species 0 Top exporters imports from Canada and Denmark 0 Most pig farms are in the Midwest area and also North Carolina The Corn Belt 0 US Swine Farms I Most farms 82 have lt 100 pigs I Most pigs 82 are on farms with gt5 000 pigs 0 Swine Production I Increasing number of large corporate owned swine farms I Increasing vertical integration I Increasing confinement and automation I Decreasing pasture use and manual labor I Increasing individual animal productivity Feed efficiency gtlitterssowyr gtpiglets weanedlitter Management Goals 0 O O O Optimize productivity and product quality Minimize environmental impact waste and odor Optimize animal welfare and health Minimize production costs Phases of Production 0 Breeding gt Gestation gt Farrowing gt Nursery gt Grower gt Finisher Operations 0 Farrow to Wean I Breeding herd sows and boars produces early weaned pigs at 10 15 lbs or feeder pigs at 35 50 lbs 0 Finishing I Feeder pigs range from 30 90 lbs are purchased and then grown to market weight I Quicker turn over of money faster less labor 0 Farrow to Finish I A breeding herd is maintained to produce piglets that are raised all the way to market weight on the same farm I Most effort 0 Purebred or Seedstock I Similar to farrow to finish except end product is breeding boars and gilts or show pigs which may be purebred or controlled crossbreeds I Produce foundation stockseed breeders for showing or for cross breeding systems lt1 of total hogs raised in the US 0 Corporate I Farrow to finish operations that have their own seed stock production I The various phases of the operation are usually located on different sites I Vertical integration 0 Flooring Options 0 Solid I Concrete wood I Adv inexpensive I Disadv regular cleaning bedding 0 Totally Slotted I Concrete steel aluminum plastic wood I Adv minimizes manure handling I Disadv expensive harder to control temp harder on feetlegs o Partially Slotted 0 Temp Control 0 Newborn 90 100 range 95 0 gt180 lbs 55 70 range 60 Ventilation Systems 0 Four main tasks I Provide oxygen I Removes excess moisture I Remove dust I Remove noxious gases carbon dioxide ammonia hydrogen sulfide carbon monoxide 0 Must be well maintained for both animal and human safety 0 Water 0 Water analysis is recommended semi annually salinity pH pesticides heavy metal 0 Waterers I Correct per group I Correct height by weight I Correct flow ratepressure Breeding 0 High repro rate success of swine operations 0 Sow productivity I Litter size I Pi glets weaned per litter I 21 day litter weight o Puberty Gilts 1st Estrus 5 8 months Breed 2nd or 3rd cycle 7 9 months 250 260 lbs Non seasonally polyestrous 21 days PE 3 4days gt E 40 60 hours gt DE 14 days 0 Puberty Boars 5 8 months improve until 18 months then constant until 4 years Younger boar handmate 1xday pen breed 8 10 gilts over 4 weeks Mature boar handmate 2xday pen breed 10 12 gilts Dangerous 0 Gilts Induction of Puberty Boar olfactory auditory andor visual contact starting at 150 days of age will hasten puberty by 40 days Breed certain breeds Duroc and Yorkshire reach puberty later than others landrace cross bred gilts reach puberty earlier than purebreds Housing Delay puberty if alone in small groups lt3 or large groups gt30 Pens of 6 12 gilts inside are ideal for puberty at 6 months of age Free range housing may favor early puberty Climate heat long days andor poor air quality will inhibit puberty Stress Changing social contacts mix pens and transportation will induce puberty Pregnant 114 days gt Farrow gt NurseNVean 3 4 wks 4 7 days post weaning back in Estrus gt Breed Back pressure test boars secrete pheromones which elicit the standing re ex in sows and gilts Signs If a sow does not conceive when will she return to estrus 21 days range 18 24 days Management Goal 95 of sows bred within 7 days post weaning to limit nonproductive sow days Commercial herds 5 30 of sows are culled for failure to return to estrus after weaning Production Sows are expected to deliver 22 littersyr and 4 litters before being replaced by