Alternative Agriculture Animals
Alternative Agriculture Animals ANISCI 103
Popular in Intro to Animal Management
Popular in Animal Science and Zoology
This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Jasa on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANISCI 103 at University of Massachusetts taught by Dr. Beltaire in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Intro to Animal Management in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Alternative Agriculture Animals Case 1 Velveteen o Signalment 0 History I Purchased from a pet store 1 month ago I Over the last 2 wks has had a runny nose and runny eyes I Over the last 3 days has started to sneeze and cough 0 PE I Temp 21 little high I Respiratory distress o Diagnostics I Nasal swab pasteurella multocida gram negative bacteria Snuffles I Highly contagious I Transmitted primarily by direct contact but aerosol transmission is possible I Cultural sensitivity 0 Treatment I Enro oxacin antibiotic injections twice a day for 3 wks I Warning Velveteen may become a carrier 0 New History I 1 wk of worsening diarrhea 0 Update I Client has been giving Penicillin capsules orally to Velveteen instead of the injections that were prescribed 0 Rabbit GIT monogastric herbivore hindgut fermenter I Antibiotics that are safe to use in rabbits are limited compared to other species I Oral administration of many antibiotics that would be effective against bacteria causing respiratory infections will also kill bacteria necessary to keep the intestinal tract healthy and functioning Rabbit Production 0 Research 0 Meat 1 I Low fat low calorie low cholesterol high protein white meat I Dietary staple in other countries I Slaughtered as fryers live weight of 3 6 lbs 8 12 wks o Wool 0 Pets 3 2 million in 14 million households 0 Show animalsyouth programs 4 H amp FFA 0 Skin Terminology 0 Buck male 0 Doe female 0 Kit baby 0 Kindling birthing Breeds O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O 0 000 O O Angora Californians New Zealand White Dutch Flemish Giants Housing Li ghting 12 hr light 12 hr dark for yr round breeding Ventilation Temp Control very sensitive HutchesCages wire mesh hanging Nest boxes I Untreated wood wire mesh sheet metal Bedding of straw or shavings Use 27 28 days after breeding Manure Mgmt frequent cleaning composting raising worms Puberty 4 5 months for light weight breeds 5 8 months for medium weight breeds 8 10 months for large weight breeds They don t have well defined estrous cycles they grow waves of follicles 7 10 days and will eventually enter sexual receptivity Induced ovulator 10 12 hrs after breeding 1 buck 10 does bring the doe to the buck for breeding Breeding Gestation 30 31 days range of 28 35 days Avg litter size 8 10 kits Weaning 5 10 wks depending on breed and market Production I Does may be re bred while nursing if they are in good condition or wait for weaning 4 littersyr if does are re bred at 8 wks post partum 5 littersyr is does re bred at 6 wks post partum Pregnancy evaluation abdominal palpation 12 14 days Breeding does in a commercial setting are productive for 25 3 yrs Kindling Provide a nesting box with bedding 27 28 days after breeding Does will pull out their own fur to create a nest Examine the litter within 24 hrs to make sure they are alive and to remove any undersized kits Monitor for warmth and starvation 7 10 days eyes open 19 20 days start to eat solid food 5 10 weeks weaning Feeding Single stomach herbivore hindgut fermenter Water Feed efficiency of 31 3 lbs feed 1 lb meat Hay amp grain Pellets I Minerals 1 Calcium 1 Phosphorous Iodized salt I Vitamins 0 Dry forage hay 40 80 of a rabbit s diet I Legume hay alfalfa high in protein I Grass hay protein supplementation may be needed I Avoid mold mildew and dust 0 Grain oats barley wheat rye buckwheat gt corn whole or milled 0 Green feed grasses weeds cereal grains leafy vegetables high in vitamins minerals and protein 0 Root crops carrots sweet potatoes turnips beets o Pellets all grain feed with hay or complete green pellets Coprophagy eating their own pellets o