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by: Nyah Weissnat Sr.

IntroductiontoSociology SOCI001

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Nyah Weissnat Sr.

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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nyah Weissnat Sr. on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI001 at Georgetown University taught by ChristineSchiwietz in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 191 views. For similar materials see /class/221906/soci001-georgetown-university in Sociology at Georgetown University.


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Date Created: 10/12/15
GeorgetownUniversity Professor Schiwietz SOCI7001 Page 1 Midterm review sheet Spring 2012 Format The Midterm Exam will consist of c25questions total in a combination of Multiple Choice Questions and TrueFalse Questions HenslinCh 1 Introducing Sociology Sociological Perspective 7understanding human behavior by placing it within its broader social context The Sociological Imagination 7 we each have our own lens and experiences that shapes our thinking What is Theory A general statement about how some parts of the world t together and how they work an explanation of how two or more facts are related to one another a paradigm or roadmap of how classes of events are related Karl Marx Believed human misery came from class con ict exploitation of workers by those who owns means of production Believed overthrow of capitalists or bourgeoisie by proletariat was inevitable Introduce conflict theory Emile Durkheim Identified social integration degree to which people feel connected by shared values to their group Social forces affect people s lives cannot be understood only in terms of individual Studied suicide rates people who are more socially integrated have lower rates of suicides To get sociology recognized as a separate official discipline Social Integration and Anomie The degree to which members of a group or a society feel united by shared values and other social bonds also known as social cohesion Anomie Durkheim s term for a condition of society in which people become detached from the usual norms that guide their behavior Max Weber Studied how social groups affect people s lives Believed religion led to social change Protestant work ethic lead to spirit of capitalism invest capital in order to make money gt wrote Verstehen and Social Facts Durkheim emphasized social facts 7 a group s patterns of behaviors look at social conditions of humans patterns that hold true year after year indicate that as thousands of people make their individual decisions they are responding to conditions in their society Weber believed in using Verstehen 39 to understand to study human behavior have to understand feelings of people being studied gt subjective meanings how people interpret their life what meanings are attached Social facts and verstehen are used together baby example 7 technology made giving birth easier social fact mothers want safer births and go to doctor verstehen Herbert Spencer Believed in survival of the ttest Society evolves from lower to higher forms Society is like a skeleton an integrated system living organism GeorgetownUniversity Professor SchiwietZ SOC17001 Page 2 Sometimes called the second founder of sociology Difference Between Microsociology the micro sociological perspective look at speci c closed up focused patterns an examination of smallscale patterns of society Macrosociology the macro sociological perspective an examination of largescale patterns of society look at broad patterns that create groups Symbolic Interactionism A theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning develop views of the world and communicate with one another Micro sociological perspective See society as product of interactions between individuals and the share reality we construct Society is a web of interaction Attach meanings to objects What meanings do people attack to their own or other people s actions Sociologists George Herbert Mead Charles Horton Cooley Functionalist Perspective A theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of various parts each with a function that when ful lled contributes to society s equilibrium also known as functionalism and structural functionalism Macro sociological perspective Sociologists Herbert Spencer Emilie Durkheim Looked at society as a system Function integration society unity system solidarity How does x contribute to the overall function of society Con ict Perspective A theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of groups that are competing for scarce resources Dominant vs subordinate groups over scarce and valuable resources Looks at social strati cation who owns means of production Sociologists Karl Marx Macro sociological perspective Who benefits from a pattern at whose expense Henslin Ch 2 Culture Cultureiand components of o The language beliefs values norms behaviors and even material objects that characterize a group and are passed from one generation to the next GeorgetownUniversity Professor Schiwietz SOC17001 Page 3 0 Material Culture 0 The material objects that distinguish a group of people such as their art buildings weapons utensils machines hairstyles clothing and jewelry 0 Nothing inherently natural 0 Nonmaterial culture 0 A group s ways of thinking including its beliefs values and other assumptions about the world and doing its common patterns of behavior including language and other forms of interaction 0 Referred to as symbolic culture I Symbol 0 Something to which people attach meanings and then use to communicate with others I Gestures 0 The ways in which people use their bodies to communicate with one another I Language 0 A system of symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways and can represent not only objects but also abstract