gilts Breeding Options 0 Pen mating House gilts or sows with an appropriate of boars in a pen or on pasture Remove pregnant gilts or sows Rotate boars Hand Mating AI Heat detect SID or BID starting at puberty for gilts or 3 days post weaning for sows Supervised exposure to a boar 25 min Heat detect and breed 67 of all market hogs 90 of hogs from farms with gt500 sows Flushing ovulation rate Pig Feed Feed 60 70 of the total cost of production Rations formulated around cereal grains energy corn milo barley wheat ground or pelleted too fine ulcers Add protein soybean meal meat and bone meal Add vitamins A D E K amp B Add minerals calcium and phosphorous Additives antibiotics anthelmintics ampor hormones Feed Breeding Females 0 Goals Gilt to be 250 260 lbs breeding o Gain 100 120 lb during pregnancy 0 0 000 0 Increase the amount of feed 10 days before breeding to increase the ovulation rate Feed a vitamin and mineral fortified ration After 1st breeding restrict to 4lbday for 3 5 days Increase to 5 lbday through 90 days of pregnancy Increase to 65 lbday until 2 3 days before delivery Decrease to 5 lbday until parturition o Farrow at 350 400 lbs BCS 3 4 0 Goals Sows will gain 75 100 lb during pregnancy 0 Farrow at 425 550 lb Feed Breeding Boar 0 Feed a vitamin and mineral fortified ration 0 Young boars receive 6 8 lbday up to 260 lbs 0 Feed 3 6 lbsday adjusted as needed to maintain a good BCS Gestation o 114 days 111 115 days 3 months 3 weeks 3 days 0 Housing Gestation crates most farms Free access gestation stalls Group housing in pens Outdoorpasture 0 Temp sows 50 60 Gestation Farrowing o Prepartum Care Vaccinate 4 6 wks amp 2 wks before farrowing De worm and de lice 2 wks before farrowing I Move to farrowing crate or pen 1 7 days before parturition Wash sows dry draft free environment Stages of Farrowing O O 0 Preparation Piglet Delivery I Uterine and abdominal contractions piglet by 15 mins I Normal interval of 15 20 mins bw piglets Beware of gt45 mins bw Gilt 95 piglets in 1st litter increase by 05 pi gletlitter Sow Z 10 pi gletslitter Normal total litter delivery time 2 3 hrs Placenta Delivery I 30 min to 12 hrs after last piglet I Retained if gt12 hours I During the first month of pregnancy each uterine horn must contain at least 2 piglets to signal the sow that she s pregnant Piglet Processing I Clip 8 needle teeth lt1 3 days of age I Dock tail 2cm from body lt1 3 days of age I Ear notch or tattoo lt1 3 days of age I Inject iron detrain lt1 3 days of age I Castrate 3 14 days of age I Offer creep feed starting 1 2 weeks of age Preweaning Mortality I 15 25 stillbirths trauma chilling starvation diarrhea I Stillbirths should be lt5 7 of total piglets born I Hypoxia premature rupture of umbilical cord I Chilling environmental temp 90 100 heat lamp brooder creep area I Crushing most common cause of death in the 1st 3 days I Low birthweight 30 40 of piglets weighing lt2 lbs at birth will die during the first 3 weeks I Starvation runt pigs or sow lactation failure I DiarrheaScours bacteria and viruses I Respiratory diseases Weaning I Age determined by nursery facilitiesmanagement I 2 5 weeks most at 3 wks I gt10 12 lbs I Stressful I Loss of maternal antibody protection by 3 weeks I Segrated Early Weaning SEW Piglets are weaned 21 22 days Pi glets are moved to an isolated clean nursery then into a finisher building no contact with other groups Temp for weaned pigs 85F then drop slowly to 70 75F Wean gt12 40 lbs gt Grower 40 120 lb gtFinisher 120 140 lb 0 Housing Group by weight within 20 of the avg 20 50 pi gspen or pasture 1 waterer 20 25 pigs 1 feed space 4 pigs Grower 60 70F Finisher 60 70F Grower 16 19 protein Finisher 12 14 protein Feed efficiency lt3 51 Induce Synchronize Farrowing 0 Why Feeder Pigs Allows for close supervision during farrowing Groups sows for weaning rebreeding Improves use of labor and facilities Allows for cross fostering if necessary Lower mortality rate All in all out PGF2a injection to sows on day 112 70 80 of sows farrow in 24 36 hrs Sometimes oxytocin