Poultry Management ANISCI 103
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Jasa on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANISCI 103 at University of Massachusetts taught by Dr. Beltaire in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Intro to Animal Management in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Poultry Management Domesticated birds maintained for eggs meat and by products Total farm value gt20 billion Chickens gt456 million raised yr in US for meat and eggs Turkey gt254 million raisedyr in US for meat Industrial Uses of Eggs Feathers and Chicks 0 Pharmaceutical amp vaccine production 0 Research 0 Products paints varnishes adhesives printer s ink 0 Photography book binding wine clarification leather tanning o Cushions pillows mattresses dusters and insulation material History 0 Domesticated in China amp India 0 Incubation figured out by Egyptians o Roosters first castrated capons by the Romans In the US 0 1940s 1950s Scientific market amp policy changes lowered production costs and increased profit 0 Improved genetics 0 Improved knowledge of nutritional requirements 0 Stable interior environments 0 Improved disease control 0 Processes for sexing chicks o Candling eggs I Hold up to a light and assessing the inside 0 1950s 1970s I Cost of production cut in half amp chicken became everyday food I Profit margin declined for farms amp farmers responded by increasing farm size I Economy of scale cost advantages obtained with cost per uint of output generally decreasing with increasing size as fixed costs are spread out over more units of output Enterprises 0 Egg Production layers 0 Meat Production broilers 0 Replacement Pullet Production Feed conversion amount of feed needed to produce 1 lb or 1 kg of live weight Present Day 0 Decreasing total number of farms amp increasing individual ock size per farm 0 60 companies with 21 million layers 296 million layers 87 of production 0 Increasing Vertical Integration 99 of broilers 0 Top 8 Broiler States GA AR AL MS NC TX KY MD Trends in the US 0 Increasing annual egg production gt90 billion eggsyr 0 Increasing rate of layhen 0 gt75 of eggs produced for human consumption table egg production 0 lt25 off eggs produced for the hatching market replacements for the egg laying ocks and to produce broiler chicks 0 Top 5 Egg Producing Eggs IA OH IN PA TX 0 Increasing US consumption of poultry meat I Health perception I Convenience I Fast food I Low cost 67 78 of live weight is edible meat I Exports 18 of US poultry production Terms 0 Hen mature female chicken or turkey I Turkey hen gt7 days of age raised for meat or breeding purposes I Chicken hen gt20 wks of age raised for egg production I Heavy Spent hen gt15 months of age former layer 5 55 lbs canned o Pullet immature female chicken not yet started to lay eggs 0 Chick young chicken of either sex from 1 day to 5 6 wks o Rooster mature male chicken I Tom mature male turkey I Gander mature male goose o Cockerel immature intact male chicken lt1 yr of age 0 Capon neutered male chicken produced for speciality meat markets 0 Poult young turkey male or female from 1 day to 2 wks Broiler Terms 0 Dark Meat I Higher in caloriescholesterol lower in protein I Slow twitch muscle fibers used for extended periods of activity standing walking need a consistent energy source I Dense in myoglobin richly pigmented protein stores oxygen in muscle cells 0 White Meat I Fast twitch muscle fibers used for quick bursts of activity eeing from danger I Energy is supplied by glycogen stored in the muscle 0 Skin I Adds cholesterol and fat Classification 0 Class O I Group developed in same geographic area I Mediterranean I American I English I Asiatic Breed O O I Subdivision of Class I Consistently express certain traitssimilar size and shape Variety I Subdivision of Breed composed of birds with the same plumage color and comb type Type I Purpose for breeding egg type meat type Comb Types 0000 0 Single Rose Pea V shaped Cushion 0 Chicken Eggs 0 0 Avg chicken egg 57 grams 1 5 25 oz 25 27 hrs for production Shell and Membranes I Protects I Allows exchange of gases I Conserves food and water supply Shell I 11 egg weight 94 calcium carbonate I Cuticle I 7 17000 pores I Spongy layer I Mammillary layer Air Cell I Forms as an egg cools after laying 105F I Forms bw the inner and outer shell membranes due to different rates of contraction bw the shell and its contents I Increases in size with evaporation of water Shell Membranes I Tough thin fibrous protein I Outer membrane attached to shell I Inner membrane encloses egg I Protection White Albumen I 58 of egg weight I Water protein all essential amino acids B vitamins I Chalazae anchor yolk