Rabbits also produce stool called night feces cecotropes which are very soft and covered with a thick mucus 0 Normal part of the animal s digestive process and the animal eats this stool to recycle protein water and vitamins 0 Common in rodents and rabbits although only the rabbit produces a special stool for this purpose Restraint 0 Generally docile and easy to handle Risks scratches and bites Support the hind legs Scruff them Have strong legs and very little bone mass when they kick its very easy for them to cause serious injury to their spine Sex Determination o Genital region is examined by lifting the rabbit by the scruff while supporting the hind end o Malerounded urethral opening I The scrotum is not always obvious especially in young males I Male rabbits also have open inguinal rings which allow the testicles to retract into the abdomen 0 Female slit like vulva Health Program 0 Clean 0 Good record keeping tattoo or ear tag 0 Local zoning regulations amp Animal Welfare Act 0000 O O O 0 Case 2 Bison Production Bovidae family Large fast strong Weight 1000 2200 lbs Height 5 65 ft Length 7 12 ft Speed 35 40 mph Lifespan 12 20 yrs Defense 2 ft curved horns males gt females Hardy Survive blizzards and extreme heat Very efficient grazers preferring a total grass diet with gains of two lbsday 0 History 0 Crossed the Beiring Strait land bridge from Asia to North America 20 30000 yrs ago 0 1700 s 30 60 million in North America 0 1900 300 bison endangered o 2010 gt220000 bison National Preserves amp private ranches in all 50 states 0 Markets 0 Breeding Stock 0 Hobby Exhibition animals 0 Meat I Red meat lower in fat cholesterol amp calories than beef pork amp skinless chicken I Small producer 25 100 I Medium producer 100 250 I Large ranch 100 s 1000 s I 2011 53700 processed at USDA inspected plants I Single producer or segmented Welfare amp Meat Safety 0 Federal Meat Inspection Act FMIA does not include alternative livestock 0 Some states have their own laws 0 Local health codes may prohibit sale of uninspected bison in markets and restaurants 0 Buffalo Cheese mozzarella 0 Buffalo cheese is produced from the milk of water buffalos 0 Water buffalo are a separate species 0 Housing 0 Land 22 3 acres per animal 0 Strong fencing corral chute system 7 8 ft tall and an appropriate squeeze chute 0 Know state liability and trespass laws 0 Health Program 0 Good record keeping o Vaccination OOOOOOOOOOO o Deworming 0 Observation Production Cycle 0 Breeding I Puberty 2 yrs I Season Fall August to October 1 mature bull for 10 15 cows Change bull every 1 3 seasons I Gestation 275 285 days I Calving Summer May to July I Weaning 8 9 months I Dont castrate bulls that are sold for meat before breeding age I Dehorning no I Ear tagging try it Feeding O O O 0 Hardcore grazers Pasture rotational graze land gt need Winter supplemental hay protein 1 1 13 salt Rules of Thumb I 1 lb or roughage per 100 lbs of body weight for digestion I 2 lbs of dry matter per 100 lbs live weight for energy Feeding Finishing O O O O 0 Extra young bulls Weaned Pasture or Roughage in a Dry lot Feedlot Finish ration I 10 lbs alfalfa hay amp 7 10 lbs corn per day I ADG 2 3 lbs Processed I Live weight LOGO 1100 lbs I Dressing weight 620 lbs 62 What is a Beefalo O O 0 Are 38 bison and 58 domestic cattle Took yrs of crossing and research to develop this breed Advantages I Hardy animals with excellent weight gain on hi gh roughage feed Ratites ightless birds 0 O Ostrich Flat breastbone resembles a raft latin ratis Shape of a raft ratius 0000 000000000 Tl B sooo OOOOOOOOOOOOOO w 55 0 000 O O Largest amp heaVist Range Africa Height 7 9 ft Speed 30 50 mph I 1 month old chicks 35 mph Weight 200 350 lbs Long necks small heads large eyes Male has black amp white feathers Female has grey feathers 1800 s commercial production in S Africa Mid l940 s shifted towards meat production amp leather 2 toes Maturity 2 4 yrs Each female lays 1 5 eggs in a communal nest with eggs from up to 60 different females Incubation period 40 46 days Lifespan 30 50 yrs Omnivores 3 toes 2nd largest bird Range Australia