thought 0 It allows culture to develop by freeing people to move beyond their immediate experiences It provides a social or shared past It provides a social or shared future It allows shared perspectives It allows shared goaldirected behavior 0000 0 Patterns 0 Recurring characteristics or events Culture becomes the lens through which we perceive and evaluate what is going on around us Culture Shock 0 The disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their takenforgranted assumptions about life 0 Ethnocentrism o A tendency to use one s own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies generally leading to a negative evaluation of their values norms and behaviors It penetrates deeply into our thinking becoming a takenforgranted lens It provides implicit instructions that tell us what we ought to do and how we ought to think It provides a fundamental basis for our decision making 0 It provides a moral imperative the culture that we intemalize becomes the right way of doing things 0 Cultural Relativism 0 Not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms 0 Language creates ways of thinking and perceiving Values the standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable good or bad beautiful or ugly o Norms expectations or rules of behavior that re ect and enforce behavior Sanctions either expressions of approval positive given to people for upholding norms or expressions of disapproval negative for violating them GeorgetownUniversity Professor Schiwietz SOC17001 Page 4 Mores o Norms that are strictly enforced because they are thought essential to core values or to the well being of the group Moral Holidays 0 Speci ed times when people are allowed to break norms o Moral holiday places locations where norms are expected to be broken Ideal Culture 0 A people s ideal values and norms o The goals held out for them Real culture 0 The norms and values that people actually follow Su b culture o The values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture 0 A world within a world Counterculture o A group whose values beliefs norms and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture Cultural Universals o A value norm or other cultural trait that is found in every group Cultural diffusion o The spread of cultural traits from one group to another 0 Includes both material and nonmaterial cultural traits Cultural Lag o Ogbum s term for human behavior lagging behind technological innovations Cultural Leveling o The process by which cultures become similar to one another 0 Refers especially to the process by which Western culture is being exported and diffused into other nations Pluralistic society 0 A society made up of many different groups with contrasting values and orientations to life Core US values 1 Achievement and success Americans praise personal achievement especially outdoing others 2 Individualism They cherish the ideal that an individual can rise from the bottom of society to its very top 3 Hard Work They expect people to work hard to achieve nancial success and material comfort 4 Efficiency and Practicality 5 Science and technology They have a passion for applied science for using science to control nature and to develop new technology 6 Material Comfort They expect a high level of material comfort 7 Freedom 8 Democracy majority rule to the right of everyone to express an opinion and to representative government 9 Equality of Opportunity 10 Group superiority some groups more highly regarded than others 11 Education Americans expect to go as far in school as their abilities and nances allow 12 Religiosity 13 Romantic love only proper basis for marriage is romantic love Value contradictions 0 Values that contradict one another GeorgetownUniversity Professor Schiwietz SOC17001 Page 5 To follow the one means to come into con ict with the other Henslin Ch 3 Socialization What is socialization Process of by which people learn the characteristics of their group 7 the knowledge skills attitudes values norms and actions thought appropriate for them Cooley and the Looking Glass Self Looking glass self a term coined by Charles Horton Cooley to refer to the process by which our self develops through intemalizing others reactions to us how others see you and how we interpret these reactions l we imagine how we appear to others 2 we interpret others reactions 3 we develop self concept Mead and the generalized other Generalized other the norms values attitudes and expectations of people in general the child s ability to take the role of the generalized other is a signi cant step in the development of a self Mead developed idea of self 7 the ability to ourselves from the outside the views we internalize of how others see us The Self and Emotions as Social Control Experience in society result in a self that thinks along the lines of a particular emotion Most of socialization is intended to turn us into conforming members of society Social mirror the result of your being socialized into a self and emotions sets up effective control over your behavior Gender socialization The ways in which society sets children on different paths in life because they are male or female Gender roles The behaviors and attitudes that a society considers proper for males and females The behaviors and attitudes expected of people because they are female or male Gender serves as bases of social inequality privileges and obligations given to one group but denied to another Agents of Socialization Individuals or groups that affect our selfconcept attitudes behaviors or other orientations toward life Includes family neighborhood religion day care school peer groups media workplace Moral Holidays Speci c times when people are allowed to break norms Gender messages in mass media not only re ects gender stereotypes but plays a role in changing them communicate to mass audience what is expected