US Since 1877
US Since 1877 HIST 2112
Popular in Course
Popular in History
This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michael Abbott on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2112 at Georgia College & State University taught by Craig Pascoe in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/221921/hist-2112-georgia-college-state-university in History at Georgia College & State University.
Reviews for US Since 1877
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/12/15
Class Notes 12810 Test I Material ARCHITECTURE AND SPATIAL PATTERN o Balloon frame housing 0 Cast iron columns 0 Only effective to certain heights cracked under pressure 0 Couldn t build tall buildings because materials weren t strong enough 0 Wood as a building material 0 Balloon frame begins 0 Sturdy but highly flammable not pre treated like modern lumber 0 Age ofthe Skyscraper 0 Steel skeleton 0 Louis Sullivan I Pioneered quotsteel skeleton in Chicago 0 Strength of buildings came from cage of steel 0 Builds cities up but also sends people to outskirts to find cheaper housing GREENSPACES IN CITIES 0 Minimal people wanted more builders didn t want to waste valuable land 0 Cemeteries Only real greenspaces in the city People went there to relax picnic and enjoy scenery trees etc Church cemeteries too small to accommodate all deceased members Mount Auburn 1831 Laurel Hills 1836 commercial cemeteries OOOOO Calvert Vaux and Frederick Law Olmstead I Landscape architects in NYC I Created quotGreenswardquot what is now Central Park SUBURBS o More appealing than inner city 0 Heavy promotions 0 Front yards only distance between people and outside world 0 Much more greenspace 0 Transportation networks built between suburbs and cities POVERTY IN CITIES o Slums vs ghettos o Slum becomes ghetto when people can t quotget outquot when opportunities are so few people feel quotstuckquot there 0 Ethnicities segregated Dumbbell apartments dumbbell shaped 1904 NYC Commitment on Tenements Poor health and safety conditions Dumbbells set side by side with open space between quothandlebar part of shape 0 Heat was drawn to open space fires not uncommon 0 People were trapped in building when fires occurred many deaths due to this CONCENTRATION OF WEALTH IN CITIES Fifth Avenue in NYC Commonwealth Avenue in Boston Lake Shore Drive in Chicago Wealthy lived on one street poor lived in neighborhoods Wealthy felt safer because they were close to people with same socioeconomic status Division between filthy rich and filthy poor become more apparent SUBURBS SEGREGATED BY WEALTH Rich suburbs o Shaker Heights Cleveland 0 Brookline Boston 0 Grosse Point Detroit Wealthy moved out of cities because of crime sanitation and congestion POLICE FORCES IN URBAN AMERICA 1830s and 1840s Organized police forces emerge Specific duties and responsibilities Neighborhood saloons first police outposts because govt wouldn t pay for real outposts Police were criminals too 1894 Reform rid criminals from police force Teddy Roosevelt 0 Police commissioner worked for reform o Helped him catapult to national scene and eventually to presidency SETTLEMENT HOUSES Jane Addams came up with concept 1889 Chicago first settlement house created Hull House Social gospelers help fellow man higher purpose etc Thought that by improving environment around people poverty would improve Settlement house services advice training daycare general help 1895 50 settlement houses across the US major cities Class Notes 11910 Test I Material GOVERNMENT INTERACTION WITH BUSINESS AFFAIRS 0 Without government interference there would be monopolies and oligopolies in 0 Steel 0 Kerosene o Railroads RAILROADS o Efficiency evaluated efficiency for first time efficiency experts emerge 0 Running Full don t send train cars unless all are full of productmaterial o Standardization o 1886 Railroad gauges distance between parallel rails I South had different gauges so north couldn t invade and take over 0 Time Zones 1883 o Standardized because of daylight and traveltransportation across country 0 Became law in 1918 0 Planning 0 Seasonal demand 0 Stock trainsbox cars 0 Labor eliminate wasteover hiring 0 Technology 0 Air brakes o Refrigerator cars 0 Electric switches COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 0 Telegraph used by railroad companies 0 Telephone Bell Telephone 1900 MONOPOLIESOLIGOPOLIES 0 Electric Light and Power 0 General Electric 0 Westinghouse 0 Farm Equipment 0 John Deere o McCormick 0 Sugar Class Notes 12110 Test Material WCTU 0 Women s Christian Temperance Movement 0 Fought for sanitation peace working conditions prohibition 0 Main focus was alcohol ALCOHOL 0 Major form of entertainment for working class 0 No organized recreation alcohol was it 0 Negative attitude toward alcohol from upper class whites 0 Alcohol seen as evil 0 Immigrants brought alcohol part of their native cultures 0 Women begin getting involved in politics against alcohol ANTI SALOON LEAGUE 0 Direct action stormed bars and destroyed them horses axes etc 0 Men couldn t touch women because of society rules SALOONS o quotWorker s world quotpoor man s clubs workingman s saloon o Saloon Life 0 Center of community 0 Cultural center 0 Political center easiest way for politicians to reach the most people at