Beef Cattle Management
Beef Cattle Management ANISCI 103
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Popular in Animal Science and Zoology
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Jasa on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANISCI 103 at University of Massachusetts taught by Dr. Beltaire in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Intro to Animal Management in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Beef Cattle Management Beef Industry 0 US largest producer 0 Beef Cow Inventory I Peaked in the 1970 s went down now stable I Changes Demand Beef prices Cost of Production feed Weather drought Land prices 0 Purpose make use of resources that would otherwise go to waste predominantly grass 0 Waste materials from agronomic crops and food by products are also fed to beef cattle Top Breeds o Angus Scotland I Black dominant and polled dominant I Perform well in feedlots Can take high concentrate feed and convert it well I Produce a hi gh quality carcass with well marbled meat I Bull 2000 2500 lbs I Cow 1150 lbs 0 Hereford England I Red body and white face horned I Superior foraging ability vigor and hardiness I Bull 1800 2600 lbs I Cow 1200 lbs Cattle Feeding Areas 0 Southern amp Central regions of the Great Plains o MTSDNEKSOKTXMOARKYTNFL US Beef Cow Farms 0 Distribution of cows is just about evenly distributed Structure of Industry 0 Beef cattle production is divided into more phases segmented 0 Major segments I Seed stock producers I Cow calf producers I Yearling or Stocker operations I Feedlot or Finishing operations I Packers I Retailers Cycle of Production 0 Breeding I 9 months pregnancy 0 Weaning O I 6 8 months 400 700 lbs Calf to Feedlot or Stocker Yearling operation 0 Beef Production Cow Calf Cycle 0 O Breeding I Short interval 45 60 days Breed May July Calve Feb May 0 Grass Fed Beef Production O 0000 Weaning Grazing or Feeding Hay Packing Plant Market Food Service or Retail 10 15 of slaughtered steers and heifers Cow Calf Operations 0 0 1st phase of production Product 6 10 month old 300 700 lb crossbred calves that are usually sold at weaning to either a stocker calf operation or a feedlot Goal produce the heaviest calves and yearlings possible with the least cost 30 million around the country I Concentration in the western range states and upper Great Plains Feeder calf weaned calf lt1 yr sold to be fed to market weight Yearling feeder weaned and fed through the winter before sale at 1 2 yr of age to be finished Primary Objectives I Max lbs of calf weaned per cow calf crop calves produced per 100 cows in breeding herd Avg weight of calves at weaning I Minimize annual cow costs I Ex Calf crop 85 85 calves produced 100 cows in breeding herd avg weight of calves at weaning 425 lb Annual cow cost 300 Annual cow costlb calf weaned 300425 lbs 07059 7059 100 lb Break even point 7059 per 100 lb or 071 per lb Profit only if a producer receives gt 071 per lb 0 Stocker Yearling Operations 0 0 Input purchase weaned calves from cow calf producers Daily feed weaned cattle for 6 12 months to grow to 600 850 lbs using forage amp hi gh roughage feeds such as grass crop residues corn stalks grain stubble beet tops wheat pasture or silage Output sell the heavier yearlings to auction or a feedlot grow to 600 850 lbs by 12 16 months of age on primarily roughage Operation Types I Single owner single site I Single owner off site contract stocking I Multiple owners multiple sites 0 Feedlot Operations 0 O O The finishing phase Input 600 850 lbs cattle from cow calf operations or stocker operations Process feed or finish to market weight amp condition using hi gh energy rations OutputGoal 900 1400 lbs by 18 24 months of age for processing Nutrition I Use hi gh quality feeds to bring cattle to a suitable slaughter end point in as little time as possible usually cattle are fed for 120 150 days I Several types of feeding programs typically involve Receiving ration fed for the first wk or two after arrival Hi gh energy feed grain designed to optimize gain 0 Breeding 0 O O 0 Natural Service I Fertile and healthy bull at right stocking density Young bull 20 25 cows Mature bull 25 40 cows Range 4 bulls per 100 cows I Exposure time 360 days calving season AI When I Bred to calve in the spring or fall I Less cost better pasture for moms When for Heifers I Size 65 of adult weight and height breed dependent 550 850 lbs I Age 15 months so they calve for the first time at 2 yrs of age I Date early in the season so they calve 20 30 days before cows allows more time for observation 0 Pregnant or Open 0 0 Check for pregnancy 45 90 days after removal of the bull If open she should be culled Why I She s out of synch with the other cows I Have to feed 0 Calving Goals 0 0000000 Season 40 90 days Spring March June Fall September October Clean safe environment Frequent observation Provide assistance when needed