according to your gender use advertising television video games anime which reinforce gender stereotype messages ie boys are dominant and girls are submissive The School manifests and latent functions manifest function intended outcome on the system the intended bene cial consequences of people s actions latent function unintended bene cial consequences of people s actions unintended but positive latent dysfunction unintended but negative consequences 0 Application to the school manifest functions purpose of formal education is to teach knowledge and skills GeorgetownUniversity Professor Schiwietz SOC17001 Page 6 o Latent functions child learns universality 7 that the same rules apply to everyone hidden curriculum ipart of the school s cultural message ie stories implyin democracy corridor curriculum what students teach one another outside classroom but can emphasize racism and sexism The life course and our social location Life course the stages of our life as we go from birth to death which affects behavior and orientations Differs depending on social location race class gender experience will be similar to those who share same social location When you live makes a huge difference Are we prisoners of our socialization NO we each have a self that is dynamic and acts on our environment Individuals develop by putting together reactions and making choices Each of us is actively constructing our self we are not forced to accept ideas presented to us Henslin Ch4 Social Structure and Social Interaction Signi cance of social structure 0 It guides our behavior Social structure and its components 0 The framework that surrounds us consisting of the relationships of people and groups to one another which gives direction to and sets limits on behavior Culture social class social status roles groups and social institutions Culture 0 The broadest framework that determines what kind of people we become Social Class 0 A large group of people who rank close to one another in property power and prestige One of two groups capitalists who own the means of production or workers who sell their labor It in uences our behaviors attitudes and ideas Social Status 0 The position that someone occupies in a social group I Status Set 0 All the statuses or positions that you occupy 0 Each status provides guidelines for how we are to act and feel Functionalist perspective Five functional requisites that each society must ful ll ifit is to survive O l Replacing members 0 If a society does not replace its members it cannot continue to exist 0 The family functions to control people s sex drive and to maintain orderly reproduction that introduces new members to the society 2 Socializing new members 0 Each baby must be taught what it means to be a member of the group into which it is born 0 Each human group develops devices to ensure that its newcomers learn the group s basic expectations 3 Producing and distributing goods and services 0 Must produce and distribute basic resources 0 Establishes an economic institution a means of producing goods and services along with routine ways of distributing them 4 Preserving order GeorgetownUniversity Professor SchiwietZ SOC17001 Page 7 0 Internal 7 the potential for chaos 0 External 7 the possibility of attack 0 They develop ways to police themselves and develop a means of defense 5 Providing a sense of purpose 0 Every society must get people to yield selfinterest in favor of the needs of the group 0 Societies instill a sense of purpose to convince people to sacri ce personal gains x religion Roles rememberiwe occupy a status which is a social position but we play a role 0 The behaviors obligations and privileges attached to a status 0 It allows a certain amount of freedom but for he most of us that freedom doesn t go very far Achieved status 0 A position that is earned accomplished or involves at least some effort or activity on the individual s part Ascribed status 0 A position an individual either inherits at birth or receives involuntarily later in life Master status 0 A status that cuts across the other statuses that an individual occupies 0 Some are ascribed and others are achieved Status inconsistency o Ranking high on some dimensions of social class and low on others 0 Also called social discrepancy Status symbols 0 Items used to identify a status Ex wedding rings uniforms guns and badges o All of us use status symbols 0 We use them to announce our statuses to others and to help smooth our interactions 0 The sociological significance of roles is that they lay out what is expected of people Social Institutions and sociological signi cance 0 The standard or usual ways that a society meets its basic needs Ex family religion education economics medicine politics law science the military and the mass media 0 It dictates how people divide up their days but it lays out a structure for our interaction with family and friends and for how we meet our personal needs 0 It is so signi cant that if it is different our orientations to the social world would be different Social Group 0 People who have something in common and who believe that what they have in common is signi cant 0 We assume an obligation to affirm the group s values interests and norms 0 When we belong to a group we yield to others the right to judge our behavior Social construction of reality 0 The use of background assumptions and life experiences to de ne what is real 0 Our behavior depends on how we de ne reality 0 It requires teamwork to socially construct reality What holds society together Mechanical Solidarity o Durkheim s term for the unity a shared consciousness that people feel as a result of performing the same or similar tasks Organic Solidarity GeorgetownUniversity Professor Schiwietz SOC17001 Page 8 o Durkheim s term for the interdependence that results from the division of labor 0 People depending on others