injection 24 hrs after the PGF2a Sows farrow within 6 hrs More frowned upon 0 Purchased 8 9 weeks of age 0 Raised to market 220 270 lbs 0 Faster turnover in volume 0 Slaughter 250 lb Hog on the hoof liveweight 180 lb Dressed on the rail want high 144 lb Retail Cuts in the stores 28 of weight is lost during slaughter and dressing hair blood Carcass is hung on a rail and placed in a cooler for chilling Marketing Swine o Hogs are classified by use slaughter or feeder sex weight and quality 0 70 of the hogs sold in the US are priced based on carcass merit more lean muscle less fat 0 Factors to consider when deciding time to market Type of hog Hog feed price ratio Amount of discount for heavier hogs Time of yr more money in summer Classification of Market Swine Use I Feed sold to be fed to greater weight pre slaughter I Slaughter killed and sold as meat Sex I Sow I Gilt I Boar skatole and androsterone boar taint I Barrow I Stag Weight I Top prices paid for hogs at 220 260 lbs Quality I USDA grade standard based on carcass quality and the yield of the 4 lean cuts 0 Markets Contracts 0 0 Today 80 of all US hogs are sold on Contract Formula Contract producer agrees to sell at a future date a specified number of hogs by weight carcass merit to a buyer for a certain price plus premium I Decreases the risk of price uctuations I Increases risk of profit loss if prices rise Forward Cash Contract hog price is based on a formula that accounts for uctuations in feed costs Risk Share Contract hog price is paid Within a predetermined range and adjustments are made if the cash market falls outside the range producer and packer split gains or losses 0 Farrow to Finish Performance Benchmarks O O O 0 00000 Litters farrowedsowyr 21 pen mating 22 hand mating Farrowing rate gt80 Pigs weanedfemaleyr gt20 best indicator of reproductive efficiency Mortality rate I Breed herd lt4 confined lt6 outside I Preweaning lt10 I Nursery lt2 I Growingfinishing herd lt3 Time to market lt180 days or 6 months Avg daily grain lbday gt 10 Nursery gt19 Finishing gt17 Feed efficiency lbday lt145 I Nursery lt260 I Finishing lt230 0 Health Protocols Vaccination Timing O O Pre breeding gilts sows boars I Repro related Parvovirus Lepto PRRS Erysipelas Pre farrowing gilts and sows 0 Young pigs 0 At weaning sows piglets Lepto Parvovirus Erysipelas AR 0 Health Protocols Parasites 0 Dewormer Insecticide 0 As needed for Pre farrowing at weaning grower Vaccines for Diseases 0 Parvovirus Virus SMEDI endemic in most herds Ingestion inhalation venereal and transplacental lt30 days embryonic death and resorption 30 70 days sequential death mummies and stillbirths gt70 days fetal immune response and some live pigs Rarely abortion Spirochete In urine venereal transplacental sepsis localizes Abortion stillbirths mummies weak piglets small litters flu like symptoms and kidney diseases 0 Colibacillosis E coli In almost everything Diarrhea o Erysipelas Bacteria oronasal exposure septicemia localizes Fever Joints lamenessarthritis Heart endocarditis Skin diamond skin disease Uterus abortion any stage mummies Sometimes death Sometimes you can treat if caught early 0 Pot Bellied Pigs PBP Birthweight 05 075 lbs Adult weight 90 150 lbs rarely up to 300 lbs Lifespan 10 18 yrs Pi glets should be socialized when young lt 8 weeks of age Behavior OOOOO They re clean pigs differentiate bw sleeping eating and toilet areas Pigs have only a few sweat glands so they wallow in water or mud for cooling Pigs are Herd animals and will fight to establish a hierarchy Pigs wag their tails and vocalize to express emotions Pigs love to root and nest they are omnivores Pigs should be provided with environmental enrichment Diet I Feed an equivalent to 2 of their body weightday I Will over eat Spay I Based on weight gt15 lbs usually about 3 4 months I Based on age prefer 4 6 months Castrate I Based on weight 5 10 lbs I Based on age prefer 1 4 months Day of Beauty I Time hooves I Clean ears I Trim tuskscanines I Bath
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