heifers Save calves morality lt3 Keep records Calf Processing 0 Ear tagging 0 Dehorning younger the better Early less blood supply less vessels Later higher risk of getting a sinus infection Nerve block lidocaine and sometimes sedation lt 2 wks shave hair and apply caustic paste lt 8 wks tub dehorner or heat dehorner lt 6 months barnes dehorner Young adult Gigli wire 0 Tattooing On the ear 0 Branding Letters 4 tall 38 to 1 wide Hot iron Freeze brand Cold iron 0 Castration Weaning 6 9 months of age Most calves will be weaned at the same time The heavier they are the better Factors Affecting Calf Weaning Weights O O O O Elastrator band Burdizzo Surgical Ideally lt 4 months of age gt8 months Staggy Calving date cow fertility Available forage Creep feed in moderation High protein quality feed for the calves cows can39t get in Disease or illness Genetic selection milk production and calf growth Crossbreeding 10 30 increase in lbs calf weaned per cow exposed Growth stimulants only non breeding animals 0 How do Growth Stimulants Work 0 Work with an animal s endocrine system to partition nutrients to support more muscle growth for increased weight gain improved feed efficiency and a learner carcass 0 Natural Hormones Estradoil Progesterone GnRH 0 Synthetic Hormones I Zeranol I Trenbolone acetate I Melengestrol acetate 0 Why use implants I Growth promotants Improve growth rate Improve feed efficiency Generate a learner carcass Make economic sense to producers 101 return 0 Who uses implants I 9 30 of cow calf producers use growth promoting implants I 34 90 of feedlots with lt1 000 head of cattle use implants at least once during the finishing phase I 78 99 of feedlots with gt1 000 head of cattle use implants at least once during the finishing phase 0 Who doesn t use implants I USDA organic meat comes from cattle that are not given any antibiotics or growth hormones 0 Genetic Selection 0 Select for desired traits high heritability 0 Performance Records I Production testing evaluation of a cow based on the performance of her calves I Progeny testing evaluation of a bull based on the performance of his calves o Economically Important Traits I Reproductive Performance Heritability of fertility is low lt20 Heritability of birth weight and SC is high 0 Scrotum circumference correlates with the semen count the of females he gets pregnant and his daughter s fertility I Weaning Weight I Post weaning Growth I Feed Efficiency I Carcass Merit I Longevity I Conformation I Freedom from Genetic DefectsHealth Sire Summaries 0 Provide info on economically important traits I Expected birth weight I Weaning weight I Yearling weight I Carcass weight I Fat thickness O I Marbling score Expected Progeny Difference EPD a measure of the degree of difference bw the bull39s progeny and the progeny of the avg bull in the same breed Selection of Breeding Stock Genomic Testing 0 O Genomics study of the function of genes and their inter realtionships with a focus on trait expression Single Nucleotide Polymorphism SNP a site on a chromosome where animals in a population have different nucleic acids Factors Affecting Cow Costs 0 Feed 50 70 of annual cow costs I Pasture Management I Supplement Feed Costs 0 Genetics 0 Labor 15 20 of annual cow costs 0 Herd Health I Depends on how you house them 0 Interest on capital machinery mortgage etc 10 15 of annual cow costs 0 Other fuel repair supplies utilities taxes Preconditioning 0 Management practices implemented around weaning to optimize a calf s immune system and nutritional status and minimize stress I Identification ear tag brand tattoo I Vaccination clostridial and respiratory diseases I Parasite control I Castration I Dehorning I Training calves to eat from a feed bunk and drink from a water trough 0 When I At weaning I Before weaning earlier the better I After weaning prior to shipment 0 Why I Health I Value Added Calfquot Cow Calf Herd Health Protocol 0 CalVing I Colostrum I Ear tagging I Vitamin ESe I Vitamin A amp D I Dehorning I Castration I Implant Pre Breeding o Vaccinate against a bunch of respiratory GI and reproductive tract diseases I Lepto clostridium etc 0 Internal parasite control 0 External parasite control I Fall lice and grubs I Summer y control Fly tags that help keep the ies away 0 BCS and PE eyes limbs udder Bull test for any diseases 0 Calves I Start at 3 months of age I Figure out which vaccines to give I Don t over vaccinate 0 3 6 Wks Pre Weaning o Cows I Pregnancy Evaluation I Lepto Vaccine Booster I Internal amp External Parasite Control I BCS amp PE eyes limbs udder o Calves I Vx IBR BRSV BVDV PI 3 booster prior Vx I Vx Clostridium I Vx Haemophilus somnus Pasteurella Mannhemia I External amp Internal Parasite Control I Implant growth promotant I Dehorn amp castrate if needed 0 Beef Case 1 0 Normal Values I T 100 102F I H 40 80 bpm I R 10 35 bpm o What you get I T 103 105F I H 70 100 I R 60 120 