a time 0 Job clearinghouse networking for jobs 0 Labor unions conducted business in saloons because they couldn t talk to employees on the job laws prevented it o Camaraderie I Saloon word sounds elaborate desirable I Not about the drinking about the gathering of people 0 Tied House System 0 First exclusive contracts between bars and liquor companies 0 Pabst o Schlitz o Anheuser o Busch Anheuser and Busch merged much later 0 Similarities among bars 0 Long hallway shape 0 Shelves behind bar display liquor bottles 0 No bar stools 0 Large picture behind bar Custer s Last Stand naked women etc o Cuspidors buckets to spit tobacco in 0 Food 0 Sawdust on floor to absorb spills o Bartender and Patrons o Bartender usually the owner 0 quotbums rushquot people acting stupid get thrown out physically o Regulars follow quotdrinking code unwritten I What to drink I Wherewhen to drink I Special words gestures rituals etc I To qualify for quotfull fledged status of quotregularquot 0 Conform to rules 0 Reasonably acceptable behavior at all times 0 Share some common ground with other regulars 0 Gender Age Status of Patrons I Most patrons are male I quotLadies entrance makes women feel more comfortable I quotRushing the growler fill pailbucket with beer leave quottake outquot I Women as patrons 0 Dating place working men could afford 0 quotFree lunch pay for a beer get free food with it 0 Bad weather nowhere to go to socialize I Age determined what bar patrons went to I Marital Status 0 quotPleasure clubsquot 0 Tipplers singles bars 0 Bar patrons around the country all look the same 0 Occupational Ties I Solace I Pattern of drinking I Sunday ordinances I quotSaint Monday 0 Drunk Sunday hungover Monday Monday work day optional 0 Dated back to 1764 in England I Drinking seen as a right O O O O 0 Ethnicity Ethnic solidaritydrinking preferences 0 Germans lager beer 0 Irish whiskey o Italians wine Ethnic Saloonkeeper Advice News Preservation of culture Blocks assimilation keeps ethnicities separated not Americanized Saloon s Role in Neighborhood Political club Neighborhood center besides church Entertainment Cash paycheckscredit on tick ticket 0 Common men didn t use banks 0 Saloon cashed checks acted as short term lender 0 Let regulars have tab until payday Clubbing bar hopping Treat buying each other drinks including bartender Scrub of the brush politicians buy drinks to persuade voters Charity boygirl buy them a drink take them home Tango pirate gigolo young men going after old rich women Collection a type of clubbing pool all S together buy drinks Sitters people who don t pitch in but get drinks from pool Sport Shorts Moochers same as sitters Treating Tricksters contribute very small amount drink a lot Club snub Snubbing person who doesn t contribute Dutch treat Buy own individually Drinking capacity manly status Quantity and style important Rum most common liquor easy to make with sugar from Caribbean Free Lunch concept Free food with alcohol purchase 1880s onward Attracts customers Temperance complaints considered a scam I Nutrition meals served in saloons healthier than what people could afford to eat at home I 10 cents common price for food at saloons I Women came to saloons for food I Typical food available at the bar 0 Urban West 0 Beefpork o Beans 0 Bread 0 Irish 0 Potatoes 0 German 0 Blut wurst 0 Summer sausage o Pickled herringpigs feet 0 San Francisco 0 Hash House 0 quotCannibal Sandwich raw meat on raw onion slice 0 Sanguinettis pasta 0 New Orleans 0 Breads salads meats soup rice and beans 0 Friday oyster soup and fish Catholics no meat on Fridays 0 Atlanta 0 Laws against hot food hot food attracted both blacks and whites 0 Laws encouraged segregation 0 Limited to cheese crackers pretzels bologna pickles etc 0 Black and Tans bars with both black and white patrons 0 Chicago 0 quotMickey Finn s bar name put poison in drinks of bad customers 0 New York Boston Philadelphia 0 Beef tea made with beef bullion I Criticisms of quotfree lunch 0 Exploitation of poor 0 Unsanitary eating conditions 0 Saloonkeepers fail Class Notes 11410 Test I Material INDUSTRIALIZATION PHILADELPHIA CENTENNIAL EXPOSITION 1876 0 World Fairquot for new products o Hires39 Root Beer 1st carbonated beverage o Bananas couldn39t get in the US until 187039s improvements in tech and storage 0 Ordinary Bicycle early 1800s big front wheel no brakes 0 Safety Bicycle modern bike 1885 had brakes and 2 wheels same size 0 Corliss Engine 0 Gigantism bigger is better 0 Expo created demand for new products THE SOUTH 0 Lack of southern industry major cause of Confederate defeat lack of resources 0 Ignored crop rotation because of cash crops led to massive erosion o Kudzu introduced to hold land in place became nuisance can grow 2 3ftday AMERICAN INDUSTRY GROWTH 0 England was most powerful industry until postCivil War then US took over 0 Natural Resources 0 coal iron ore forests etc all in the south 0 northern investors interested in opportunities in the south Labor 0 Surplus of people looking for work low wages because of high demand forjobs o Immigrants from Europe and Asia 0 Workers made very little owners made huge profits Expanding Markets 0 More people more consumers o More exports due to overproduction need for new consumers o More involved in world