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by: Mike Schuppe V

DigitalPhotography ARTS262

Marketplace > Georgetown University > Art > ARTS262 > DigitalPhotography
Mike Schuppe V

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This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mike Schuppe V on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARTS262 at Georgetown University taught by RobertoBocci in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/221911/arts262-georgetown-university in Art at Georgetown University.


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Date Created: 10/12/15
ancf T39one RQ P l User Guide Prepared by Tom Moore Acknowledgement I see prepared by above prepared this document as my contribution to the Black and White printing community from whose experts I have learned so much via the mailing list that can be found at httpgroupsyahoocomgroupDigitalBlackandWhiteThePrint There is also a community of QuadToneRIP users that can be found at httpgrougsyahoocomgroupQuadtoneRP I would like to thank Roy Harrington Stephen Billard and Daniel Staver for creating the software used by the processes in this tutorial The tutorial is for the most part original material prepared by me However I have used a variety of sources of information occasionally borrowing freely including notes prepared by Roy help files prepared by Stephen and of course from the mountain of loosely at best organized information that is DigitalBlackandWhiteThePrint Some of this information applied to earlier or other versions of QuadToneRIP There may be some difference between those and the current version that I have not caught Such errors and any others that you might find in this document are mine and shouldn t be attributed to the authors of the material I have used or borrowed If you find any errors or have any suggestions for improvements you can email me at rtmguadkinectionca You can also reach me through the mail list DigitalBlackandWhiteThePrint Prepared for QuadToneRIP Version 22 Document Version 11 26 April 2005 QuadTone RIP User Guide Basics 3 Terminology 3 Installing QuadToneRIP 4 Reinstalling or Updating QuadToneRIP 5 Printing With QuadToneRIP 5 Introduction 5 Configuring QuadToneRIP 6 Printing an Image 10 Creating and Editing Curves with QuadToneRIP 11 Characterizing the Ink Paper Combination 11 Hardware Ink Limit Calibration 12 Ink Density Calibration 13 Creating a QuadToneRIP Curve 16 Initial Curve Setup 16 Creating a NonLinearized Curve 18 Adjusting Curve Toning 21 Maximizing dMax 21 Adjusting the Curves 22 Linearize a QuadToneRIP Curve 23 Document Version 11 21 April 2005 2 QuadTone RIP User Guide Basics The purpose of this document is to describe my understanding how QuadToneRIP is installed setup and used in the Windows environment Actually installation and setup is quite straightforward and using QuadToneRIP for printing is only slightly more complicated Most of this document will focus on creating curves for use with QuadToneRIP Terminology It s a good idea to make sure we are all talking the same language so I ll try to define a few terms I ll also try to use the consistently in the rest of this document Since there aren t too many I ll define them in a logical order rather than alphabetical QuadToneRIP Is a program actually a collection of them that permits you to print black amp white images on a variety of printers using a variety of inks and papers Images printed by QuadToneRIP must be in tiff format tiff Tagged Image File Format a widely used industry standard format for storing and interchanging bit mapped images The file format supported by QuadToneRIP Quadtone An inkset consisting of shades of gray rather than colors used for printing black and white images Originally created for 4 ink printers hence quad they are now available for printers with 6 7 and 8 inks These more modern quadtone inksets sometimes called Hextones or Septones can also include toners mild colorants that can be applied to achieve sepia or selenium like tones RIP Raster Image Processor Originally a program that accepts an image described as vectors eg Postscript and turns it into a bitmapped image that can be printed Today that definition has broadened to include program that takes an image in any complex form in our case a tiff file and generates the necessary printer commands to reproduce it on a printer Curve A set of data used by QuadToneRIP to determine how to translate the raster image into the required commands to reproduce an image for a particular printerinkpaper combination Internally QuadToneRIP uses two files The qidf file is high level definition of a curve that can be created or modified by QuadToneRIP users The quad file is a low level numeric definition of a curve that is used during the printing process Document Version 11 21 April 2005 3 QuadTone RIP User Guide Although QuadToneRIP as its name suggests was created with the idea of printing with quadtone inks it turns out that it can be used very effectively to print quite acceptable for some at least black and white prints using a color inkset Specifically for those Epson printers using the Ultrachrome inkset such as the 2200 the current QuadToneRIP release has Curves for over a half dozen papers Installing QuadToneRIP Logically since you are reading this document that comes as part of the QuadToneRIP installation you may have already installed QuadToneRIP and this section should be unnecessary However in case you got here by nefarious means or are having problems here s how you install QuadToneRIP It s not complicated Before I get to the process I should provide a few words of caution Accessing the QuadToneRIP software and installing it does require visiting a web site and downloading and running an application These all have attendant risks however small of infecting your computer with a virus or spyware that could cause damage to you or your assets Also the file you will download is an executable image That may have security complications depending on the security software you have running eg virus checkers or firewalls its settings and the level of privilege you have as a user of your computer These two items are potential issues that are too complex to address in this document If you are not comfortable