Intro to Environmental Science
Intro to Environmental Science ENSC 1000
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Colleen Weber on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENSC 1000 at Georgia College & State University taught by Caralyn Zehnder in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see /class/221952/ensc-1000-georgia-college-state-university in Environmental Science at Georgia College & State University.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Environmental Science Exam 3 Study Guide 1 De ne Locavore organic farming CSA CAFO parasitoid biological control genetically modi ed organism deserti cation eutri cation aquaculture sedimentation o Locavore A person who consuming locally grown products 0 Organic Farming Food grown without hormones antibiotics pesticides synthetic fertilizers or genetic modi cation 0 CSA Community supported agriculture 0 CAFO Concentrated animal feeding operation Facilities that house and feed a large number of animals for more than 45 days in a 12 month period Parasitoid A parasite that kills a host from the inside out Biological Control Using the natural enemies of pests to control pest populations Genetically Modi ed Organism Organisms whose genetic code had been altered by arti cial means such as interspecies gene transfer 0 Deserti cation The deterioration of land in arid semiarid and dry subhumid areas Eutrophication Slow moving water receives excess nutrients that stimulate excessive plant growth Aquaculture Farming sh or CAFO s for sh 0 Sedimentation Soil particles in water 2 How does livestock grazing impact the environment 0 Runoff from grazing land can get into the water supply 0 Can lead to overgrazing leading to loss of natural forage causing erosion 3 What are some of the environmental and human health impacts associated with CAP Os 0 Large amounts of animal waste can runoff into water 0 Bacteria growth deoxygenated water kill animals 4 Ifyou have a xed area of land for agricultural production Why is it possible to feed more people that eat a vegetarian diet than people that eat a meatbased diet 0 Energy is lost each time it is transferred 0 By taking out the middle man of the meat people would be able to get a lot more use out of just what is grown because they would not have to feed any to the animals 5 What are pesticides and herbicides used for o Pesticide Any chemical that kills controls drives away or modi es the behavior of a pest o Herbicide A chemical that kills plants 6 What causes the dead zone that occurs every year in the Gulf of Mexico 0 Increase of chemicals in water causing bacteria growth deoxygenating water and killing sh 7 What are the two most common types of genetically modi ed crops ie the traits added to the crop Why are these traits bene cial to farms 0 Insect resistant and herbicide resistant plants 0 They allow for the farmer to not have to use as many pesticides 8 What caused the Dust Bowl of the 1930s 0 Due to poor agriculture practice the soil had been eroded when a drought hit causing the top soil to turn to dust 9 What causes soil erosion o Constant soil use 0 Overgrazing o Plowing 0 Chemicals 10 Explain how certain farming practices can prevent soil erosion o Contour Plowing Following the contour or shape of the land the small furrows act like dams trapping runoff o No Till Agriculture Stems and roots not harvested remain on elds protects soil from erosion and increases water retention 11 What are the impacts of sedimentation o Cloudy water Less photosynthesis Fill up lake or reservoir Higher temperatures lead to shallower pools Floods Water pollution Pesticides herbicides and fertilizer Smother fish 12 What causes deserti cation What are the consequences 0 Causes Poor farming forestry grazing top soil erosion buildups of salt in irrigated soils conversion of marginal grazing lands to crop lands and climate change 0 Consequences Crop lands are transformed to desert 13 What are the costs and benefits of growing plants in monoculture 0 Costs If a disease affects one plant in will wipe out the entire field 0 Benefits Allows for a greater production rate of a popular crop greater profit 14 What is biological control Describe the costs and benefits associated with it 0 Using the natural enemies of pests to control pest populations 0 Costs Control agents become invasive nontarget affected and can cost a lot of money 0 Benefits Saving crops controls an invasive species organic and precise 15 Describe the causes of the recent food safety outbreaks associated with eggs spinach and peanuts 0 Eggs Salmonella Bad conditions for chickens o Spinach E coli Nearby cattle ranch wild pigs and irrigation well with waterways exposed to feces from cattle o Peanuts Salmonella Animal feces rats and bird poop from cracks in ceiling 16 What are the sources and symptoms are salmonella and E coli harmful strain infections 0 Salmonella I Sources Any raw food of animal orgin and some fruits and vegetables I Symptoms Abdominal cramps diarrhea and fever 0 E coli I Sources Undercooked beef unpasteurized milk and juice raw fruits and vegetables soft cheeses and infected water I Symptoms Abdominal pain diarrhea and vomiting 17 What can be done to prevent food contamination Make sure all food is well cooked Keep raw meat and eggs separate from ready to eat food Drink only pasteurized milk juice and cider Fruit and vegetables should be washed thoroughly Purify water Refrigerate food within 2 hours Refrigerate and freeze properly Also be able to answer all of the questions from the GM handout and the atrazine case study Exam 2 Study Guide Questions 1 N 9 4 V39 0 gt1 9 50 Why are fossil fuels referred to as ancient sunlight They are made from the ancient animals that died and decomposed forming coal Be able to list explain amp compare the environmental impacts of extracting mining or drilling and burning coal oil and natural gas Extracting water pollution acid rain Burning Mercury emissions sulfur nitrogen oxide and carbon dioxide Oil Possible Explosion Water Pollution Carbon Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Sulfur Dioxide Nitrogen Oxides and air toxins Natural Gas Pipeline explosion terrorist target Compare the environmental and human health impacts of strip mining and underground mining Strip Acid Mine Drainage Underground Black Lung Disease What is acid rain How does it form What are the effects of acid rain