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Survey of Chemistry II

by: Vesta Rippin

Survey of Chemistry II CHEM 1152

Vesta Rippin
GPA 3.98


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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vesta Rippin on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1152 at Georgia College & State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see /class/221959/chem-1152-georgia-college-state-university in Chemistry at Georgia College & State University.


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Date Created: 10/12/15
4647570131716 41006 141 PM Page 1 4 1 Measurements This chapter is crucial to the development of problem solving for the rest of the text A short section covers the scienti c method Students review math and learn to do calculations while working on everyday exam ples of problems in health and medicine using metric units Students confront their fear of word problems by learning a system for analyzing and solving work problems Scienti c notations accuracy and precision and the use of a calculator are now included in the chapter It is a chapter that is well worth taking some time on Study Goals Describe the scienti c method Learn the base units and abbreviations for the metric SI system Distinguish between measured numbers and exact numbers Determine the number of signi cant gures in a measurement Use pre xes to change base units to larger or smaller units Form conversion factors from units in an equality Use metric units US units percent and density as conversion factors In problem solving convert the initial unit of a measurement to another unit Round off a calculator answer to report an answer with the correct number of signi cant gures Calculate temperature values in degrees Celsius and kelvins Chapter Outline 11 Scienti c Method Thinking Like A Scientist 12 Measurement and Scienti c Notation Explare Yaur Warld Units Listed an Labels 13 Measured Numbers and Signi cant Figures 14 Signi cant Figures in Calculations Career Facus Phlebatamist 15 Pre xes and Equalities 16 Writing Conversion Factors Explare Yaur Warld SI and Metric Equalities an Praduct Labels 17 Problem Solving Career Facus Veterinary Technician 18 Density Explare Yaur Warld Sink 0r Flaat Health Nate Determinatian 0f Percentage afBady Fat 19 Temperature Career Facus Surgical Technalagist Health Nate Variatian in Bady Temperature Chapter Summary and Demonstrations 1 Measurements in the US and metric systems are compared Consideration of real life situations and health related examples and at home explore activities introduce or elaborate the discussion The student is taught to recognize and count signi cant gures in measurements and calculations Measurement and Significant Figures 4647570131716 41006 141 PM Page 2 Chapter 1 Demonstration To demonstrate differences in measuring by different observers Ipass out several sheets of paper along with metric rulers and ask the students to measure the width and the length and to calculate the area I list some of the responses which are in centimeters inches or without units some with two sig ni cant gures and some with three The last digit is often different Since all of the measurements are done with the same size sheets of paper we discuss measurements differences in observing measuring tools estimations signi cant gures units and the importance of specifying units Finally we look at the calculation of area using their measurements and talk about the need to use signi cant gures when report ing calculator answers I also take some time here to discuss calculator operations 2 Counting Numbers Percent and Conversion Factors Equalities and conversion factors are carefully explained through many examples Problem solving utilizes dimensional analysis to convert between US and metric units The emphasis on metric units signi cant g ures and numerical problem solving exercises prepares the student for problem solving throughout the text