Height 5 6 ft Weight 125 150 lbs Speed 30 mph Head amp neck are grayish blue Feathers are black on head amp mottled brown on back Plumage is course amp hair like Maturity 15 3 yrs Eggs laid 5 15 eggsclutch up to 3 clutches per season Incubation period 56 days Lifespan 10 20 yrs in wild 35 yrs in zoos Blue eggs Range South America Height 55 ft Weight 44 55 lbs Feathers I Pale gray to brown I Head amp neck completely feathered I No tail feathers I Long body feathers droop over posterior of bird Females lay 1 egg every other day or every 3 4 days for 7 10 days in a ground communal nest of the males design Males incubate the eggs for 6 weeks amp care for the newly hatched babies Cassowary 0000000 00000000 0000 0000 3 toes Height 4 6 ft Speed 30 mph Range Australia amp Malay Archipelago No plumage on head or neck Skin bright blue red amp yellow Large bony crest on top of head Casque I Used for digging Brownish black hair like feathers on the body Defense sharp toenails on their inner toes Maturity 25 3 yrs Eggs laid 3 5 per clutch Incubation 49 56 days Male sits on eggs amp rears chicks for 9 months Lifespan 12 20 yrs Wild 40 yrs zoos Green eggs 3 toes 5 species New Zealand Height 1 ft tall Wei ght 275 9 lbs Small heads slender bills amp no tail Feathers brown or gray hair like I Special feathers around their faces similar to Whiskers Nostrils located at the end of their bills Solid bones Very strong muscular legs 13 of BW Omnivores I Insects larva crayfish roots berries amp fruit Maturity females 2 3 yrs males 14 18 months Eggs laid 1 rarely 2 per clutch 1 clutchyr Incubation 75 85 days Lifespan 30 yrs in Wild 50 yrs in zoos I Nature predators 1 gt coyotes amp dogs Production 0 Marketing I Meat USDA FSIS inspection is required I Skin leather quill pattern I Fat oil cosmetics amp pharmaceuticals I Feathers harvested once a yr I Eggs shells 15 for art food 45ostrich egg 1 24 chicken eggs Facilities 0 0 Can be very dangerous to handle Fences should be 5 feet high amp flush With ground O 0 High walls or crowding pens Space 14 to 3 acres per breeding pair 0 Ostrich Breeding 0 O O Maturity I Male 25 yr I Female 2 yr I Monogamous or polygamous I Dramatic mating behavior Breed amp begin laying eggs 5 10 days later I Then continue until up to 15 20 eggs I Eggs weigh 3 5 lbs Mating Season March September Emu Breeding 0 O O O Maturity 15 3 yrs I Mostly monogamous female is dominant larger Breed amp lay an egg every 3 4 days I Up to 30 eggs in clutch I Eggs weigh 15 lbs Male incubates nest Mating Season November March 0 Production Incubation amp Hatching O O O O O O 0 Artificial incubation gt Natural incubation Collect eggs daily be clean Store at 55 65F 75 humidity air cell up amp turn 3X per day Incubate within 7 days of collection I Temp 97 5 99F Humidity 25 40 I Rotate I Ostrich egg 39 59 days avg 42 days I Emu egg 46 56 days avg 50 days Move to hatcher 1 2 days before hatching Hatch 70 ostrich eggs 50 80 emu eggs Chicks are moved to a brooder I Heat initial temp is 90F at floor level I Water food I Ventilation clean amp dry I Light I Litter bedded with wood shavings straw rice hulls or clean sand nothing slippery or tasy Decrease the brooder temp by SF every 2 weeks until supplemental heat is no longer needed Weigh leg band microchip DNA identification tattoo Determine sex at 1 2 months of age 0 Efficiency of Production 0 Fertility of fertile eggs of eggs laid X 100 I Low maybe using male too young not feeding enough stress overall environment o Hatch of chicks hatched of fertile eggs set X100 I Low nutrition incubator constant temp amp humidity Feeding 0 Chicks first few days nothing gt yolk sack 0 Starter ration from 2 3 days 5 15 fiber 18 protein attracted to the color green 0 Grower ration from 2 3 months of age to maturity o Breeder ration from maturity through egg laying 0 Maintenance ration Health Maintenance 0 O O 0 Establish a relationship with a ratite knowledge vet Follow a good disease prevention program Subject to same illnesses and parasites as poultry High mortality rate lt 6 months of age need special care Getting Started