I Chalaziferous layer I Thick layer I Inner thin layer and outer thin layer I 31 of egg weight I Germinal disc embryo I Concentric rings of yolk surrounded by a clear vitelline membrane I Protein lipids vitamins not Vit C minerals Fe P S Cu K NA Mg Ca Cl Mn I Vitelline membrane protein 0 Chicken Reproductive A amp P o 2 Ovaries left 0 2 Oviducts left I 25 27 inches long I FunnelInfundibulum I Magnum I Isthmus I Shell GlandUterus 20 hrs I Vagina o Cloaca 0 Stages of Oviducts o Ovary I Cluster of ova yolks I Each yolk is contained Within a thin membranous follicle I Ovum develops as yolk is added I Color or yolk comes from fat soluble pigments xanthophylls contained in the hen s diet I Ovulation occurs 30 min after the previous egg was laid o Infundibulum 15 min I 3 4 inches I Engulf the yolk post ovulation I Sperm reservoir I site of fertilization o Magnum 3 hrs I 15 inches I 3 layers of the albumen are formed chalazae inner thin White thick layer 0 Isthmus 125 hrs I 4 inches I Water and mineral salts added I 2 shell membranes are formed 0 Uterus 21 hrs I 4 inches I Outer thin later of the albumen and minerals pass through the shell membranes I Shell and shell pigment are added 0 Vagina I 4 inches I Cuticle added I Muscle to move egg out 0 Egg Abnormalities 0 Double Yolk I 2 yolks ovulated at the same time or 1 yolk is lost into the body cavity for a day 0 Yolkless I Egg forms around tissue sloughed off the ovary or oviduct no yolk was ovulated 0 Blood Spot I Rupture of 1 or more small blood vessels in the yolk follicle at ovulation 0 Meat Spot I Tissue sloughed off the hen repro tract or blood spot that changes color 0 Soft Shell I Egg is laid early with insufficient time for shell deposition in the uterus 0 Thin Shell I Dietary deficiency hereditary or disease Candling 0 Process of using hi gh density light to determine the quality of an egg 0 Hand candling 0 Automated mass scanning equipment eggs travel along a conveyor bely and pass over mechanical sensors integrated with computerized systems for segregation of defective eggs 0 Advanced technology utilizing computerized integrated cameras and sound wave technology is also being applied for the segregation of eggs USDA Standards for Weight Classes 0 Minimum weight per dozen eggs Clutch 0 Number of eggs a bird lays in one set eggsnest o Consists of one or more eggs followed by a rest period then another egg or set of eggs 0 Vary by species Hens o Ovulate in the morning and under normal daylight conditions almost never after 3 pm 0 Total time to form a new egg 25 27 hrs I 3 5 hrs to make the albumen I 15 hrs for the shell membranes I 21 hrs for the shell 0 Ovulation of the next egg of a clutch occurs within an hr of laying the previous egg Nutrition 0 Omnivores 0 Have paired ceca which will develop and digest some fiber if they are fed forages o Are fed almost exclusively complete mixed diets that are offered in mash or pelleted form I High is pelleted bs of less waste 0 Poultry and swine generally compete for the same feedstuffs concentrated feeds such as grains soybean meal and by product feeds 0 Digestive Tract O O O O BeakMouth I Glands secrete saliva enzymes I Tongue moves feed to the pharynx for swallowing I Taste buds are on the roof of the mouth and back of the tongue Esophagus I Smooth muscle transports feed from the mouth to the crop and from the crop to the proventriculus Crop I Out pocketing of the esophagus in the neck I Feed and water are stored until the remainder of the digestive tract is ready to receive more feed I When nearly empty the crop sends signals to the brain so that more feed is consumed Proventriculus I True glandular stomach I Add HCL and digestive enzymes pepsin to the feed digestion begins Gizzard Ventriculus I Muscular mechanical stomach I Grind crush and mix feed with digestive juices I Grit Small Intestines I Duodenum I Bw the J ejunum and Ileum gt Meckel s Diverticulum I Meckel s Diverticulum pre hatching the yolk sac is drawn into the navel cavity to supply feed and water to the newly hatched chick Pancreas I Digestive enzymes and bicarbonate Liver I Gallbladder fat Ceca I Blind pouches at the junction of the small and large intestines I Re absorb water I Ferment coarse materials I Produce eight B vitamins I Empty contents 2 3Xday Large Intestines colon I Re absorb water Rectum Cloaca Vent 0 Normal Fecal 0 Color and texture of fecal material indicates the health status of the chicken White pasty material coating chicken fecal material is uric acid the avian form of urine 0 Broiler Production Life Cycle 0 O O O 0 Foundation Breeders Parent Flocks Hens Hatchery Supply Layers Fertile Eggs Incubators Chicks I Meat type boilers Hatchery Pullets 