with the process or run into complications please involve someone more expert for help or to complete the installation for you With that out of the way on to the process First download the latest version of QuadToneRIP Currently it can be found at htt home a emaccom ro harrin ton FileSharin 2htm Note that there may be several versions available including some for the Mac Be sure to download the one you need Save the file on your computer s disk somewhere you can access it for the next step Find the file you just downloaded and run it You can do that by finding it in Windows Explorer and doubleclicking it After warning you to close all other programs I never do but if you have problems do it you get to the first window by clicking next In this window you select the folder where the setup program will install QuadToneRIP I always leave it at the default selection If you change it for some reason you re on your own I presume it works but I ve never tried it After clicking next again you get to tell the setup program whether you want to install the Curve creation tool You will need this if you want to Document Version 11 21 April 2005 4 QuadTone RIP User Guide create curves for new inks or paper or to modify any existing Curves You will also need it if you receive Curves from others in the form of qidf files Once you click next you are presented with the printer selection window Click the boxes next to the printers that you want QuadToneRIP to be able to use Note that the printers don t have to be actually present when you install the software This simply causes the Printer Models for the selected printers to be loaded with the programs The selected printers will then be available for use when you run QuadToneRIP At that point of course if you want to actually print with it the printer will have to be accessible either directly or through a network The final two windows permit you to select the program group under which QuadToneRIP applications will appear in the start menu another thing I never bother to change and offer you a last chance to go back and change any options before installing the files to your hard drive Once you click next for these two windows the setup program will install the QuadToneRIP components required to implement the options you have selected The process takes only a few minutes at most and keeps you aware of its progress Once it completes you are ready to run QuadToneRIP Reinstalling or Updating QuadToneRIP If you don t install the curve creation tool initially you can always run the installation setup program later and select this option Note that this will replace all QuadToneRIP programs and all curves that are included in the distribution Your own curves assuming they have different names than those in the distribution will not be replaced However I have one caution When you reinstall QuadToneRIP over an existing installation the installation setup will automatically set check boxes to reinstall the Printing Models that are already present That will simply install new files over existing files of the same name and will not modify any files you may have created or modified and assigned new names However if you remove the check from a box so that a previously installed Printing Model is not installed the installation process will remove aH files associated with the Model including any that you have created or modified even if they have different names from those in the distribution Printing With QuadToneRIP Introduction QuadToneRIP s primary purpose is to print black and white images To be printed by QuadToneRIP the images must be stored in a tiff format file There are a variety of programs capable of creating files in this format Photoshop is probably the one most commonly used but Picture Window Pro Paintshop Pro and GIMP are others that are also very common Document Version 11 21 April 2005 5 QuadTone RIP User Guide The tiff format is very flexible and images stored in this format can have a wide range of characteristics Recent versions of QuadToneRIP have removed many of the constraints on the image characteristics but it must be either a grayscale or RGB image If the image is RGB QuadToneRIP will convert it to grayscale If the image is 16 bit it will be converted to 8 bit Alpha channels in the image will be ignored and layers are permitted The image can be in compressed LZW only or uncompressed format Note that any conversions are only applied to the image data actually processed by QuadToneRIP The original file is not changed How you create your black and white image is up to you and outside the scope of this document In any event on the PC you cannot print directly from your image editor You must save a tiff format file and then activate QuadToneRIP to print that file To activate QuadToneRIP you simply select it from the start menu like any other Windows application You can find QuadToneRIP in the startup folder you specified when QuadToneRIP was installed If you elected not to change it from the default you will run the program QTRgui in the folder QuadToneRIP I always setup up a Windows quick launch button to activate QTRgui as I hate navigating through the start menu Configuring QuadToneRIP Once you start QuadToneRIP you are presented a window as shown in Figure 1 QuadToneRIP has a very useful help facility that quite adequately describes the configuration process Rather than repeating that detail here I will provide an overview and try to point out any potential pitfalls You will notice that the QuadToneRIP window is organized into 3 major panels Printer Paper and Image To setup QuadToneRIP to print an image it s best to deal with these topics in that order So the first thing to do is select the printer and model QuadToneRIP automatically determines the available printers from Windows and presents them in the Printer Name dropdown list Just select the one you want Next select the Printing Model you want The available models will correspond to those printers selected when QuadToneRIP was installed Note that QuadToneRIP does not check that the Selected Printing Model and Printer Name are consistent You have to do that Next you need to tell QuadToneRIP what size orientation and source of paper you will use The Printing Model selected in the previous step will determine