in Business 0 Buy eggs amp hatch them I Biggest investment amp risk high mortality rate not insurable need equipment 2 3 yrs for a return 0 Buy sexed chicks 1 day 6 months I Insurable know sex less equipment judge conformation 2 3 yrs for a return 0 Buy yearling pairs of male amp female I Lower mortality rate insurable judge conformation 1 2 yrs for a return 0 Buy 2 yr old breeding pairs I Insurable lower mortality rate judge conformation repro potential is known quicker return 0 Before starting research everything 0 Check bird health amp breeder s reputation Camelids o Originated in North America 40 million yrs ago 0 Similar characteristics of ruminants but not ruminants Llama o Lifespan 12 25 yrs 0 Weight 250 550 lbs I Newborn 18 40 lbs 0 Height 5 6ft 0 Uses I Pack animal I Fiber I Meat I Guard animal I Fuel Alpacas O O O O Vicuna O O O Lifespan 12 25 yrs Weight 120 200 lbs I Newborn 13 20 lbs Height 45 ft head Uses I Pack animal I Fiber I Meat I Exhibition I Fuel Breeds I Huacaya short crimped fiber I Suri long silky ringlets Lifespan 15 20 yrs Height 3 ft withers Weight 99 120 lbs I Newborn 9 13 lbs Guanaco O O O O Lifespan 15 25 yrs Height 4 ft withers Weight 210 265 lbs I Newborn 18 33 lbs Speed 40 mph amp swim Camelid Differences 0 0000000 Red blood cells are elliptical wlifespan of gt200 days I Higher altitude Footpads amp toenails Primarily nasal breather Chew cud amp spit defense Foregut fermenters with 3 stomach chambers C1 C2 amp C3 No estrous cycle Induced ovulators Breed in sternal recumbency cush I Lasts 30 min male orgles very characteristic sound 0 Diffuse placenta attaches to all around the uterus similar to horses 0 AI difficult o Minimally susceptible to tuberculosis amp foot and mouth disease 0 No known natural bovine brucellosis o Susceptible to BVD Reproductive Physiology 0 Puberty I 6 months of age produce ovarian hormones I South America breed at 1 yr if 60 of adult BW I North America breed at 15 or 18 months o Gestation Length 11 months I Alpacas 325 360 days I Llamas 330 375 days 0 South America I Raised for fiber amp meat I Females bred to give birth during peak pasture growth in the rainy season I November summer April fall USA birthing season dictated by breeder Most pregnancies Will be on the left uterine horn Give birth in the early morning hours 6 11 am Stay standing to give birth Moms Will not lick their crias babies dry but they Will hum amp nuzzle nose to nose 00000 0 Crias I Sternal 15 min I Stand 1 hr I Nurse 2 4 hrs I Dip umbilicus o Epidermal Membrane I Attached to the at the lips anus umbilicus coronet amp the junction of the skin amp footpad I Usually delivered intact amp Will dry off after birth 0 Fetal Membranes Expelled I Camelid lt 2 hrs I Retained gt 6 hrs 0 Cria PE 0 Congenital Defects I Choanal atresia I Val gus deformities I Cleft palate I Atresia ani I Patent urachus I Wry face 0 Prematurity I Low BW I Weak or absent suckle I Silky haircoat I Floppy ears I Persistent rubbery toe caps 1 2 days I No erupted incisors I Dyspnea I Overextended fetlocks 0 After Criation o Colostrum o Crias should gain 05 lbday then llbday 0000 Should eat solid food by 2 3 weeks of age Ruminate by 4 6 weeks of age Weaned by 4 5 months Bersek Male Syndrome I If males imprint on humans they will become aggressivedangerous when mature 0 Male Management 0 Fighting Teeth erupt at 18 24 months of age may be filed 0 Castration near 2 yrs of age to allow for normal closure of growth plates 0 Feeding 0 Efficient don t over feed 0 Total daily DM intake of 18 2 of BW 0 Crude fiber content of 25 0 Moderate pasture 3 5 adults per acre 0 If good quality forage is available grain is unnecessary o Exceptions I Last 25 3 months of pregnancy grain I First 3 months of lactation grain I Pack animals grain 0 Handling amp Restraint 0 000000000 Bringing into hospital setting I Bring a buddy or I Put a mirror there Halter beware of slipping down over the nose amp suffocating them Neck then chinj aw hold Physical structures chute gates fences etc Ear hold no twisting Spit rag Cast Sedation Lure with food Avoid eye contact