0 Layer Production Life Cycle 0 O O O 0 Foundation Breeders Parent Flocks Hens Hatchery Supply Layers Fertile Eggs Incubators Chicks I Day old chicks I Table Egg Pullets gt Table Egg layers Hatchery Pullets I Started Pullets 6 8 Wks I Ready to lay Pullets 16 20 Wks Laying Hens O O O O O Egg type Hens 240 320 eggsyr 15 2 ft2 Broiler type Hens 170 eggsyr 25 35 ft2 Turkey Hens 105 eggsyr 4 6 ft2 Duck Hen 15 300 eggsyr 3 ft2 Goose 10 40 eggsyr 5 ft2 0 Housing Management Goals 0 00000 Protect from environmental extremes manure contact predators and injuries Minimize transmission of disease and parasites Facilitate optimal daily care and inspection Provide constant access to food and water Maximize bird comfort and health Maintain a clean environment 0 Hen Housing Cages 0000000000 95 of commercial egg production in the US 90 of commercial egg production in the World Hens should be able to stand up 367 86 inches2 per hen Sloped not more than 8 degrees Flat or tiered laying cages Feed trough Water source trough nipple cup water Manure pit removed by belts or scrapers Temp 55 75F Hen 1065F 0 Light intensity 05 1ft candle at feeding level 0 Light duration 16 hrsday Hen Housing Cage Free Floor or Free Range 0 The USDA s FSIS verifies the truthfulness of producer claims I The cage free label indicates that the flock was able to freely roam a building room or enclosed area with unlimited access to food and fresh water during their production cyclequot 15 2 ft2 per hen for egg production strains 25 3 5 ft2 per hen for broiler or dual purpose strains On litter slatted floors or wire oors Individual or colony nests hens should not travel gt26 ft to feed and water Superior management is required to minimize MT Hen Housing Free Range 0 The USDA s FSIS verifies the truthfulness of producer claims I Free range or free roaming producers must demonstrate that poultry has been allowed access to the outside I To get the label producers must provide a brief description of the housing conditions I The written description to the housing conditions is reviewed to ensure there is continuous free access to the outdoors for over 51 of the animals lives ie through their normal growing cycle I Outdoors areas may or may not be fenced andor covered with netting like material Hen Housing Ventilation 0 Provide fresh air 0 Remove excess moisture 0 Maintain temp o Minimize levels of carbon monoxide ammonia hydrogen sulfide an dust Hen Housing Ventilation Types 0 Tunnel Ventilation air inlet gt exhaust fan 0 Air inatke I Slotted area in the ceiling or near top of walls 100 in2 of inlet space for each 400cfm of fan capacity 0 Exhaust Fan I Cubic feet of air moved per minute cfm I Moderate temps 4 45 cfm per bird I Hot temps 10 cfm per bird Hens Feeding 0 Water constant access 0 Balanced ration I gt60 grain or grain by products I g 10 animal or vegetable fats and oils I Roughage I Protein I Minerals OOOOOO O O O 0 Hens o o I Vitamins Commercial Feeds I Mash I Pellets I Crumbles Feeding Systems I Mash complete ground feed I Mash and Grain fed separately at different time I Cafeteria style mash and grain fed separately ad lib Feed Efficiency I Egg layers lb feed required to produce 1 dozen eggs I Goal 43 Induced Molting Hens 240 300 eggsyr Commercial laying hens replaced after 75 80 wks of age hens produce 20 25 less eggs in the 2nd yr and egg quality decreases with age Induce molt extend hen s productive life to 110 wks Molt some partial molt or all full molt feathers are shed and replaced varies by species and season Chx Hens stop producing eggs lose old feathers grow new feathers and restrepair repro tract Methods I Feed Removal Withdraw feed for 5 14 days I Non Feed Removal Feed deficient levels of nutrients Add substances in the feed which inhibit egg production 0 Breeding 0 Chicken layer I 115 17 I Breeds white leghorn strain cross 0 Chicken broiler I 115 17 I Plymouth Rock I New Hampshire 0 Chicken Eggs I Hatchery 0d Collect fertilized eggs as soon as possible after laying 0 18d Eggs are placed in a setter incubator 18 21d Eggs are moved to a hatcher incubator I Incubators forced airfan systems Temp Humidity Turning of eggs setter Air exchange 100 s to 100000 s of eggs 0 Incubator o Incubation Period Bird I Chicken 21 days I Turkey 28 days I Duck 28 days I Goose 28 32 days I Day 1 995 100F I Day 4 end 99 995F I Day 18 21 98 985F Switch from embryonic respiration to normal respiration Which generates heat I Too hot or cold death or deformation 0 Humidity I Day 1 1860 65 I Day 18 21 70 0 Egg Position I Day 1 18 large end air cell up or horizontal I Day 18 21 horizontal 0 Egg Rotation I Day 1 18 frequent 4 6xday automatic tilting to prevent the embryos from sticking