to ful ll their jobs Division of Labor 0 The splitting of a group s or a society s tasks into specialties Gemeinschaft o A type of society in which life is intimate o A community in which everyone knows everyone else and peole share a sense of togetherness Gesellschaft o A type of society that is dominated by impersonal relationships individual accomplishments and selfinterests o Impersonal association 0 Social structure sets the context for what we do feel and think and ultimately then for the kind of people we become Stereotype o Assumptions of what people are like whether true or false Teamwork o The collaboration of two or more people to manage impressions jointly Face saving behavior 0 Techniques used to salvage a performance that is going sour Dr am aturgy 0 An approach pioneered by Erving Goffman in which social life is analyzed in terms of drama or the state Impression management 0 People s efforts to control the impressions that others receive of them Front stage 0 Places where we give performances Back stage 0 Places where people rest from their performances discuss their presentations and plan future performances Role performance 0 The ways in which someone performs a role within the limits that the role provides 0 Showing a particular style or personality Role con ict 0 Conflicts that someone feels between roles because the expectations attached to one role are incompatible with the expectations of another role Role strain 0 Con icts that someone feels within a role Sign vehicle o A term used by Goffman to refer to how people use social setting appearance and manner to communicate information about the self Ethnomethodology o The study of how people use background assumptions to make sense out of life 0 Etho means folk or people 0 Method means how people do something Background Assumptions 0 A deeply embedded common understanding of how the world operates and of how people ought to act GeorgetownUniversity Professor Schiwietz SOCI7001 Page 9 HenslinCh5 How Sociologists Do Research What is a valid sociological topic Anything that studies human behavior whether it is routine or unusual respectable or reprehensible The research model eight basic steps of scienti c research 1 Select a topic 7 what do you want to study 2 De ne the problem what do you want to learn about the topic 3 Review the literature 7 look at previous research to narrow your problem identify areas already known and what needs to be known 4 Formulate a hypothesis what do you expect to nd 5 Choose a research method a Surveys asking individuals questions through questionnaires and interviews b Participant observations eldwork 7 researcher participates in a research setting to observe what is happening c Case studies analyze a speci c event or situation d Secondary analysis analyze data already collected e Documents written sources that provide data 7 photos movies CD DVD police reports f Experiments use control and experimental groups to test causation between independent and dependent variable Unobtrusive measures study people without them knowing that they are being observed 6 Collect the data ensure the validity ie what is intended to be measured is measured and reliability ie can be repeated again with consistent results 7 Analyze results Techniques can be used to analyze e g microcase and statistical package for the social sciences 8 Sh are results publish ndings to share with larger scienti c community 7 how you conducted research how findings t in with what has been published available belongs to larger community for replication Hypothesis a statement of how variables are expected to be related one another often according to predictions from a theory Variables a factor thought to be signi cant for human behavior which can vary or change from one case to another Independent Variable a factor that causes a change in another variable called the dependentvariable Dependent Variable a factor in an experiment that is changed by an independent variable Secondary analysis the analysis of data that have been collected by other researchers existing data can be used by you even if original researcher did not need it Problem uncertainty in how accurate the initial study and data are Ethics in sociological research Sociologists take ethical standards seriously honesty truth openness forbid falseness and plagiarism Inform the subjects that they are being studied Protect anonymity of information providers Do not misrepresent oneself Brajuha research on restaurant workers protect subjects confidentiality by refusing to hand over notes Humphreys research on Tearooms misled subject by not identifying himself as a researcher sociological snooper Henslin Ch 6 Societies to Social Networks GeorgetownUniversity Professor SchiwietZ SOC17001 Page 10 o The social transformation of society 0 On their way to postindustrial society humans passed through four types of societies 0 Each emerged from a social revolution that was linked to new technology 0 The domestication revolution which brought the pasturing of animals and the cultivation of plants transformed hunting and gathering societies into pastoral and horticultural societies Then the invention of the plow ushered in the agricultural society while the Industrial Revolution brought about by machines that was powered by fuels led to industrial society The computer chip ushered in a new type of society called postindustrial or information society Now the biotech society is emerging with the potential of decoding the human genome system Social equality was the greatest in hunting and gathering societies but as societies changed social inequality grew The root of the transition to social inequality was the accumulation of food surplus made possible through the domestication revolution This stimulated the division of labor trade the accumulation of material goods the subordination of females