what paper sizes and sources are available for selection in this step QuadToneRIP provides a range of standard US and ISO paper sizes as well as a custom size where you can specify the size in inches or millimeters In all cases QuadToneRIP will not let you choose a paper size larger than the maximum for that printer as determined by the Printing Model Document Version 11 21 April 2005 6 QuadTone RIP User Guide QuadTnneRlP Graphical Interface Velsinn 222 m is e E E 39Piimer Name lEPSON Stylus Pm u 22mm ll Primin MEWS OuadZZEIEI v Orienlaliun lr pm Qigu 39Media Suuice swarm Cums Type MallePapei l 3 V a mi 39Placemem R esululiun 17 02mm I A A DilhevAlgumhm 739 0mm 7 l Blend lNune j IE lNune j u Lighlesl lT Daikesl Lighlesl lT Daikesl 39 07 Slalus Faldei Naminmng i Figure 1 QuaToneRIP Printing Window The Orientation radio buttons let you tell QuadToneRIP how the image is oriented so that it can adjust it to the paper If you select Auto Orient Page under the Options menu QuadToneRIP will select the proper page orientation automatically according to the image you are printing The Paper Source selection will let you select one of the alternate paper sources Not all sources for each printer are necessarily present however as some are detected automatically by the printer and don t need a manual selection For example the straight through feed slot on the Epson 2200 is not an available option However you can use it by selecting Sheet Feed and then following the directions in the Epson printer manual for using the straight through feed slot Media Type is normally left as Matte Paper even for nonmatte papers Its presence is a hangover from older style printers that needed to be informed of paper type to make mechanical adjustments to the feed mechanism There may be some case where it is used but I m not aware of any Finally we get to select the image settings The following is a brief discussion of each Document Version 11 21 April 2005 7 Placement Scale Resolution Speed Dither Algorithm Black Ink QuadTone RIP User Guide This positions the top left corner of the image relative to the top left corner of the paper Selecting Centered will position the image centered on the physical page QuadToneRIP will warn you if the combination of image size Placement and Scale you have selected will result in some part of the image being outside the printable area of the page Note that the printable area is smaller than the physical for most printers This unusable margin is determined from the Printing Model Checking To Fit will size the image to fit into the printable area of the page Alternatively you can also specify a Scale Factor for the image The factor will adjust the image size determined from the image tif file by the specified amount The resolutions supported are 720 1440 and 2880 1440 also has a quotsuperquot version that does a more elaborate weaving if the printer is capable of that All the supplied profiles so far are created for 1440 dpi resolution and can be used with any 1440 mode Not all printers support all resolutions Once you select a Printing Model the supported resolutions will be available for selection This selects either unidirectional better or bidirectional faster printing The Pro printers usually do well with Faster bidirectional but the desktop printers often improve with Betterunidirectional The default is Ordered which is how I normally leave the selection It s a bit faster than Adaptive Hybrid and I haven39t seen any difference in the result this option is only for the Epson 4000 It allows you to select which black ink matte or photo will be used The Curve panel brings us to QuadToneRIP s raison d etre printing tailored to specific inkpaper combinations This accomplished with QuadToneRIP by selecting from a set of installed curves Again from the Printing Model selected above QuadToneRIP determines what curves are available for the selected printer With the two dropdown menu items QuadToneRIP permits you to select two curves and with the slider lets you determine the ratio of each to be used for printing Document Version 11 21 April 2005 8 QuadTone RIP User Guide Each inkpaper combination will have a set of Curves from which you can choose Epson Enhanced Matte paper is a typical example having four curves available 1 Cool 2 Cool Selenium 3 Sepia 4 Warm You might notice that there is no neutral in the list above You can create your own neutral by selecting the cool and warm curves and selecting a blend percentage that creates a print meeting you personal definition of neutral Another thing you ll notice is that QuadToneRIP curves typically come in sets There should usually be at least two curves Cool and Warm There is often also a Sepia curve and in some cases there are others such as Cool Selenium as well The names of the curves are arbitrary but an informal naming convention is evolving for curves so that they can be organized and recognized in a list The general form of the name is inkpapertone where these terms are ink describes the ink used and is one of UCpk Uka Epson Ultrachrome with photo black or matte black UT UT2 or UT7 quadtone inks from MIS paper describes the paper and is the manufacturer and brand name of the paper There are a lot of papers so an example will have to suffice here Epson Enhanced Matte paper is identified by EEnhMatte tone described the color tone the Curve is intended to impart to the print such as Warm Cool CoolSe or Sepia Thus the Curve for printing a warm image on Epson Enhanced Matted with Ultrachrome inks is named UkaEEnhMatteWarm The remaining two sliders provide a means of tweaking the print density Ink Limit Adjustment This option allows you to increase or decrease the overall ink limits All the ink limits in the profile are multiplied by this factor The most common case where you might use this is for a paper that can handle more or less ink than the profile allows Also you might increase the ink limits for a print that you want to really push the blacks dark there may be some loss of shadow detail however Gamma Adjustment This option allows an overall lightening or darkening of a print The effect is identical to using the Levels command in Photoshop The percent value is Document Version 11 21 April 2005 9 QuadTone RIP User Guide approximately how