to the inside of the shells o Air Exchange I 21 Oxygen I lt05 Carbon Dioxide gt2 causes decreased hatchability o Candling 4 5 days to identify and remove infertile eggs or eggs With dead embryos o Fumigation I Eggs and incubated are fumi gated formaldehyde or potassium permanganate after setting and again after being transferred to the hatching compartment I Hazardous to producers if not conducted properly 0 Hatching o Pre hatching the chick s beak penetrates the air cell for respiration 0 Egg tooth horny point of the beak opens a small hole egg is pipped o Chick hatches Within a few hrs 0 Chicks 0 Day old chicks are sorted from the unhatched eggs 0 Day old chicks are separated by sex 0 Management Practices 0 Beak Trimming I Remove 12 to 13 of beak I Minimize cannibalism feather pulling and stress I Performed by trained personnel under formal quality control program I Trimmed g 10 days of age With a clean precision automated device I Vitamins K and C should be given 2 days before trimming to enhance clotting and minimize stress and dehydration I If the beak grows back second trim may be needed When pullets are 5 8 Wks I For 2 Wks after trimming birds should not be subjected to stress Chicks Brooding O O 0 Housing gt500 ft X 50ft structure Flooring dirt concrete or asphalt litter 2 4 inches deep over floor Water automatic suspended 1 inch trough soavechick or 05 inch pan spacechick Light egg 14 hrs light 10 hrs dark meat 24 hrs light Temp I 90 95F for day old chicks I Drop by 5F every Wk until 70 75F I Check temp 2Xday 3inches off oor I Check behavior I Feathered at 4 8 Wks Chicks Feed 0 O Suspended trough feeders under hover guard I 1 inch trough spacechick 1 day to 3 Wks I 2 inch trough spacechick 3 6 Wks I 3 inch trough spacechick gt6 Wks Broiler I 1 day 6 Wks starter ration 223 protein grit fat 6 9 Wks finishing ration 18 20 protein fat Hens 0 Lights are kept on for 16 hrsday to stimulate a summer environment 0 Lights are turned off for 8 hrs at night so chickens can sleep 0 Most eggs laid in the morning hrs Table Eggs 0 Gather eggs 3Xday 0 Handle them carefully and cleanly 0 Store at 65F in75 80 humidity 0 Ship at 45F 0 Pack With large end up Egg Laying 00000 O 20 Wks egg laying starts 28 32 Wks egg laying peaks Rate of egg production declines over the next 40 Wks 68 80 Wks egg laying ceases At the end of the lay period hens are sold to processing plants or induced to molt The laying barn is then throughly cleaned and disinfected before a new flock is moved in 0 Records 0 Egg or Meat Production 0 Illnesses and Mortality I MT gt2 less than 3 Wks of age I MT gl greater than 3 Wks of age 0 Amount of Feed 0 Cost of Feed 0 Feed Efficiency 0 Cost of buildings repairs equipment labor contracts insurance 0 Profit 0 Health Management 0 Sanitation 0 Good Management 0 Vaccination 0 Health Bird 0 Marek s Disease 0 O O 0 Highly contagious amp environmentally stable Herpesvirus Tumors in nerves liver ovaries testes muscle and skin MT can go up to 20 Transmission the virus matures into a fully infective form in the epithelium of the feather follicle and then it contaminates the environment through infected molted feathers and dander Birds become infected When they inhale dust containing the virus contaminated dust may remain infectious for several months Clinical Signs depression paralysis tumors TX NONE 0 Avian Influenze Fowl Plague 0 Virus that occurs naturally in the intestinal tract of many Wild and domestic birds AI infection may occur With no disease outcome or pathogenic forms of the AI virus can result in a highly contagious respiratory infections Clinical Signs I Depression I Decreased egg production or soft shelledmisshappen eggs I Nasal discharge coughing sneezing diarrhea I Neurologic signs I Recovery is rare In uenza Type A viruses are divided into subtypes based on the nature of the presence of 2 glycoproteins on the surface on the virus hemagglutinin HA and neuraminidase NA 16 different HAs and 9 different NAs Tranmission I Spread primarily through contaminated feces and aerosols from the respiratory tract I Ingestion of contaminated feed and drinking water I Indirectly by fomites such as contaminated equipment personnel clothing foot wear and AI 0 Control I Inclusion and echlusion biosecurity practices I Vaccination Will not provide absolute protection I Diagnostics and surveillance I Elimination of infected animals I Educating personnel in A1 control strategies 0 Coccidiosis 0 Cause host specific protozoal parasite 0 Clinical Signs droopiness huddling loss of appetiteweight diarrhea blood 0 Prevention Coccidiostat in feed minimize stress and good sanitation vaccinate
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