by males the emergence of leaders and the development of the state As industrialization continued the pattering of growing inequality was reversed as consumer goods became common 0 The sociological significance of these changes is that as society is transformed it will sweep us along with it The transformation will be so fundamental that it will change the ways we think about the self and li e o By laying a framework of statuses roles groups and social institutions society establishes the prevailing behaviors and beliefs which determine relationships between people 0 Variables determining social class 0 Social class refers to people s relative standing in terms of education occupation and especially income and wealth 0 Three components of social class I Property or wealth 7 signi cant in determining a person s standing in society I Power 7 the ability to control others even over their objections I Prestige Status usually derived from property and power 0 Groups within society 0 Primary 0 Primary groups are those characterized by intimate longterm facetoface association and cooperation I They are fundamental in forming the social nature and ideals of the individual I Signi cant because their values and attitudes become fused into our identity and from our perspective of the world It becomes almost impossible to separate ourselves from our primary groups 0 Examples family and friends 9 which are essential to our emotional wellbeing 0 Secondary GeorgetownUniversity SOC1700 1 Professor SchiwietZ Page 11 0 Compared to primary groups secondary groups are larger more anonymous more formal and impersonal I Secondary groups are based on some common interest or activity and their members are likely to interact on the basis of speci c statuses such as president manager worker or student 0 Examples are a college class the Democratic Party etc 0 Society cannot function without secondary groups 9 they are how we get our education make our living spend our money and leisure time However they fail to satisfy our emotional needs 0 Consequently secondary groups tend to break down into primary groups In group 0 Groups toward which we feel loyalty Out group 0 Groups toward which we feel antagonism Aggregate 0 An aggregate consists of individuals who temporarily share the same physical space but who do not see themselves as belonging together I Examples shoppers standing in a checkout line or drivers waiting at a red light are an aggregate Category 0 A category is simply a statistics It consists of people who have similar characteristics I Examples college women who wear glasses or men over 6 feet tall 0 Unlike group members individuals of a category don t think of themselves as belonging together and don t interact with one another Group 0 People who have something in common and who believe what they have in common is signi cant also called a social group 0 The largest group is society which consists of people who share a culture and a territory I The sociological prinezple The type of society we live in is the fundamental reason for why we become who we are 9 our society lays the framework for our behavior and in uences the way we think and feel Reference Group 0 A group whose standards we refer to as we evaluate ourselves and our behavior I May include family neighbors teachers coworkers even a group you don t belong to can be a reference group 0 Reference groups exert a huge in uence over our lives Social Networks 0 The social ties radiating outward from the self that link people together I Includes your family friends acquaintances etc Networking 0 Interacting within social networks Group Dynamics GeorgetownUniversity Professor SchiwietZ SOC17001 Page 12 o The way in which individuals affect groups and the ways in which groups affect individuals 0 Sm all Group Phenomenon 0 Scientists have wondered how extensive connections are among social networks I If you list everyone you know and they each list someone they know would everyone in the US be included in that list In a study known as ie small world phenomenon psychologist Stanley Milgram addressed a letter to targets the wife of a Cambridge student and a stockbroker in Boston He sent the letters to starters who did not know these people He asked them to send the letter to someone they knew on a first name basis someone that may know the 1argets 9 The recipients in turn were asked to mail the letter to someone they knew who may know the iargets and so on The question was would the letters ever reach the iargets I Results Although none of the senders knew the targets the letters reached the designated individuals in an average of six jumps 9Milgram called this the six degrees of separation on average everyone in the US is separated by just six individuals However psychologist Judith Klein eld discovered a problem with Milgram s experiment She found that Milgram had stacked the deck in favor of nding a small world 9 the mailing list were of people with higher incomes who did not represent average people also only 30 of letters reached their targets I Conclusion People who don t know one another are dramatically separated by social barriers o How Social Networks perpetuate social inequality 0 O O o The primary role of norms o Norms make social life possible by making behavior predictable 0 Without norms we would have social chaos o Norms lay out the basic guidelines for how we should play our roles and interact with others I Norms bring about social order a group s customary social arrangements on which its members depend and base their lives on o The power of peer pressure Asch experiment 0 Classical experiment on group conformity 0 Two cards one with a vertical line one with three vertical lines I Seven people in the room only one of which you is the real subject in the experiment Each person is to say which line matches the line on the first card I Dr Asch