Demonstration To begin our study of numbers from measurement and exact numbers I use the following kind of grid on a transparency but expand for the number of lecture teams I bring in bags of small MampMs and give one to each team They are asked to predict the number of yellow green and brown MampMs You may want to add red green and tan Each group could do this outside of class and bring in their results Then they open the bag and determine the actual amounts They calculate percent and grams per MampM using the mass written on the package and write their results on the transparency We compare predictions and actual discuss a counting number and a measured number mass of the package contents and gramsMampM and discuss what to do with signi cant gures This is an exercise remembered by all of the students and helps to allay the fear of working with numbers in chemistry MampMs Statistics MampMs yellow brown pkg gm Team r quot 1 quot r quot yellow brown mass MampM 1 2 3 4 3 Density Density is de ned and used as a conversion factor Demonstration I introduce density by dropping an ice cube into a beaker containing water and into one containing isopropyl alcohol This discrepant event ice cube sinking in the alcohol leads to questions about the densities of the substances and the liquids and the reason one substance sinks or oats in another Discussion follows on what adjustments are made in density to make hot air balloons rise and divers descend or ascend 4 Temperature Temperature is de ned and the scales used for measuring temperature are described Demonstration To develop the idea of temperature units I have students imagine that we have some unmarked thermometers that need temperature scales We determine reference systems for a Fahrenheit scale and then for a metric scale and mark a line for the freezing points and another line for the boiling points Then we talk about how many units of temperature must be placed between the freezing and boiling lines Compare the size of the F with a C Use the zero points and the degree conversion factor to set up 2 4647570131716 41006 141 PM Page 3 Measurements an equation that converts between F and C This gives students a practical approach to the temperature equation Then I use everyday temperature examples to convert between the two temperature scales Finally we add the Kelvin scale to the group of thermometers with a similar approach to freezing and boiling points Another equation is derived by again comparing the Celsius and Kelvin scales Laboratory Suggestions The suggested experiments are found in the following laboratory manuals Essential Laboratory Manual Laboratory Manual Working Safely in the Lab The laboratory work in the preface may be used to increase the awareness of practicing laboratory safety and waste disposal Students learn the safety rules for working with chemicals and participating in a safe manner when carrying out laboratory procedures The lab includes a safety quiz and a commitment to lab safety to be signed by each student Students learn to identify common laboratory equipment A quiz on identifying equipment and a check in list is included Preparing for Laboratory Work Handling Chemicals Safely Heating Chemicals Safely Waste Disposal Safety Quiz Laboratory Equipment A Visual Guide to Laboratory Equipment List of Equipment for Student Lockers Graphing Experimental Data 11550 Laboratory Skills to Demonstrate Proper attention to safe behavior in the lab Using a sample drawer in the laboratory describe and identify some typical laboratory equipment Lab 1 Measurement and Significant Figures Students measure length mass and volumes of liquids and record values with units A Measuring Length B Measuring Volume C Measuring Mass Laboratory Skills to Demonstrate Describe the units on a metric stick Use of a laboratory balance Give examples of measured and exact numbers Reading a graduated cylinder Writing numbers in scienti c notation 4647570131716 41006 141 PM Page 4 Chapter 1 Lab 2 