affairs economic necessity Large amounts of capital 0 Used to build biggerbetter businesses Technology and Innovation 0 Make products specifically to meet peoples39 needs 0 Took ideas from Europe 0 Government Assistance 0 Tax breaks tariffs etc to help domestic companies compete with imports CONSERVATIVE VIEW 0 Big business shouldn39t be regulated by the government ECONOMIC GROWTH 0 Industrial Growth in northeast 85 o GNP 4 increase yearly 0 Gross National Product includes immigrants 0 Could not have happened doing business the old wayquot 0 Factories had gt1000 employees 0 Small businesses had trouble surviving BUSINESS STRATEGIES o Doubleentry bookkeeping debitcredit balance out 0 Managers not trusted by customers because they weren39t the owners don39t care 0 AdvertisingMarketing 0 1st ad agency created in 1860s 0 1880s ads boom because of competition 0 Distribution concentration of factories in urban areas growing cities 0 Transportation need to get products to consumers o Stockholders spread risk among multiple people 0 Remove direct personal control 0 Impersonal transactions customers don39t like this 0 Laissez Faire leave it alonequot keep government out of business 0 Big business 0 Monopolies oligopolies emerge 0 Consumers become aware of unfairness in pure capitalism 0 Consumers want level playing fieldquot STEEL INDUSTRY 0 Bessemer Process 0 Transforms iron into steel 0 Not sustainable 0 Andrew Carnegie o Rags to riches story 0 Invested in steel mill Class Notes 12610 Test Material FIVE MAJOR TIME PERIODS OF URBAN AMERICAN HISTORY Cluster up to 1790 o Tried to copy European cities model Market Place 1790 1870 0 Towns appear Radial Centering 1870 1920 0 Transportation advancements 0 Cities expand outward 0 Focal point of cities center where most business took place 0 Roads train tracks etc radiate from center helped with expansion 0 1880s skyscrapers emerge Vital Fringe 1920 1970 0 Cities grow outward outskirts vital fringe neighborhoods emerge with different concentrationscharacteristics shopping district housing district etc 0 Chain stores emerge keep inner city presence add presence in fringe area Multi Centered Metropolis 1970 present NEW REGIONAL CENTERS All connect to something bigger 0 NY Chicago Philadelphia Cincinnati San Francisco Boston Atlanta 0 Detroit OOOOO SMALLER CITIES SPECIALIZE Holyoke Massachusetts paper Birmingham Alabama steel Minneapolis Minnesota millinglumber Butte Montana mining Corning New York glass Kansas City Kansas beef Tampa Florida cigars Tulsa Arizona refined oil Toledo Oklahoma glass auto parts Specialize to survive but can be detrimental when demand changes URBANIZATION PARALLELS AND HELPS INDUSTRIALIZATION Industrialization brings o Horrid working conditions 0 Corruption 0 Poverty 0 Overcrowding 0 Poor sanitary conditions No zoningplanning was done factories next to schools etc Chicago 1850 1900 0 Grows from 30000 to 1000000 people 1900 Census 1700 cities 98 were newdid not exist in 1800 Ellis Island 0 17000000 total immigrants processed o 1920 Census I More people living in urban space than rural I quotUrban space area with 2500 people Anti Urban Sentiment 0 Thomas Jefferson I quotWhen we get piled up on one another in large cities as in Europe we shall become corrupt as in Europe and go to eating one another as they do there I Cities hellhole Transportation 0 quotWalking cities walk one end to the other in a day 0 Horse drawn streetcar 0 15000 horses diedyear in NYC poor sanitation conditions 0 Cable cars effort to break away from horses too expensive to operate 0 Danger no streetlights stop signs etc 0 Automobiles I Increase issues of congestion speed etc I Rubber tires quieter than horses people got hit because they didn t hear them coming stepped in front ofthem ImmigrationMigration 0 1900 1910 0 11826000 new urban dwellers o 41 immigrants from abroad o 298 native born migrated rural to urban o 216 natural increase births o 76 incorporation of new territory cities expand outward European Immigrants 0 NYC 0 More foreign born citizens O 12 the amount of Italians that lived in Naples lived in NYC 0 Same amt ofGermans in Hamburg and NYC 0 Twice as many Irish in NYC than Dublin Urban Neighborhoods 0 Little Italy 0 O Neapolitans Calabrians Genoese Northern Italians Not a homogenous group different depending on regions of Italy Rely on each other within neighborhoods Padrone person with authoritypower in neighborhood loan sharks organized crime begins to emerge quotJumping offquot places 1St generation lived in neighborhoods Encouraged children to move out quotAmericanizequot Assimilation Encouraged children to be successful Rejecting heritage was sometimes part of assimilation Internal Migration O O O Ypsitucky Michigan Formerlyproperly known as Ypsillany Many people moved there from Kentucky acquired new nickname quotSister Carriequot Theodore Dreiser Story in which woman takes control of own life without help of a man Becomes an actress looked down on by society considered a whore Movement of African Americans 1900 90 were in the south 15 were in cities 1890 1910 moved north at rate of 19000yr many moved to Chicago 1910 1920 500000 moved out of the south 0 Agricultural downturn in south 0 Racial climate
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'