uncovers the first card with the single line and the comparison line with the three cards The correct answer is easy for two of the lines are obviously wrong and the one is exactly right Each person states hisher answer and everyone answers correctly GeorgetownUniversity SOCLOO 1 Professor Schiwietz Page 13 However on the third trial the same question is asked but one student answers incorrectly Everyone continues to give the same incorrect answer You however answer correctly even though you know everyone else is wrong The same thing happens in the next few trials When the experiment is over Dr Asch informs you that you were the only real subject and the other six were being paid to give the incorrect answer 0 Results Asch tested 50 people 13 33 gave in to the group half the time providing what they knew to be the wrong answers Another 25 40 gave wrong answers but not as often Only 1A 25 stuck to their instinct and gave the right answer This shows the power of the group and the power of conformity The power of authority Milgram experiment 0 You and a second student draw for the roles of teacher and student 7 you are the teacher Dr Milgram shows you the electric chair you are to run which varies from mild shock 150 volts intense shock 350 volts and danger severe shock You are told to read aloud a pair of words to the student and if he can t remember the words you press the lever on the shock generator Once the experiment begins you realize that the learner can t remember the words and you are told to turn up the generator How far do you turn the dial Social control Results There was no electricity attached to the electrodes and the learner was only a stooge pretending to feel pain The purpose of the experiment was to find out at what point people refused to participate Milgram wanted the answer because millions of people did nothing to stop the Nazi slaughter of the Jews Slavs homosexuals etc o Milgram was upset by what he found lVIany gave into the experiment and pulled the lever up to the 450 voltage Some even turned it all the way Milgram s experiment was questioned due to ethics but the ndings People today obey the experimenter at about the same rate people did in the 19603 the power of authority 0 A group s formal and informal means of enforcing norms Groupthink o A narrowing of thought by a group of people leading to the perception that there is only one correct answer in which to even suggest alternatives become a sign of disloyalty As group members begin to think alike they become convinced that there is only one right viewpoint and a single course of action to follow Preventing groupthink o Preventing groupthink requires the free circulation of diverse and opposing ideas Preventing groupthink means having a wide circulation of research that has been conducted by social scientists which is independent of the government and media HenslinCh7 Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations The rationalization of society why did society make a deep shift in human relationships GeorgetownUniversity Professor Schiwietz SOC17001 Page 14 A widespread acceptance of rationality and social organizations that are built largely around this idea Makes society more ef cient to produce and sell more Society shifts towards doing things in formal organizations and industrializing by assigning roles Change interactions through need for roles leadership rules new way of thinking it s the bottom line that counts ie how many assignments are nished May sacri ce individualism for a good and solid environment Weber iron cage of bureaucracy Rationality Using rules efficiency and practical results to determine human affairs Bureaucracy a formal organization with a hierarchy of authority and a clear division of labor emphasis on impersonality of positions and written rules communications and records Capitalism an economic system characterized by the private ownership of the means of production the pursuit of pro t and market competition Formal organizations a secondary group designed to achieve explicit objectives developed because of rationality develops into bureaucracies Characteristics of bureaucracies clear levels with assignments owing downward and accountability owing upward division of labor assigned a speci c tasks which are coordinated to accomplish purpose of organization written rules leads to efficiency written communication and records impersonality and replace ability position is important but the individual who holds position is not each person ts in a certain place in the structure of the bureaucracy The McDonaldization of society the process by which ordinary aspects of life are rationalized and efficiency comes to rule them including such things as food preparation creates dependability ie everyone knows what is expected Dysfunctions of bureaucracies red tape a rule is a rule lack of communication between units bureaucratic alienation workers feel like objects instead of people resisting alienation develop primary groups and individuality alienated bureaucrat does the minimal amount of work and works with a poor attitude bureaucratic incompetence Peter principle tongue in cheek observation that the members of an organization are promoted for their accomplishments until they reach their level of incompetence there they cease to be promoted remaining at the level at which they can no longer do good work Goal displacement and the perpetuation of bureaucracies an organization replacing old goals with new ones also known as goal replacement when goals is met instead of disbanding group creates a new goal Examples include March of Dimes government actions when they receive a lot of contracts it means more money They continue receiving contracts to reach new goals Alienation of worker Marx s term for workers lack of connection to the product of their labor caused by their being assigned