Principles of Chemistry I
Principles of Chemistry I CHEM 1211
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vesta Rippin on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1211 at Georgia College & State University taught by Ronald Fietkau in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/221957/chem-1211-georgia-college-state-university in Chemistry at Georgia College & State University.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
CHEM 1211 Principles of Chemistry I Chapter 4 Types otChemieal Reactions and Solution Stoiehiometry 41 Water the Common Solvent u walens one ofihe most lrnpm39lanl substances on earth u humans are appmmmalely 70 water 0 1 ants and many industrial processes u many so s ances dlssolve in ater eg salt and sugar u what happens when a sohd dlssolves o in ord r to understand the process must understand the nature ofwalex l 132 pl 0 see Flgule water has 2 covalent bonds water 15 a polar m Flgule 42 thls process ls called hydranon have hydranon sphere when salts romc compounds dlssolve in water they bxeak up mic rndmdual cane and amen 0 see NHaNH3s tilWad Nomad u aq deslglaled hydrated Ions chlonde only sllgh y soluble the lens for water molecules u water also dlssolves nomomc substances eg ethanol amalgam 0 see Flgule 43 r t and do not effechvely mteract With polar molecules like dissolves likequot 42 The Nature ni Aquenus Snlu tm Strong and Weak Electrolytes u recall the terms solute and solvent u electncal conductmty can be used 0 can have strong electrolytes weak electrolytes and 0 see Flgule 44 to charactenze a solnllon nonreleclmlytes RFGCSU page 1 ot 5 Ch o4 Zumdzhl 7m ed Wpd Soong Elecoolym a are completely aonazed whaa dassolyed o u NaCl as a soong electaolyte see Fagaue 45 p 135 NaC1s gt Na ao Cl ac u soong aslderCI HNOE H130 HCIOQ see text for dassocaataon aeactaons dassolyed an watea u soong baseeraOH KOH see text for dassocaataon aeactaons O as dassolyed an watea Weak Electrolytes 0 most common weak electaolytes are weak acads and bases 7 acetac acad cmcomd as a weak acad weak electaolyte Cllacooxusq H aq CH3CDG39aq r ammonaa NH as a weak base weak electaolyte NH3an1 H200 NHt39W OH ad Norwkclrolyms th u d r u n as molecules an watea 43 The Composition nfSnlu nns chemacal aeactaons o en take place when two solutaon are rmxed to peafoma stoachaometaac calculataons an such cases must know two ung the nature ofthe Ieachon o the amounts ofchermcal paesent usually expaessed as concentaataons the most commonly used expaessaon of concentaataon as molanty o molantyas de ned as the numhea ofmoles ofsolule pea lateas ofsoluhon BC umcsu Pagezof 5 Ch o4 Zumdzhl 7m ed wpd a standard solution is a solution whose concenlxahon is accnsately known fox dllllhon use the formula MWVW vam 44 Types tifChemical Reactions 1 Prempll hon Reacllons u 2 AaldrBase Reactions u 3 Odeahonrdelchon Reactions 45 Precipitation Reactions e o solntions ale nnxed and a solid snbstance farms 4 prempll lmn u the solid is called a pxempll le fox example K2Cr04aq BaN022aq Bactods 2 KNOsao see Figtne 414 see Table 41 u do examples from the end oflhe chaplei 45 Descn bing Reactions in Solution u recall the Ieaclmn K2Cr04aq BaN022aq BaCrOAG 2 KNOsao o the seacnon is known as the molecular equation 0 actnally have 2K39aq CrOlfaq Ba239aq 2 N0 M1 gtBaCrOos 2 K39aq z No aq 0 above is known as the complete Ion equation de ed to cm on gtBaCrOos 0 above is known as the net ionic equation RFGCSU page of o Ch o4 Zumdzhl 7m ed wpd 47 Stnichinmetry nfl reu pita nn Reactions 7 do examples Earn the end ofthe Chapter 43 AddrBase Reac nns mns H In Wale and bases are substances that pmduce hydmnde Ions OH 1n Wale a R t r k n a t 187471935 who de ned and and base as follows 0 a proton done a base 15 a proton acceplox s 0 sodmrn hydmnde NaoH H39aq 01 ad Na39aq OH sq 4gtH20l Na39aq Cl aq 0 net readton Mad OH ant 8 H200 0 what lflhe and 15 a weak elecholyte7 e rmx an eons sollmon of aeette eld Haggai and an aqueous sellhon of petasnnm hydmnde KOH vsyh le oflhe and has dissomaled lt1 0 the reamton n as K ad OH an HCH302aq e K an1 H200 cHOad c the net mn equatmn 15 0H39 w HC2H302aq 8 H200 Cszof ma 0 neaet completely mth anyweak and that we w l encounter u do examples from the end oflhe chapter macsu pageant 5 Ch 04 Zumdzhl 7m ed wpd Titrmions domg anuanon 0 311313118 lhls pmnl e do apxoolena from the end ofme ohaplex 49 ommnnRoauo nn Reac nns a note me followlng xeaonon see Flgme 418 2 Nas clag gt 2Na01s xeaonons llke me one above In whlch one 01 moxe eleouons axe nansfened axe oalled oxlda onrxednclmn xeaalons OI xedox e o o synthesls whlch sloxes ensigy fmm me sun In planls by oonvemng oaxoon dloxlde 3181 I0 sugax ls averylmponant xedox xeamon o m o m n r hfe oombusnon xeamons also mvolve oxldanon and xeduonon an example CHA 2 02g 8 0023 H20Cg energy 0 513185 Hyman States a F 1 d1 W91 m v has Ihe yealex amamon fox eleouons a see Table a do pmblems fmm me end oflhe ohaplex RFGCSU Pig 5 M 5 Ch 04 anaam 7m ed Wpd