What can be done to reduce the formation of acid rain Sulfur Dioxide and nitrogen oxide react with the water in the atmosphere and form a mild solution of acid May cause corrosion deforestation and deterioration What are some ofthe costs associated with cleancoal technologies Higher Construction Costs Compare the environmental impacts of coal petroleum and natural gas combustion Coal Mercury emissions sulfur nitrogen oxide carbon dioxide water pollution and acid rain Petroleum Carbon Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Sulfur Dioxide Nitrogen Oxides and air toxins Combustion Greenhouse gas emissions and possible are Define bioaccumulation amp biomagnification Bioaccumulation An organism absorbs a substance faster than it excretes it results in organism having higher concentration than surrounding environment Biomagniflcation Increase in concentration of certain stable chemicals in higher trophic levels of the food chain or web How does mercury get into sh Why do some sh contain higher concentrations of mercury than others Why are people concerned about mercury pollution Mercury goes from the air dissolves in the water and goes through the food chain from the algae to the fish Describe the carbonpools or reservoirs and processes of the carbon cycle Carbon Pools Forests humans cows ocean corals atmosphere coal corn fungi seaweed fish and oil Photosynthesis CO2 is absorbed by plants the plants use the energy from the sun to convert the energy to carbohydrates and the carbon atom becomes part of the plant Respiration Oxygen is combined with carbohydrates to release stored energy and produce water and carbon dioxide Consumption Carbon goes into corn corn goes into food food goes into humans some is used for respiration and the rest becomes biomass Decomposition Detritivores break down dead tissue and through respiration the detritivores release COl or CH4 Combustion Carbon is released through burning of biomass and natural gas Explain the greenhouse effect Sunlight brings energy into climate system and is absorbed by oceans and land heat radiates outward from surface some of infrared energy is absorbed by greenhouse gases and remitted on all directions some of infrared energy warms the ea1th some of infrared energy emitted to space higher concentrations of C02 and other greenhouse gases trap more energy in the atmosphere and further warms the earth 11 What are the main anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases D I t 00 0 N N N 1 Fossil Fuels and Fertilizer What are some of the consequences of global warming Changes in climate patterns rise in sea level and changes in the biosphere The Earth s climate has changed in the past what is different about the climate change now The change has been a continuing increase at drastic rates gt quotquotk kYour Uncle claims that global warming is not caused by human produced greenhouse gasses but by changes in the sun s intensity Counter his argument with the correct scienti c evidence Your Aunt claims that global warming is not caused by human produced greenhouse gasses but by changes in the earth s orbit 7 she says that we are just recovering from the last ice age and the Earth is supposed to get warmer now Counter her argument with the correct scienti c evidence The earth has warmed dramatically over the last 140 years and it is now warmer than it has been in the last 1000 years After hearing you talking to your Aunt and Uncle your teenage cousin claims I like it warm 7 I think global warming will be great What would you say to your cousin Agriculture yields will decrease coastal ooding heat waves droughts and wild res Explain what happens during a ssion reaction How can this lead to a chain reaction The nucleus of a heavy atom is broken apart into two or more small nuclei This releases energy and the nuclei can continue to hit each other forming more nuclei Explain generally how a nuclear power plant works Energy released by ssion is used to heat water and the steam formed operates turbines and generators What are some of the pros and cons associated with nuclear power plants Pros No greenhouse gases and no carbon emissions Cons Possible explosions and daily releases What is done with radioactive waste Stored in deep water pools underground or above ground in containers at the plant What happened at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island Three Mile Island Partial core meltdown caused a gas bubble and gases were released to prevent an explosion Chernobyl Nuclear power reactor exploded What is energy ef ciency A measure of energy produced compared to energy consumed List three ways that you could conserve energy by being more energy ef cient Compact uorescent light bulbs hybrid car heat exchanger advanced framing and SIP s What are some of the obstacles we face in trying to adopt alternative energies Intermittent energy source not equally available and expensive There are multiple types of solar energy including passive solar design solar hot water photovoltaics and solar thermal generator explain where each of these is used and how it works Passive solar heating cooling and day lighting Water A collector is mounted on the roof small tubes run through with either water or antifreeze to be heated as heat builds up in the collector it heats the uid Generator Focus sunlight on water and boiling water is used to run conventional steam drive electrical generator Compare the environmental impacts of solar wind hydro geothermal and biomass generated energy Solar no air pollution Wind wildlife impacts strobe lighting and noise pollution Hydro Can cause stagnate water and ooding above the damn Geothennal wastewater may be saline or highly corrosive on site noise emissions of gas and disturbance of land Biomass Cutting down forests What is the food vs fuel debate Using corn to produce ethanol versus using for food 28 Why do we currently get most of our biofuels from corn and sugarcane instead of cellulose The process to ferment them into alcohol is much less difficult 29 Why are biomassbiofuels considered to be carbon neutral They do not produce any carbon emissions 30 Explain how wind hydropower and geothermal power produce energy Wind Using power from windmill turbines to generate electricity Hydro Using moving water through turbines to produce energy Geothermal Using earth s interior heat to heat homes Dif culty in locating answer