repetitive tasks on a small part of a product which leads to a sense of powerlessness and normlessness GeorgetownUniversity Professor Schiwietz SOCI7001 Page 15 Corporate culture and research by Rosabeth Moss Kanter On the surface great commitment and performance get a promotion there is corporate culture ie dress code and structure ie values norms attitudes hidden corporate culture the high and low expectations and the open and closed opportunities that produce attitudes and accomplishment leader has image of who ts what position Creates a self ful lling prophecy stereotype bosses hire want to work with people with similar backgrounds and these workers labor are usually placed in a way to ful ll expectations The self ful lling prophecy at work people who match a certain pro le are put on career tracks that enhance their chance of success which confirms the boss s initial expectation those who do not match the values are set on a course that minimizes their performance con rming the negative stereotype the boss has of the worker Iron Law of Oligarchy Robert Michels term for tendency of formal organizations to be dominated by a small self perpetuating elite Pass leadership position among its members and exclude people who don t represent inner circle s values Attempts to humanize the work setting also the con icts perspective view point on this Organizing a workplace in such a way that it develops rather than impeded human potential Humanized work settings have more exible rules more openness to decision making distribute power more equally and provide more equal access to opportunities Techniques include work teams corporate child care employee stock ownership plans exible work schedule Con ict theorists see humanizing the workplace as camou age for capitalists goal of exploiting the workers ie employers are manipulating workers to cooperate in own exploitation Technology and the control ofworkers use of computers and surveillance devices to monitor many workers and their actions 7 maximum security society cyberslacking using computers at work for personal purposes cybersleuth39software to track computer history exposing deleted information o What is the sociological de nition of deviance o Sociologists use the term deviance to refer to any violation of norms or rules or expectations regardless of their seriousness o Sociological perspective on deviance It is not the act itself but the reactions to the act that makes something deviant I What is deviant to some is not deviant to others I We must consider deviance from within a group s own framework 0 Positive and Negative Sanctions 0 Positive Sanction 7 A reward or positive reaction for following norms ranging from a smile to a material award 0 Negative Sanction 7 An expression of disapproval for breaking a norm ranging from a mild information reaction such as a frown to a formal reaction such as a prison sentence or an execution o Stigma o Blemishes that discredit a person s claim to a normal identity GeorgetownUniversity Professor Schiwietz SOCI7001 Page 16 This includes violations of norms of ability blindness deafness mental handicaps and norms of appearance a facial bi1thmark a huge nose They also include involuntary memberships such as being a victim of AIDS or the brother of a rapist 0 Thus a stigma can become a person s master status 0 Shaming o Punishment through shame public humiliation 0 Used to enforce norms o Violators were marked as deviant and held up for the world to see 0 Degradation Ceremony 0 A term coined by Harold Garinkel to refer to a ritual whose goal is to reshape someone s self by stripping away that individuals selfidentity and stamping a new identity in its place 0 The individual is called to account before the group witnesses denounce himher the offender is pronounced guilty and steps are taken to strip hisher identity as a group member I An extreme form of shaming I The procedure strips people from being members of a group Cultural Goals 0 The objectives held out as legitimate or desirable for the members of a society to achieve I Examples are wealth and prestige o Institutionalized means approved ways of reaching cultural goals Crime 0 The violation of norms written into law The Symbolic Integrationist Perspective symbolic interactionism stresses that we are thinking beings who act according to our interpretations of situations Differential Association Theory Edwin Sutherland s term to indicate that people who associate with some groups learn an excess of definitions of deviance increasing the likelihood that they will become deviant I The different groups we associate with give us messages about conformity and deviance We may receive missed messages but we end up with more of one than the other an excess of de nition which results in an imbalance 7 attitudes that lead us in one direction over another we either conform or deviate Control Theory 7 The idea that two control systems 7inner controls and outer controls 7 work against our tendencies to deviate I Our inner controls include our morality conscious religious principles ideas of right and wrong Our outer controls consist of people who in uence us not to deviate O O o The stronger our bonds are with society the more effective our inner controls are Labeling Theory 7 The view that labels people are given affect their own and other s perceptions of them thus channeling their behavior into either deviance or conformity O GeorgetownUniversity SOCI7001 Professor Schiwietz Page 17 Labeling theory focuses on the signi cance of reputations how they help set us on paths that propel us into deviance or that divert us away from it Techniques of neutralization 7 ways of thinking or rationalizing that help people de ect or neutralize society s norms o The Functionalist Perspective functionalists are likely to stress the functions of deviance as they are to emphasize its