much the 50 midtone will be affected If you39ve printed with another system and your files consistently print either lighter or darker with QuadToneRIP this option allows you to print the old files without reediting them especially useful if they are 8bit data Printing an Image You ve made all your settings and QuadToneRIP is ready to print your image Before we get to that I should point out a few time saving tips you might find useful First after you ve made all your settings QuadToneRIP will remember these settings until you change them even if you exit QuadToneRIP and restart You can also save the settings by use the Presets menu item Correspondingly the Presets will let you load a previously saved collection of settings Second there are several means of selecting and printing an image The straightforward approach I use most often is simply to use the ImageSelect Image menu item to load the image into QuadToneRIP and then clicking the Print button to send it to the printer Another approach is to select the image to be printed using Windows Explorer and simply dragging and dropping the image icon onto the QuadToneRIP window That will cause the image to be printed using the currently selected parameters Note that under the Options menu of QuadToneRIP there is an option Drag Drop Autoprint With this option selected the default printing happens automatically Otherwise the drag and drop simply selects the image and you must click the Print button in the QuadToneRIP window to print the dropped image If you select several images in Windows Explorer and drag and drop them onto the window QuadToneRIP prints them in sequence If you are printing a number of images using the same QuadToneRIP settings the following method may provide some time savings Using the Monitor menu item you can specify a folder to be monitored by QuadToneRIP When QuadToneRIP finds a file in that folder it prints it using the current settings and then moves the file to a Processed subfolder A final note regarding printing is the following Make sure you have the correct ink and paper in the printer before you print For me paper is not such a big issue because I usually only print a single sheet at a time However ink is a different thing I can t recall the number of times I printed an image only to find I had the matte black in the printer instead of the photo black or viceversa QuadToneRIP does not sense the ink and will go ahead and print with whatever ink is installed With the price of ink and Document Version 11 21 April 2005 10 QuadTone RIP User Guide paper these can be fairly costly mistakes Checking twice saves time and money One technique you might use as a reminder is to have a sheet in the feed with the words PHOTO BLACK on one side and MA39I39I39E BLACK on the other Simply leave the side visible that corresponds to the ink that is currently in the printer Creating and Editing Curves with QuadToneRIP The overall Process of creating a QuadToneRIP Curve proceeds as follows 1 Characterize the Inks 2 Create an initial Quad Ink Descriptor File 3 Linearize the Curve These steps are described in the following sections Characterizing the Ink Paper Combination Characterizing the Inks actually a specific inkpaper combination is a two step process This process is made quite easy by QuadToneRIP since it one does not even need a curve to perform this step Simply select menu item OptionsCalibration Mode Once you do this you should see a window something like Figure 2 RQuadTnlleP Graphical Interline Versinn 1114 Image Presets Manltm Outlans Curvetveatlan HElD l w lLellel j Name lEPSONSlylusPhuluZZDD Ll lew L rlll s mime madam v r H 7 39OYlErlialDrl l MEdla Suuvce SheelFeed gems Type MallePapev l Cl 7 Pm V a C ngvam Fll2sOuadTunER lPblnlnksepavallunill 39F lacemenl 7 Scale R es ulullun Speed r Centered T Tum mm v W M Dih Al m A l EV g il in mm quota MS F35 m lvV W l nghlesl Darkest nghlesl 1 Darkest E inf Slams Faldel WWW l Figure 2 Calibration Mode Document Version 11 21 April 2005 11 QuadTone RIP User Guide Once you select this option QuadToneRIP will automatically select the Ink Separation Test Page as the image to be printed and set the Ink Limit and Gamma adjustments to 0 I also make sure the other settings Media Type Dither Resolution and Speed are as I would normally have them They don t seem to have any significant effect but that way all the profiles start from a common point I also set the Image Placement as shown in Figure 2 so that I can make the second printout of the Ink Separation Test Page on the same sheet of paper simply by reprinting it upside down To print the first Ink Separation Test Page place a piece of the paper for which the Curve will be designed in the printer make sure the calibration slider is all the way to the left 100 click the Print button and you re off Before I get to the examination of the test page I should provide some information about it The ink separation test page InkSeparation tif there is also a psd version is a very special file Printing it out and using it is different from all the normal printing you will do with QuadToneRIP Under normal circumstances you would only print this page using QuadToneRIP in calibration mode The purpose of this test page is to be able to print each ink separately for any curve set That will permit you to see what each ink is doing on a separate 21 step graduated wedge There is no need to edit it or even open it in an editor such as Photoshop If you do open this file in an editor that supports color management like Photoshop the first thing you will notice is that it is an Untagged RGB file instead of a grayscale It39s very important that you NOT color manage this file when you open it or when you print it from Photoshop Print Space must always be Same As Source You also must not resample or resize it it39s set at 360ppi and fits on half an 85 x 11 sheet of paper The colors of the file may look strange because the R channel is selecting which ink and the G channel is the data If you save the file after opening it make sure you don t overwrite the original Ink Separation Test Page Hardware Ink Limit Calibration So now we have printed the ink calibration test page In this case I am making a curve for Staples Premium Glossy An inexpensive glossy paper available locally