I Coughing sneezing nasal discharge 0 Diagnosis Shipping fever 0 Shipping Fever 0 Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex BRDC caused by a combination of viral infection bacterial infection amp stress 0 Sources of stress include I Transportation I Extreme temps I Diet changeshunger I Feardiscomfort O O I Exposure to new animals germs amp social intxn I Exposure to new surroundings Tx I Antibiotics I Decrease stress I Easy access to water I Fans to get temp down I Anti in ammatory to decrease fever Prevention I Reduce stress 0 Stocker Yearling Operations 0 O O O 0 Objective Obtain the most lbs of cattle gain within economic reason from weaning to entry into a feedlot while ensuring high quality forage yield each yr Factors I Calf price purchasing amp selling I Pasture production amp use I Interest I Purchased feed I Labor and overhead I Death loss I Other Backgrounding growing and feeding of calves from weaning until entry into a feedlot Calves are primarily fed roughage rations for 120 150 days variable Expected ADG 15 2 lbs don t over fatten Shrink loss of weight when handled or shipped I Due to decreased feed consumption gut fill manure losses and especially water loss from both the digestive tract and tissues dehydration when cattle don t drink I Calves and yearlings may shrink 3 15 from on farm weight to delivered weight I Weight recovery takes 2 3 wks Mgmt of the newly received or weaned calves in the first 3 4 wks may determine profit or loss Maintain a clean quiet uncrowded receiving pen Vaccinate amp deworm within 24 36 hrs of arrival Metaphylactic Antibiotics giving EVERYONE a shot of antibiotics whether they have something or not Feed hi gh quality grass and hay amp fresh clean water Provide adequate bunk space Observe frequently for health and feed intake 0 Feedlot Operations 0 O Achieve market weight of 900 1400 lbs using harvested feed and grain Commercial Feedlots gt1000 head I Try to keep lots full yr round so there is cattle turnover of 2 25 timesyr o Farmer feeder lt1000 head 1 time capacity I Utilize cattle as markert for homegrown feed I Distribute labor over several enterprises I More exibility 0 Business Analysis I Facilities Investment I Cost of Feeder Cattle I Feed Costs I Nonfeed Costs I Gross Receipts 0 Facilities Investment I Land I Housing dirt pens sheds total confinement I Feed mill process grain I Equipment trucks I Office 0 Purchase Price of Feeder Cattle I Accounts for 23 s of a feedlot s costs I Before buying cattle a feedlot operator must estimate anticipated feed costs and the anticipated price received from the packer I Grade weight shrink transportation gain potential I Conformation appearance of the live animal Skeletal structure Muscling Finish fat cover Structural soundness Proper conformation max amount of high value cuts of beef I Wholesale Cuts of Beef the big chucks of meat the butcher cuts up Hi gh Value Cuts o Loin 0 Rib 0 Round 0 Rump Low Value Cuts 0 Chuck 0 Brisket o Flank 0 Plate 0 Shank 0 Feed Costs I Account for l3 of a feedlot s costs I Ration rate of gain feed efficiency length of time on feed I Cattle that gain more rapidly and efficiently on the same feeding regimen have lower feed costs o Non feed Yardage Costs I Cost per head per dayquot I Death loss vet costs labor taxes insurance utilities repairs 0 Sale Price of Feeder Cattle Gross Receipts I Market knowledge I Transportation I Shrink I Dressing percentage I Quality grade I Yield grade I Manure value 0 Environmental Management I Manure Regular pen maintenance I Water contamination I Air quality I Noise I Flies Composting manure I Dust Overhead sprinklers Timely manure removal 0 Case 2 0 First yr farmer housed her herd of 30 beef animals wher horse and the horse is ill 0 Will the cattle get sick 0 Horse CS I Weakness stilted gait I Muscle temors I Tongue hanging out of mouth drooling 0 Diet I Pasture not much yet and round bales of haylage 0 Horse Diagnosis Botulism o The cattle could develop it but the horse is more susceptible o Vaccinate the horse 0 Haylage Grass Silage O 0 Young respiring plants are cut partially wilted and placed in a silo or wrapped with plastic to eliminate exposure to oxygen Respiratory phase oxygen that is trapped in storage is rapidly consumed by aerobic bacteria Fermentation phase anaerobic bacteria grow multiply and convert that plant sugars into organic acids 0 Bovine vs Equine O 0 How often do we feed haylage or silage to ruminants I Free choice Horses I Never How often do we vaccinate ruminants against Clostridium I Annual Horses most sensitive of domesticated animals to botulism Cl botulimum is a spore forming anaerobic bacteria in soil in decaying animal carcasses amp less often in decaying plant material Cl botulimum produces toxins that block the connection bW the nerves and muscles muscle weakness to paralysis
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