Conversion Factors in Calculations From length measurements areas are calculated and the volume of a solid is determined Volume displace ment of a matching object compares two methods of volume determination Measurements in metric and US systems are used to produce metriciUS conversion factors for length and volume Students deter mine the mass of objects on a balance and determine conversion factors using mass percent Food products are used to derive a conversion factor for glb and lbkg The counting of signi cant gures in measured numbers and their effect on calculated answers is de ned and studied Students learn to round off calculator answers to the correct number of signi cant gures Rounding Off Signi cant Figures in Calculations Conversion Factors for Length Conversion Factors for Volume Conversion Factors for Mass Percent by Mass LM only NFPOP Laboratory Skills to Demonstrate Describe the units on a metric stick Use of a laboratory balance Give examples of measured and exact numbers Reading a graduated cylinder Techniques of measurement using a balance meter stick and graduated cylinders Review common operations on a calculator Give examples of counting signi cant gures and using them in calculations Review the formulas for calculating area and volume of solids Demonstrate rounding off numbers Lab 3 Density and Specific Gravity The mass and volume of a liquid and a solid are used to calculate density Speci c gravity for the liquids are determined using a hydrometer and compared to the value obtained earlier The relationship between mass and volume of a liquid is graphed The student is taught to prepare a data table label axes with units of measurement apply equal intervals and plot the data points on a graph A Density of a Solid B Density of a Liquid C Speci c Gravity Laboratory Skills to Demonstrate Calculations of density and speci c gravity Reading a hydrometer Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 11 a A hypothesis proposes a possible explanation for a natural phenomenon b An experiment is a procedure that tests the validity of a hypothesis c A theory is a hypothesis that has been validated many times by many scientists d An observation is a description or measurement of a natural phenomenon 12 a Hypothesis b Observation c Experiment d Theory 4647570131716 41006 1quot m 14 16 17 111 112 141 PM Page 5 4 Measurements 1 A change in number of sales is an observation 2 Changing the menu to improve sales is a hypothesis 3 A taste test is an experiment 4 The ratings of the taste test are observations 5 Improvement in sales is an observation 6 Better sales by changing the menu is a theory 1 Observation 2 Hypothesis 3 Experiment 4 Experiment 5 Observation 6 Hypothesis or theory d second time a meter length b gram mass c liter volume e degree Celsius temperature a liter volume kelvin temperature b meter length c kilogrammass d gram mass 5 Move the decimal point left four decimal places to give 55 X 104 m Move the decimal point left two decimal places to give 48 X 102 g Move the decimal point right six decimal places to give 5 X 1076 cm Move the decimal point right four decimal places to give 14 X 1074 s Move the decimal point right three decimal places to give 785 X 1073 L Move the decimal point left six decimal places to give 67 X 105 kg 9 99172 18 gtlt108 g d 15 gtlt10 1m c 75 x 105 g 24 x 10 2 s 5 99 The value 72 x 103 which is also 72 x 102 is greater than 82 x 102 The value 32 X 10 which is also 320 x 10 4 is greater than 45 x 104 The value 1 x 104 or 10 000 is greater than 1 x 10 4 or 00001 The value 68 X 1072 or 0068 is greater than 0000 52 ears 55 x 10 9 b 34 x 102 c 5 x 10 8 d 4 x 10 10 E The standard number is 12 times the power of 104 or 10 000 which gives 12 000 The standard number is 825 times the power of 1072 or 001 which gives 00825 The standard number is 4 times the power of 106 or 1 000 000 which gives 4 000 000 The standard number is 5 times the power of 1073 or 0001 which gives 0005 99 are a 