It s a good idea to let the printed page rest for a while to let the inks reach their stable density If you re in a hurry a microwave or a hair dryer might speed the process Here we figure out the overall hardware ink limit for the printer This can be done visually by just seeing the test print and deciding where the inks seem to max out ie fill the patch Figure 3 is an example of the ink test on an Epson 2200 with Epson UltraChrome inks With a loupe or a densitometer you look for a patch where Document Version 11 21 April 2005 12 QuadTone RIP User Guide it appears that all the paper is covered with ink In this particular case it is at about 85 on each ink There is a very gradual increase in density after this level but when adding inks together we don39t want to overload too much For this example I picked 85 for the basic ink limit You don t have to be very precise with this value as long as you re in the ball park QuadTnnaRlP w lnk Pattern Page n Prlnl Uslng Callbraliun Mode m m 71 Ln 7 w u a w m w a m u m u w M an a m u a is an in ma mm mm l u u n u in as m a in u in it w u u in u m m u a in v m 25 w 15 in I m 55 an is M u an i in game Figure 3 Ink Separation Test Page Determining Ink Limit Apparently the Epson printers seem to max out at different places depending on their vintage The older single dotsize printers 3000 5x00 7x00 9x00 max out around the 50 level The newer variable dotsize printers 1160 12x0 2200 7600 9600 can achieve much higher numbers in the 80 to 90 range In the example above I chose 85 as the overall ink limit The next step is to print out the Ink Separation Test Page again but using the limit we just determined To do this we again use QuadToneRIP in calibration mode as shown in Figure 4 In this case we set the Calibration Mode slider to 85 as determined above The test page is formatted to print on a half page so you can print the second run on the same page as the first just turn the page around when you put it in the printer Again you should let the printed ink density stabilize before proceeding to the next step Ink Density Calibration Now we must measure the density of each ink in terms of the next darker ink The nice thing about this is that the numbers are not important you just have to match one patch with another one You are also deciding the order of the grays to be used during this process Figure 5 shows the print of InkSeparationtif with the limited inks Document Version 11 21 April 2005 13 QuadTone RIP User Guide QuadTnneklP Graphical Inlerlace Versinn 2114 image Presets Mamtm Optl ns Curvetreatlan HElD law 1 Name EPSON SlylusPhuluZZUU 1 r 4 my OuadZZEIEI v I l r rOrrenlalrun 139 quot 7M2 Suurce swarm v 70W Type MallePaper v l 34 39lmagE39 c Prugram Frl2sOuadTuneR lPbmmkseparalmn m I J 39Placemenli 7 i R suulrun s m F 02mm 7 TD H MAD dpl V W TD M Dm Al m U125 as m DEW Us nghlESl Darkesl 797 nghlESl Darkesl 0 Sr r Falder mm Mamtmrng Figure 4 Ink Density Calibration I39ve written in some densities to help show the procedure First it s obvious that the order of inks to be partitioned is Black and the Light Black For quad tone there would be more blackgrey inks to partition In this case we just need to nd the relative densities of the Light Black and Black inks Starting at Black we just call that 100 now we need to determine the relative density of the Light Black We do this by comparing the density of the 100 patch for Light Black with each of the Black patches Actually you don t need to compare with all the Black patches because you can see by eye which ones are close To calculate an accurate relative density you need to use a densitometer or scanner I ll describe it both ways With a densitometer 1 measure the 100 Light Black patch Density 129 2 measure the 40 Black patch Density 122 I selected 40 by eye but you can use the densitometer to nd the darkest patch with density less than the density of 100 Light Black 3 Measure the density of the next darker patch 45 Black Density Document Version 11 21 April 2005 QuadTone RIP User Guide Then it s bit of simple math to calculate the percentage of black needed to produce the same density as 100 Light Black In this case we get a value of 432 Black is equivalent to 100 Light Black If you use a scanner scan the print and open the scanned image in your image editor eg Photoshop without color managing it and use the info palette with 5x5 sampling Convert the color mode to Lab and measure the L values of the various steps Using a scanner for our example gives the following results 1 100 Light Black L 20 2 40 Black L 22 3 45 Black L 18 Note that L is a descending scale so in this case the math is not the same as for density but equally simple Interpolating between 40 and 45 black gives a result of 425 Black is equivalent to 100 Light Black Either value is close enough QuadToneRlP Ink Pattern Page Print Using Calibration Mode Ham 5 m 5 2a 25 an as 40 A5 sa ss an as va vs aa as an as ma lnk2Cyun law 1775 s m 15 1a 25 so 35 an 45 sa ss an as va vs an as an 55 van ink s Magoma la la 2a 15 so 25 An as so 55 an as va vs an as an 551017 a s lam t Yullnw Is 2a 25 an 5 w 45 an as an as va vs an as an as um m s r ngtll Cyan s 2a 25 an 35 An 45 so ss au as va vs an as an as mu 7 s m u m a ngm mama is 20 25 an 35 w 45 an ss an as vn vs an as an as mu m s in lnkYngmsllck V a s m as 3923 25 an 5 4m 45 an 55 an as 70 vs an as Ed 95 WW Figure 5 Ink Separation Test Page For Ultrachrome inks the measurements above are all that is required For QuadTone inks this process is repeated for each lighter ink comparing it to the next darker ink calculating its density relative to that ink and then converting it to a density relative to black You should record each of these relative densities as you will use them in the next step Once we have the relative density of each of the black inks we Document Version 11 21 April 2005 15 QuadTone RIP user Guide have completed the characteriza on of the inks and can proceed with creating a QuadToneRIP Curve Creating a QuadToneRIP Curve Initial Curve Setup U 39 QuadToneRIP you can create new curves for additional printerpaperink combinations or modify existing curves To do this you e e Curve Editing optlon dunng mslallatron If you dldn t o and rernstall QuadT eRIP now I llassu e you dl I ct that optlon th Curve