dysfunctions o 3 Reasons Deviance can be functional for society Durkheim believed that deviance including crime is functional for society its three main functions are I Deviance clari es moral boundaries and affirms norms I Deviance promotes social utility I Deviance promotes social change 0 Strain Theory 7 Robert Merton s term for the strain engendered when a society socializes large numbers of people to desire a cultural goal such as success but withholds 39om some the approved means of reaching that goal I Strain refers to the frustrations people feel when they want success but nd their way to it blocked It is easy to identify with mainstream norms when they help you get ahead but you feel frustrated when they don t Ifmainstream rules seem illegitimate you experience a gap that Merton called anomie a sense of normlessness I Four deviant paths represent the reactions people feel between the goals they want and their access to the institutionalized means to reach them 0 Innovators 7 accept the goals of society but use illegitimate means to reach them 0 Ritualism 7 people who become discouraged and give up achieving cultural goals 0 Retreatism 7 people who reject both the cultural goals and the institutionalized means of achieving them 0 Rebellion 7 reject cultural goals and the institutionalized means of achieving them but also seek to give society new goals revolutionaries are usually the most committed types of rebels o Illegitimate Opportunity Structure 7 opportunities for crimes that are woven into the texture of life I Examples robbery burglary drug dealing prostitution etc o Recidivism o The proportion of released convicts who are rearrested O O White Collar Crime Edwin Sutehrland s term for crimes committed by people of respectable and hgh social status in the course of their occupations I For example bribery of public officials securities violations embezzlement false advertising price xing Corporate Crime Crimes committed by executives in order to benefit their corporation Medicalization of Deviance GeorgetownUniversity Professor Schiwietz SOC17001 Page 18 0 To medicalize something is to make it a medical matter to classify it as a form of illness that belongs to the care of physicians I In this view deviance including crime is a sign of mental sickness o Rape murder stealing cheating are symptoms of internal disorders 0 The need for a more humane approach 0 Because deviance is inevitable the larger issues are to nd ways to protect people from deviant behaviors that are harmful to themselves or others to tolerate those behaviors that are not harmful and to develop systems of fairer treatments for deviance o What we need is a more humane social system one that would prevent the social inequalities The Ascent ofMoney Response Economic system between creditors and debtors is built on trust lenders must have confidence that the borrowers are going to make good on their promises to return the money they borrowed Thus banks determine creditworthiness based on a person s assets his or her apparent ability to pay back the loan and his or her credit history whether or not the person has repaid their loans in the past Personal choices affect one s creditworthiness in that people should not borrow more or charge more than they know they can pay back preople get into a position in which they are forced to default on their loans or file for bankruptcy that is going affect their ability to receive loans from banks in the future In some cases creditworthiness is imposed upon people through the practice of redlining in which whole neighborhoods are given poor credit ratings This type of discrimination occurred in black neighborhoods in Detroit after World War 11 Our economic problems occurred because banks were not necessarily determining people s creditworthiness instead almost anyone could get a loan quotsubprimequot loans were given to people with patchy credit histories I found most interesting the history of the system of credit and the birth of modern banking I knew of some of the events discussed in Ferguson s financial timeline but the way he put it together made the development of our current economic system much clearer It also greatly interested me how the development of this system in turn led to the current housing crisis From the beginnings ofa system of credit in 16th century Venice to the Medici rising in Florence and making moneylending glorious the modern banking system was eventually established This idea of credit and modern banking carried over to the modern United States where until recently banks were willing to give loans to almost anyone From the Ford strike after the 1929 depression to the rioting and massacres that occurred after the redlining in Detroit the lending system has obviously led to class and racial con ict In response to this President Bush challenged lenders to create millions of new minority homes This federally encouraged relaxation oflending standards led mortgage companies to ock to bad areas and give out quotsub prime loans I did not realize the extent to which mortgages such as these changed hands in terms of subprime lenders selling the loans to banks who then securitized those loans and sold them as quotsecuritiesquot to investors Now realizing the wide extent to which the lending of these loans thus infiltrated our financial system it makes more sense to me how the collapsing housing market created a rippling effect throughout the US and world economy Additionally I was shocked at the extent to which the crisis affected the rest of the world in effect the extent of economic globalization I did not realize that the quotinvestorsquot who bought these mortgagebacked securities included actually countries such as the Norwegian municipalities that lost one hundred million dollars in citizen s taxes


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