0000 036 b 87 500 c 003 d 212 000 Measured numbers are obtained using some kind of measuring tool Exact numbers are numbers obtained by counting or from a de nition in the metric or the US measuring system a measured b exact c exact d measured a exact b measured c measured d measured Measured numbers are obtained using some kind of measuring tool Exact numbers are numbers obtained by counting or from a de nition in the metric or the US measuring system a The value 6 oz of meat is obtained by measurement whereas 3 hamburgers is a countedexact number 4647570131716 41006 141 PM Page 6 Chapter 1 b None both 1 table and 4 chairs are countedexact numbers c Both 075 lb and 350 g are obtained by measurements d None the values in a de nition are exact numbers 116 a 5 pizzas b 6 nickels c 3 onions d 5 cars 117 a Zeros preceding signi cant digits are nut Signi cant b Zeros between signi cant digits are Signi cant c Zeros after signi cant digits in a decimal number are Signi cant d Zeros in the coef cient of a number written in scienti c notation are Signi cant e Zeros in a number with no decimal point are considered as placeholders only and are nut Signi cant 118 a signi cant b signi cant c not signi cant d not signi cant e signi cant 119 a All ve numbers are signi cant gures b Only the two nonzero numbers are signi cant the preceding zeros are placeholders c Only the two nonzero numbers are signi cant the zeros that follow are placeholders d All three numbers in the coef cient of a number written in scienti c notation are signi cant e All four numbers including the last zero in a decimal number are signi cant f All three numbers including the zeros that follow a nonzero digit in a decimal number are signi cant 120 a 4 SF b SF c SF d 3 SF e 3 SF f 2SF 121 Both measurements in c have two signi cant gures and both measurements in d have four signi cant gures 122 In a and b both pairs have three signi cant gures In d both pairs have two signi cant gures 123 a 5000 is the same as 5 X 1000 which is written in scienti c notation as 5 X 103 b 30 000 is the same as 3 X 10 000 which is written in scienti c notation as 3 X 104 c 100 000 is the same as 1 X 100 000 which is written in scienti c notation as 1 X 105 d 0000 25 is the same as 25 X m which is written in scienti c notation as 25 X 1074 124 a 51 x 106g u 26 x 104s c 40 x 104m d 82 x 10 4 kg 125 Calculators carry out mathematical computations and display answers without any regard to signi cant gures Our task is to round the calculator s answer to the number of signi cant gures allowed by the precision of the original data 126 The whole number would not re ect the precision signi cant gures allowed by the original data without the additional zero 127 a 185 b 184 c 0004 74 d 8810 e 183 128 a 19 b 180 c 00047 d 8800 e 18 129 a 457 X 0034 b 0002 78 X 5 16 001 4647570131716 Measurements e ML e 1 000 000 e 1 milligram 1000 mL 1 g 1000 mg kL dL 41006 141 PM Page 7 3456 27 6 c 125 39 d 0246525 35 178 130 a 400 x 185 7 x 104 b 39 0005 4025 c 0825 X 36 X 51 15 X d w 00055 824 X 200 131 a 4548 cm 8057 cm 5354 cm b 2345 g 1041 g 0025 g 1276 g c 145675 mL 7 242 mL 1215 mL d 108 L 7 0585 L 050L 132 a 508 g 251 g 302 g b 8566 cm 10410 cm 0025 cm 18979 cm c 24568 mL 7 1425 mL 1032 mL d 02654 L 7 02585 L 00069 L 133 The kmhr markings indicate how many kilometers how much distance will be traversed in 1 hour s time if the speed is held constant The mph markings indicate the same distance traversed but measured in miles during the 1 hour of travel 1 34 801311 100031 394in 1ft 1mi 50 h hr km 11m 12m 5280amp mp You are not exceeding the 55 mph speed limit if your speedometer reads 80 kph 135 Because the pre x kiln means one thousand times a kilagram is equal to 1000 grams 136 Because the pre x centi means one hundredth a centimeter is one hundredth of a meter 137 a mg b dL c km d kg 138 a centimeter b kilogram c deciliter d gigameter e microgram 139 a 001 b 1000 c 0001 d 01 140 a 10 decigram b 1 microgram c 1 