Crea n item is visible Qu neRIP menu bar Click it and you will see window as shown in Figure 6 Curve Cream 7 UnrNamed v create Curve InkSEmplcrayCurve Tunercurve Tonercuryezltheerlzetonl 39nght Black LK Not Used r lghtCyen mi l 7 NDtUsed r lghtMegene LM NDtUsed I l i Figure 6 Curve Creator Window The easiest way to get going on this step is m use an existing file as a starting point Select one that is as similar to your final product as possible If you plan to use UCI for a use n exlstlng uc lnk file If you are plann ng t u e m e ect an exlstlng file for one of r curve files are stored m the Profiles brfolder r the fol r QuadToneRIP Was insialled If you didn t change that during installation they will be in CProgramFilesQuadToneRIPProfiles Document Version 11 21 April 2005 16 QuadTone RIP user Guide Curves in their editable form are stored as qidf files Although these simple text files its best to edit them using the C text editor The Curve Creamr will en ure the file remains internally consistent and w n you re ready to print using the Curve you can install it with the Cream Curve butmn urve Creator rather than a So let s get starte We re creating a new Curve for a staples glossy paper so it s a good idea to select an existing profile for a similar paper You load it nu and navigate to the appropriam subfolder of the Profiles folder mentio d above In this case we re going to create a curve p inter so the complete path name of file we are using as a template will be After you ve loaded your template into the Curve Creator it s a go save itun erlhe name lntou A qldf od idea to the it In our case we saved lhe asmplesPremGlossaCool Figure 7 shows our starting Curve Creation windo Cum Cream 7 UCpkrSlaplesPremGlnssrcnnlnitquot Elle new Prlntlng Model Quad22 Creefe Curve W SEND 1ch curve rm curve rm curve 2 l 1 39Default Ink tvan 39B atk Bunst 75 95 39Blatk K nght ale m r 1 3 1 5 l 39Cyan oil nghtcyan LO Llrmt NDtUsed v Cupyturvefmm v LK v 12 39Magema M 7 nght Magenta LM 7 lelt f f l j Copyturvefrom v n 13 39VEHEW Copyturvefrom v LK v u Figure 7 Staf ng Point for Curve Creation Document Version 11 21 April 2005 QuadTone RIP User Guide By using a template we have already set up what I think of as the Curve s organizational details selecting the Printing Model and establishing which inks are used and how As you will notice from Figure 7 above which is typical of most UC Curves the Cyan and Magenta ink positions aren t used and Yellow Light Cyan and Light Magenta are copied from the Light Black but have their own individual ink limits This ensures that the amount of these Yellow Light Cyan and Light Magenta is kept in proportion to the Light Black the proportion determined by the respective ink limits The ink limits are thus used to control the tone of the print created by each Curve The UC Light Black is quite warm so a typical warm curve will not use any ink but Black and Light Black Note that setting an ink limit of 0 is effectively the same as declaring it not used A cool curve on the other hand requires some proportion of Light Cyan and Light Magenta to counteract the warmth of the Light Black A sepia curve will require even more warmth than the Light Black provides so the Yellow ink can be added perhaps with a little more Light Magenta than Light Cyan Again finding an existing Curve to use is a starting point may get you where you want to be sooner than starting from scratch One remaining thing to do before starting to edit the Curve is to decide whether to clear out the Linearize array or not If you are planning to make significant changes to the template and then redo the Linearization then clear out the array before you start If you are simply going to make minor tweaks to the curve and not redo the Linearization then you don t need to clear the array You can always go back and clear out the array later but this would be effectively starting over If you decide to clear out the array it s a good idea to save the qidf again For my example I cleared out the array as I plan to linearize the curve Our Curve is now setup We are ready to create a nonlinearized Curve which I describe in the next section Later on I will describe the process for Linearization Creating a NonLinearized Curve The first thing to do is to set the Default Ink Limit In my example above when I printed the InkSeparation test page the first time I determined see Figure 3 that the inks reached maximum density at about 85 We use that value as our Default Ink Limit While I m at it I ll clear the Black Boost for now I ll determine later whether I need it The next thing to do is to setup the Gray Inks starting with the darkest that being Black of course This time we use the print of the InkSeparation test page with the limited inks First we set the relative densities of the Gray inks The densities are relative to Black so the Density of Black is 100 From the analysis of the test page Figure 5 the relative density of the Light Document Version 11 21 April 2005 18 QuadTone RIP User Guide B1ack wk 15 43 For uc mks there are onw 2 grav mks otcoorse so we stop after the L1ght B1ack For QuadTone mks there can be rnore grav mks so vou woo1o repeat th15 process Settmg the den51tv of each grav wk re1atwe to b1ack xt we want to estaphsh the L1m1t tor each of the grav mks Norrna1w 1 I L1ght B1ack Ink L1m 1 to 55 or so to a11ow tor the other mks Agam here to 1o k atsorneo r c v sto get an 1dea F1gure 8 shows our Curve W1th the grav wk den51tv and 11m1tva1ue5 appheo Note that 1 1ett the YeHoW L1ght Ivan and L1ght Magenta 1rrnrts as 1n the We we used as a Startmg pomt We can change thern 1ater 1 necessarv once we see what a pr1nt1ook511ke sa thev were 1 Lurve mam r LILpkrSIaphsPremmnssrcnuLam new 39P rmng Mudd Quad22 n create curve at Semp 1ca1 curve 1 ram curve 1 ram curve 21 1 Defamt Ink L1m1t mack Buust 75 T 1 ra1atk K 119111 a1a 11W mu v 1 11 1951 1 43 1 55 1 Cyan 27va 117w Ughtcyan Lo 11m Nntused v Cnpyturve mm v K v 12 Magenta M v vw trght Magenta LM L1m1t Nutused v 7 Cupyturve mm v K v 131 V211va Cupymrvzfmm v LK v n Figure 5 Gray Ink DensityLimits Document Vermon 1 1 21 Ap 2005 QuadTone RIP user Guide The final thing to address before making our first print using the curve is to t up the Gray Curve information Figure 9 shows the Curve Creator