kilogram d 1 centigram 141 a 100 cm b 1000m c 0001m d 142 a 1 kg 1000 g b 1mL 0001 L c 1 g 0001 kg d 143 a kilogram b milliliter c km d 144 a mg b millimeter c um d l m 100 cm 145 Because a conversion factor is unchanged when inverted and 100 cm 1 m 77 4647570131716 41006 141 PM Page 8 Chapter 1 146 Verify that the units cancel when the conversion factors are applied 147 1kg 1000 g 148 1m 100 cm 1 d 3 ft 149 a1yd3 y and 3 m 1 yd b 1 mi 5280 ft 1 11 an 5280 ft 5280 ft 1 m1 1 min 60 s 1 i 60 c mm s 60 s 1 min 1 al 27 d 1 gal 27 mi g an mi 27 m1 1 gal 93 g silver 100 g sterling 100 t 1 3 1 e g s er 111g 9 g 51 var 100 g sterling an 93 g silver 1 gal 4 qt 150 a 1 gal 4 qt 4 qt 1 gal 1 lb 129 b 1 lb 12 9 129 1 1b 1 k 7 7 d 1 week 7 day Q wee ays 7 day 1 week 1 4 quarters d 1 4 an qu em 4 quarters 1 58 g gold 100 g alloy 100 11 58 1d e g a W g 0quot 100 g alloy 58 g gold 151 Learning the relationships between the metric pre xes will help you write the following equalities and their resulting conversion factors 1m 100 cm a 1m 71000111 100cm a 1m 1 g 1000 mg b 1 g 1000 mg and 1000 mg 1g 1L 7 1000 mL L M c 7 1000 mL 1L d 1 dL 100mL ML 100mL 100mL ML 152 a 1 m 254 cm 111139 an 2540111 254 cm 1m b 1k 7220113 1kg 23920 39 g 39 2201 a 1kg 11b 454 g 1 1b 454 c g 4548 an 11b 1 t 46 L d 1 qt 946 mL 1 9 m 946mL an 1qt 4647570131716 41006 156 141 PM Page 9 4 Measurements When using a conversion factor you are trying to cancel existing units and arrive at a new desired unit The conversion factor must be properly oriented so that unit cancellation numerator to denomi nator can be accomplished The new desired unit should be in the numerator of the conversion factor a Plan cm gtm 1 m 1009111 Plan mL gtL 175m X 175m 9 n E g W in l on 1000g 1kg 00055 kg x a Plan mg gt g g X 800mg 1000mg b Plan dL gtmL 100 mL 08g 0854 X 85 mL 0 Plan mg gtg 2840mg x 284 g g 1000 mg a Plan qt gt mL 1 Z 106 qt b Plan lb gt kg 1000 mL 1 Z 07504115 x x 710 mL 14015 1 c Plan in gtcm gtmm 2549111 10mm 1141 19111 d Plan Mm gtm gtcm gtin Otsm X 131 1009111 106m Inf 1 kg 22015 118mx 751kg 195in gtlt 495 mm lin 20 x 10 5 in 2541311 454 a 4021xgx g 110g 1621 1115 1 qt X 1L pr 106qt c 1200001111 X 1000 mL X 1L b 50pf X 2400 mL 190 000 km 06214 m i 4647570131716 41006 141 PM Page 10 Chapter 1 106q39f X 1 gal 116 4q f 185 gal 122 gal 63 gal 46016 x 122 gal 159 a Plan ft gtin gtcm gtm 1231 2549111 1m 780ftX X lit 11117 1009111 Planft gtin gtcm gtm gtm2 27390 xl21 1 fx25491 1m lft 11117 1009111 Area 238m x 823m 196 m2 c Planm gtkm gthr gtmin gts 119111 1hr 60min 60s X X X 1000111 18512111 11a1lt 1m 238 m length 9 823 m width 238111 gtlt 0463 s 160 a 914m b 41m c 27s 161 a Plan L gt qt gt gal 106 1 a1 2502x qfxi 66gal 12 4qf b Plan g gtmg gt tablet 1000mg 1 tablet 1g 8mg c Plan lb gt g gt kg gt mg ampicillin 454g 1 kg 115 mg ampicillin 3 34lb bedywei h39fX X X 18gtlt10 g 1115 1000g 1W mg 24M 10wa 1000mg X 1tablet 0024g X 3 tablets 162 1dayx X 8tablt a lday 6hr 1g 500mg es 1W 2201b b425m39gX X 1871b 500mg 1kg 1 1 L 032511qu g m 065mL 1000 mg 050 g 163 Each of the following require a percent factor from the problem information a Plan g crust gt g oxygen percent equality 1000 g crust 467 g oxygen 467 g oxygen g ertl X 325 s 1000gaeru sf b Plan g crust gt g magnesium percent equality 1000 g crust 21 g magnesium 152 g oxygen 125g eru sf X W 0026 g magnesium 1000 g erusf c Plan 02 gt lb gt g gt g nitrogen percent equality 1000 g fertilizer 15 g nitrogen 1009z ferti39l fef X g X E X M 43 gnitrogen 16 101 1 lb 1000 g fertilim 4647570131716 41006 141 PM Page 11 Measurements d Plan kg pecans gt kg choc bars gt lb percent equality 1000 kg bars 220 kg pecans 100kgchoc bars X 2201b 220 kg peca 1 kg 165 a 0045 kg b 2530 g c 29 g bercake d 40 oz 50 kg peca l X 50 lb chocolate bars 165 Because the density of aluminum is 270 gcm3 silver is 105 gcm3 and lead is 113 gcm3 we can identify the unknown metal by calculating its density as follows 217 g metal 19 2 3 a1 113 gcm3 The metal is lead cm met 166 The