window for setting the gray curve paramemrs The four variables shown in a Figure 9 control the shape of the final grayscale gradien ue o p n non call tGai iust m39 i 39 k 39 esa very dark gradient so th r are sev lways to hape the gradient HI light sha e mostli lyto be ed he variable can be sed ofi hi hlights nd hadows with se arate val es The lar rthe valuethe llghmr that porti n of the c The s that s t ery good starting point are both equal m o Gamma is the traditional gamma correction that works like the middle value in the Photoshop Levels co m n gives noc ange gt1 lightens and lt1d rkens This correction mma 1 unless you absolutely need a lot lighmr gradient The fourth variable is the Printing Model l Quad22 Ink 52w Gray Curve lToner Curve Toner Curve 2 l Llnearlzatlnnl create curve Highlight a 39Shadnwi lT l lT l 39Overlapi 39Gammai li l Figure 9 Gray Curve Settings alternative to using the 4 variables above you can use the Curve variable This is the most flexible as it allows you to Create an arbitrary curve using Photoshop and then save the curve as an acv for example in Document Version 11 21 April 2005 20 QuadTone RIP User Guide the same folder as your QuadToneRIP curve Using the Browse button you can then assign this filename the Curve variable Adjusting Curve Toning We now have the first cut at our Curve set up It s time to print a test image With QuadToneRIP comes an image called 21Steptif By printing this file with QuadToneRIP we can assess the effectiveness of our Curve This assessment can be done by printing and eyeballing the resulting image or by taking actual measurements Measurements are most accurately done using a spectrophotometer or densitometer However acceptable results can be accomplished using a scanner combined with an image editor like Photoshop If you re using Photoshop for example you can use the Eye Dropper tool set to sample a 5x5 array of pixels to measure the density or tonality of scanned images For our Staples Cool Curve the first print was too warm even for my taste I don t like really cool prints but we are making a cool Curve so the print should be at least on the cool side of neutral Obviously the limits for Light Cyan 12 and Light Magenta 13 were too low I bumped them both to 30 and made another print That was cool enough for now To make a complete set of Curves for a paper you will want to also make at least a warm Curve and most likely a Sepia Curve Some papers have other curves such as a Cool Selenium or Carbon curve All these tones can be created by adjusting the ink limits for the Light Cyan Light Magenta and Yellow inks For example the warm Curve is typically created by turning off these inks Limit0 and just relying on the warmth of the Ultrachrome Light Black to create the necessary warmth Sepia Curves typically add a bit of Yellow and have a bit more Light Magenta than Light Cyan Once again it s a good idea to look at some existing curves to get an idea of the value ranges used For this tutorial we will focus only on the cool Curve so the next step is to look at maximizing the dMax Maximizing dMaX Next we need to ensure that for 100 black we are producing the darkest black the printerpaperink combination can deliver without swamping the paper with ink QuadToneRIP provides several variables that can help in this area The Black ink Limit or if not specified as in our example the limit determined by the Default Ink Limit determines the total amount of black used throughout the grayscale range If increased too much it can cause dot gain problems in the light and midtones Another variable that can be used to increase black ink in the shadows only is Black Boost This puts a steep curve in the Black ink right at the end pushing black all the way to the value set by Black Boost In our example I set this variable to 100 and achieved the deepest black I could for this paper Document Version 11 21 April 2005 21 QuadTone RIP User Guide I noticed that even with Black Boost100 the 100 black patch has little white flecks in it Under an enlarged scan there were little intermittent lines horizontal lines so not pizza wheel tracks For cases like this where the Black ink even at 100 does not fully cover the paper one can specify a Gray Overlap percentage on the Gray Curve panel This variable forces QuadToneRIP to put out more ink overall and to finish with this percentage of the darkest gray overlapping with the maximum amount of black So in our example I specified Black Boost of 100 and ifI specified Gray Overlap of 15 the 100 black patch would be printed with 100 Black ink plus 15 Light Black You must be careful here since the darkest gray is lighter than the black too much Gray Overlap might actually reduce dMax This is another area where experimentation is required Adjusting the Curves To reach what I thought were the best curve characteristics required quite a few iterations of parameters and printing of the 21 step wedge To reduce the paper usage I created a slimed down version of the file I called 21Stepslimtif using the crop tool in Photoshop This permitted me to print about 8 step wedges per page one at a time and marching them down the page using the image placement features of QuadToneRIP Once you print a step wedge the next task is to visually assess the overall appearance of the print Can you see all 21 distinct densities Do they appear moreorless evenly space Is there too much ink on the paper Have you achieved the greatest possible dMax These are all factors you can assess visually or with a quick measurement You can adjust the various gray ink Limits and also the Highlight Shadow Gamma and Overlap variables from the Gray Curve panel to get as close as possible to your ideal step wedge print Another factor you can assess at this point is the overall tonality of the print Is it as cool or warm sepia etc as you want To make changes to the tone for Ultrachrome inks you adjust the Yellow Light Cyan and Light Magenta ink Limits For quadtone inks something I haven t done yet you could adjust the individual toner ink Limits but from looking at existing Curves it appears that the Toner Curve variables Highlight Shadow etc are more commonly used Of course changes to toner values may upset your carefully adjusted gray scale If you make a big change to tone you