volume of a cube 20 cm on each edge is calculated as follows 20 cm3 x 1 mLl cm3 80 mL Both cubes have the same volume but their masses differ A cube will displace its volume when submerged in water so the nal volume reading in each graduated cylinder is 400 mL water 80 mL metal 480 mL total volume 167 Density is the mass of a substance divided by its volume The densities of solids and liquids are usu ally stated in gml or gcm3 mass grams D t en y Volume mL 240 a 200 mL 0250115 X 454g 0873 g 130 mL 1115 mL volume of gem 345 mL total 7 200 mL water 145 mL 120 gmL 9 P 145 1 qt 115 1000 mL X x 2 1911115 106 qt 115 mass ofsyrup 18248 g 11525 g 6723 g 6 23 g 473 mL density of gem 310 gmL d 0100pinf X 473 mL density of syrup 142 gmL 168 a 1220 g3500 mL 035 gmL b 155 g125 mL 124 gmL c 5025 g500 mL 101 gmL d 140 g10 000 mL 0014 gmL 169 ISWX 1m xi 19L a 39 0 1M 079g 1000m1 39 11 65131 x13396g 88 39 1 m1 g 2251aedsgtlt gtltgxl6OZ c 1m 454g 115 62 oz 11 4647570131716 41006 141 PM Page 12 Chapter 1 4qf 1000125 066g 1kg d120 gtlt gtlt gtlt 30k 31 18m 106qf lma 1000g g 170 356 xlmL 339 L l tal a g lotsg m s1verme 180 mL water 339 mL silver 214mL total volume 451i 116 X M 10g 1 1b b35 gtlt gtlt X X 201b 61 lgl 106qf 12 lm39l 454g 9 c 821mL d 0904 kg 1030 gm39II 171 a 1030 l00gmEHzO b 450 g 113 gAnf 400 mL 100gAirEHZO c 085 oil sp gr X 100 gmL H20 density 085 gmL oil density 113 172 a 102 sp gr X 100 gmL H20 density 102 gmL density of solution 500W X 102 gl 3611 510 g solution b 0850 sp gr X 100 gmL H20 density 0850 gmL l L 325W x Wmm 382 mL solution 10 0 g H20 density 086 gmL density of butter m P 086 sp gr of butter X 1 lOOOmE X 086gbutter L brute X 215 r 12 1 1800 g butter 173 The Fahrenheit temperature scale is still used in the United States A normal body temperature is 986 F on this scale To convert her temperature to the equivalent reading on the Celsius scale the following calculation must be performed 998 F 32 377 C 32 is exact Because a normal body temperature is 370 on the Celsius scale her temperature of 377 C would be a mild fever 174 Because Mexico uses the Celsius temperature scale he is accustomed to setting the oven s temperature in Celsius degrees I would advise him that ovens in the United States are calibrated in Fahrenheit degrees and that we determine the equivalent of 175 C on the Fahrenheit scale as follows 18 175 C 32 347 F We would then set the oven to 350 F and watch the cooking time carefully 175 a 18 370 C 32 666 32 986 F 653 F 32 333 b g 185 C 18 is exact 18 18 c 27 C 273 246 K d 62 C 273 335K e11413 32g460C 18 18 4647570131716 41006 141 PM Page 13 Measurements 72 F 32 40 39 o o f 1398 1398 22 C 22 C 273 295K 176 a 18 25 C 32 45 32 77 F b 18 155 C 32 279 32 311 F c M 57 320C 18 18 d 224K 273 49 C e 545 K 273 295 C f 875 K 273 602 C 18 602 C 32 1080 32 1110 F 106 F 32 74 O 177 a 1398 1398 41 C 103 F 32 71 O h 18 18 39 C No there is no need to phone the doctor The child s temperature is less than 400 C 145 F 32 11 178 a 628 C 18 ls exact 18 18 18 206 C 32 371 32 691 F 32 is exact g 179 Yes Sherlock s investigation includes observations gathering data formulating a hypothesis test ing the hypothesis and modifying it until one of the hypotheses is validated 180 Sherlock meant that you should not propose a theory until you have data from experiments and observations The number of legs is a counted number it is exact The height is measured with a ruler or tape measure it is a measured number The number of chairs is a counted number it is exact The area is measured with a ruler or tape measure it is a measured number 99 are 182 Length is 37 cm the 7 is the estimated digit Length is 250 cm the 0 is the estimated digit Length is 410 cm the 0 is the estimated digit para length 696 cm width 475 cm length 696 mm width 475 mm There are three signi cant gures in the length measurement There are three signi cant gures in the width measurement 333 cm2 Since there are three signi cant gures in the width and length measurements there are three sig ni cant gures in the area hepps7 This is cube C since C has sunk to the bottom This is cube D since D is oating about one third out of the water This is cube A since A is oating about one half out of the water This is cube B since B is oating just at the surface of the water 99 9 185 The volume of the object is 231 mL 7 185 mL 46 mL The mass is 824 g and the density is 824 g 6 18 gmL 4 mL 13 8 4647570131716 41006 141 PM Page 14 Chapter 1 186 A would be gold it has the highest density and the smallest volume B would be silver its density is intermediate and the volume is intermediate C would be aluminum it has the lowest density and the largest volume 187 A hypothesis which is a possible explanation for an observation can be tested with experiments 188 Experimentation is used to test and verify a hypothesis 189 b Another hypothesis needs to be written when experimental results do not support the previous hypothesis c More experiments are needed for a new hypothesis Determination of a melting point with a thermometer is an observation Describing a reason for the extinction of dinosaurs is a hypothesis or theory Measuring the speed of a race is an observation PF observation observation hypothesis or theory or 193 This problem requires several conversion factors Let s take a look first at a possible unit plan When you write out the unit plan be sure you know a conversion factor you can use for each step Plan ft gt in gtcm gtm gtmin 7500 fgtlt121rr1gtlt 2549111 131 X 1mm 1 ff 1 m 100 9111 55031 42 min 194 a 22 kg salmon 55 kg crab 348 kg oysters 31 kg seafood 220 lb b 31 kg seafood total gtlt 68 lb 195 Plan lb gt g gt onions 454 1 40mm x g x L 16 onions 1 lb 115 W Because the number of onion is a counting number the value for onions 158 is rounded to a whole number 16 115 lkg 196 1420 gtlt gtlt 175 22015 4 X102kg 197 a Plan 02 gt crackers 8051 X 6 craCkers 96 crackers 050 M b Plan crackers gt servings gt g gt lb gt 02 lservirg 4gfat ngwoz 6 craeke l sewing 454 g 1 lb c Plan boxes gt oz gt servings gt mg gt g 80 1 140 mg sodium 1 g 119039 050 X lservi39ng X 1000na g lOcraeke X 02 oz fat 50mgtlt 110 g sodium 4647570131716 41006 141 PM Page 15 Measurements qu lgal gtlt 198 75000mfgtlt946mf 4qf 20 gal 199 Plan lb gt kg gt pesos gt dollar gt cents 1kg gtlt4813691 gtlt lderl39laf gtlt100cents 220 lb 1 kg 108 pest 1 dollar Because the calculation is for a counted number of cents the value 907 is rounded to 91 150 oz prote 1 H5 454 gtlt X g 34gprotein 1000 oz burg 16 M 1 115 Yes the hamburger contains 34 g protein which is 10 grams more than she is allowed To stay within her diet Celeste could only have a 56 02 burger as shown by the following calculation 1 115 16 n 1000 oz burger 24g prote i X X 56 b n 454g in 150w OZ Inger This one burger would use her entire day s allowance of protein 045115 X 91 cents 1100 80 92 19ng X 40 1 lb 1 kg 250 kg sunscreen 11151135 16131 220115 lOOkg ere a 1101 325 X 092 kg 1102 4425 mL total 7 3252 mL water 1173 mL object 315oiobject X 1145 X 454g 0761 mL 1173mL object 16 m 115 39 g 1103 This problem has two units Convert g to mg and convertL in the denominator to dL 185 1000 4 X mg X 114 185 mgdL 115 1g 10 dL 1104 960 L 1105 The difference between the initial volume of the water and its volume with the lead object will give us the volume of the lead object 285 mL total 7 215 mL water 70 mL lead Using the density of lead we can convert mL to the mass in grams of the lead object 113 g lead 1 mlrlea 70 X 790 g lead lcmSiron X lmL 786 ME 1 91113 191113 lead lmL 200g4ca X 177le d 113 191113 ea 155 mL water 191 mL iron 177 mL lead 159 mL total volume 1106 150 g rt gtlt 191 mL iron 1107 Plan L gas gtmL gas gt g gas gt g oil gtmL oil gt cm3 oil 1000mkgasx066gga 1m lmfoilxlcm3 100 x 720 3 1 L39gag 114g lm lrgas 1 092m ima cm 01 1108 Plankg gtg gtmL gtL gtqt 1000 1m 1 hl 12 106 t 150m x g a 0 x q 202 qt alcohol X 1kg 0785 g alco l l 1000131 1 Z 15 9


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