may have to reexamine the density curve It s a good idea to get the Curve density transitions reasonably uniform before performing the Linearization procedure in the following section Document Version 11 21 April 2005 22 QuadTone RIP User Guide Linearize a QuadToneRIP Curve The initial calibration procedure of QuadToneRIP described above partitions the gray inks and creates smooth transitions between all the inks Once there is a smooth curve the objective is to shape the final densities to an ideal form one where the steps are separated equally for human vision Our vision is better able to see differences in the highlights rather than the shadows so the slope of the density curve must increase towards the shadows QuadToneRIP can take a list of densities from an evenly spaced step wedge and create a correction curve that will then produce the ideal densities for the final curve set This is called the Linearization process Any densitometer or a scanner can be used for this process The measured values can simply be typed into the corresponding cell in the Linearization panel Alternatively for the Xrite 810 or perhaps other densitometers that can use a serial interface one can use a program like Xkey to place measured values in the correct cells Xkey is available for the PC and Mac from the Xrite web site Roy Harrington the originator of QuadToneRIP also has a semiautomated process that can use the EyeOne spectrophotometer In any event to complete the Linearization process make the Curve as described in the previous sections The Linearization Values array at this point must be empty ie the cells must be blank Use the Curve to print to out the 215teptif step wedge and measure the density of each step in the print as usual letting the print dry for a while before taking measurements from it When you are entering densities note that the first cell top left is for 0 white and the last is for 100 black If you are using a densitometer the 0 reading will be the smallest and the 100 reading the largest If you re using a scanner you must scan the printed step wedge and open the scanned image in Photoshop or whatever you use for image editing For linearization you need the Lightness value for each step To do this convert the image to Lab color mode and then use the eye dropper tool set to a 5x5 sample size to measure each step Again you will enter values from the top left 0 to the bottom right 100 In this case the values will be descending from 100 for white to near 0 for black Fortunately QuadToneRIP is smart enough to figure out whether it s getting densities or L values Document Version 11 21 April 2005 23 QuadTone RIP user Guide Cum Cream 7 UCpkrslaplsPrmGlnss unlqidl Elie new 1 Prlrltlrlg Model 1 Quad22EIEI v Create Curve W am 1 Gray curve 1 runer curve 1 runer curve 2 1 Cnpyvaiues Paste Vaiues Figure 10 Linearization Pane Although I ve read that a scanner can be used for measuring densities my experience with a scanner hasn t been very atisfactory My scanner an Epson 2400 seems to have trouble differentiating dark patches Since using L values means blacks are small inte ers the small errors 39 measurements of the darker patches seems to cause wild swings in the e interested to hear what others experiences are with a scanner 7 hopefully betmr than mln nsities are entered use the Create Curve button h create the rve Figure 10 shows the Linearization Panel of Linearized version o your Cu ple Curve In the Curve Creator for our staples Premium Glossy cool exam this case the densities were measured with my Xrite 810 densitometer If you want to check how successful you were you can print out another 21step and measure the linearized densities and compare these to the closest ideal density curve provided in Figure 11 and Figure 12 Document Version 11 21 April 2005 Step 160 QuadTone RIP User Guide Ideal Der 165 170 175 180 185 sities for Various d 190 Max 195 200 0 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 5 0047 0048 0048 0049 0050 0050 0051 0052 0052 10 O 0 0 0 0097 0099 0100 O H O H 0103 0104 0105 0106 15 0146 0149 0151 0153 0155 0157 0159 0161 0163 20 0199 0202 0205 0208 0211 0214 0217 0220 0222 25 0253 0258 0262 0266 0270 0274 0278 0281 0284 30 0311 0316 0321 0327 0331 0336 0341 0345 0350 35 0370 0377 0384 0390 0396 0402 0407 0413 0418 40 0433 0441 0449 0457 0464 0471 0478 0484 0491 45 0499 0509 0518 0527 0535 0544 0552 0560 0567 50 0 U1 0 02 0580 0590 0601 0611 0621 0631 0640 0649 55 0642 0655 0667 0680 0692 0703 0714 0725 0736 60 0719 0734 0749 0763 0777 0791 0804 0817 0829 65 O 02 O N 0819 0836 0853 O 02 0 0 0885 0900 0915 0929 70 0890 0910 0930 0949 0968 0986 1004 1021 1038 75 0985 1008 1030 1053 1074 1096 1116 1137 1157 80 1087 1113 1140 1165 1191 1216 1240 1264 1287 85 1197 1228 1259 1289 H U H 02 1348 1376 1404 1432 90 1318 1354 1390 1425 1460 1495 1529 1562 1595 95 1451 1494 1536 1578 1619 1660 1701 1742 1782 100 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 Figure Document Version 11 11 Table of Ideal Densities Part 1 21 April 2005 25 QuadTone RIP User Guide Ideal Densities for Vari Step 200 205 210 215 220 225 230 ous dMax 235 240 0 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 5 0052 0053 0053 0054 0054 0055 0055 0056 0056 10 0106 0108 0109 0110 0111 0112 0113 0114 0115 15 0163 0165 0167 0168 0170 0171 0173 0174 0176 20 0222 0225 0227 O N O O 0232 0234 0236 0238 0240 25 0284 0288 0291 0294 0297 0300 0303 0305 0308 30 0350 0354 0358 0362 0365 0369 0372 0376 0379 35 0418 0423 0428 0433 0438 0442 0446 0451 0455 40 0491 0497 0503 0509 0514 0520 0525 0530 0535 45 0567 0575 0582 0589 0595 0602 0608 0614 0620 50 0649 0658 0666 0674 0682 0690 0697 0704 0711 55 0736 0746 0756 O l 0 0 0775 0784 0793 0801 0810 60 0829 0841 0853 0864 0875 0886 0896 0906 0916 65 0929 0943 0957 0970 0983 0996 1008 1020 1032 70 1038 1055 1071 1086 1102 1116 1131 1145 1159 75 1157 1176 1195 1213 1232 1249 1266 1283 1299 80 1287 1310 1332 1354 1376 1397 1417 1438 1457 85 1432 1459 1486 1512 1538 1564 1588 1613 1637 90 1595 1628 1661 1692 1724 1755 1785 1815 1845 95 1782 1822 1862 1901 1940 1979 2017 2056 2093 100 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 2400 Figure Document Version 11 12 Table of Ideal Densities Part 2 21 April 2005 26


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