Notes on Judaism
Notes on Judaism JSIS C 201
Popular in Introduction to World Religions: Western Traditions
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This 13 page Reader was uploaded by Andrea Nathania on Friday November 21, 2014. The Reader belongs to JSIS C 201 at University of Washington taught by James Wellman in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 228 views. For similar materials see Introduction to World Religions: Western Traditions in International Studies at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 11/21/14
09302014 Theory is simply crossing boundaries it is the ladder or the mechanism or the bridge upon which we cross boundaries Monotheistic religions Judaism Christianity and Islam ID Terms torah essential definition classic rabbinicjudaism abraham exodus promised land sacrifice in the temple after 70 ce in Jewish life Judaism Scripture and Tradition Texts are preserved by human memory They are collected over them in a community of like minded authorities authorizing a way of life They become tradition gt handed down traditions can die gt lose meaning also revived Scriptures are organized into canons which are closed by decision of group Classic texts continue to be meaningful throughout a history of interpretation gt creating an excess of meaning Ancient Israel 2000 6th c bce We don39t know what happened before this Story of Abraham obedient to God was recorded in 6th or 5th century bce Judaism thrives through historical imagination Hebrew Bible Torah gt teaching first 5 books means aw gtcoud refer to a tradition could be oral or written Nevi im gt Prophets 19 Ketuvim gt Writings 12 Torah gt evidence The first Jew was a monotheist Abram smashes his father39s idols gt YHWH told Abraham to leave home and head south idolatry gt putting anything above God First independent mention of israel Claim no major conquest of the Canaanites not impossible that Hebrews were enslaved in Egypt or that one rose to power or that a group escaped gt just because it s in the Bible does not mean it s wrong Exodus Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt and into the promised land 10th Century national cult a tribe that identifies with its leaders and Kings gtDavid and Solomon 922 Northern and Southern Kingdoms separate Israel the North and Judah the South 722 Asyrians conquer Northern Kingdom of Israel Southern Kingdom ofJudah survives Josiah comes along in the 7th century bce to redeem the nation finds scro Book of Deuteronomy Josiah destroyed all the places Torah gt 4 diff authors JEPD J uses YHWH for God sometimes identified as a woman identifies with Jacob Patriarchs sceptical about wisdom of Patriarch Gen amp Exodus E calls God Elohim thought to be a Levite priest focuses on Moses and the Exodus covenant 10 commandments most concerned with ritual and law Gen amp Exodus P is the Priestly author Gen amp Ex amp Lev amp Num rituals and laws D is the Deuteronomist completes the story of Moses and the end of the wanderings of the Israelites Deut gt found by King Josiah gt ifthen logic Early Judaism 6bce 70 ce Babylonian Exile gt taste of the future Diaspora gt people without a land 70 ce is when the Romans destroyed the temple and killed Jeremiah sets the stage ofJewish success in diasporas lands Diaspora gt scattering of the Jews How did the jews sacrifice without the temple gt by reading the torah gt sacrifice of the heart by meditation upon the Word of God Repentance gt turn around turn back to God 1022014 Where does ritual and religion come from Humans developed ritual and reiigion as a function of play gt once people have enough luxury basic like food and water they begin to play and human creativity is a function of play Do religion and play come from the same place Extra Credit Tradition Eras of the Jewish Scripture Hellenistic period 323 63 bce Esther Ruth Job Ecc Daniel Torah translated into Greek Egyptian Jews Septuagint Canon of Nevi im in collection Torah and Nevi im collected as authentic scripture Roman period Rabbinic gt earlyjudaism 63 320 ce Rabbinic s define Jewish Canon Rabbinic s claim exclusive legitimacy defining meaning of scripture Septuagint abandoned by Jews basis of Christian OT Classical Judaism Rabbinic period 701776 ce Roman rulers of Palestine were incredibly harsh and brutal Romans also created and fanned internecine Jewish conflict the Sadduccees priest of the temple allied with the Roman crown Before Herod Jannaeus had crucified 2000 Pharisees their wives and children left many to rot onthe cross Crucifixion common punishment death by torture in an efficient way there39s no need for presence of the torturer Romans were cruel Pilate was extremely cruel replaced temple statues with Roman idols confiscated temple funds Jewish population was almost destroyed in Palestine 132 bar Kochba revolt Rabbi is teacherleader of sage but not priest rabbinism Pharisees were lay people not priests tried to reform the Practice ofJudaism Torah Bigger than simple Hebrew Bible the entire tradition that whch is handed down Dual torah Oral n written oral recorded in talmud combining mishnah and gemara interpretive torah the coming writings of the sages and rabbis Hillel More Torah gt more life wisdom counsel discernment charity peace don39t separate yourself from the community trust not in yourself until you die judge not our fellow man until you have come to his place Ifi am not for my self who will be for me if i am only for myself what am i and if not now when destroy a soil gt destroy an entire world save a life gt save an entire world more moderate than his contemporary Shammai Rabbi Akiva 50 bce to 135 ce canon translation into greek n aramaic early version of the mishnah life spent translating torah into everyday life codified the leniency of hillel allowing for the foibles of everyday people wo sacrificing the majority of the law Rome killd lots ofjews and captured akiva flayed the skin with hot iron rod oral torah gt interpretation of original revelation from God by teachers and sages traditions halakhah and aggadah legal ritual amp history theology Transmission midrash explaining biblical verse mishnah wo reference to biblical verse talmud analysis of halakhic only Tamud gt transcends torah fulfills it expands and brings it to its full potential 1 argue with God Abe Jacob Moses 2 the law is process not fact emerges at the living edge of experience reinterpret the scripture fortoday torah was given to humanity at sinai gt all we need is in it provided we understand it our minds ar granted the power to do that Monotheism and Jewish Religious thought One God Messianism Modern Adaptations ofJewish Religious Thought Who is God Has God changed Where does monotheism come from Why not poweressences Is polytheism more primitivemore advanced more or less efficient one God is efficient simple and straightforward one God gives all the benefits no need to seek multiple sources one God that gives infinite rewards one God demands complete loyalty God as a responsive agent JCI n H God as responsive being conscious supernatural beings miracles intervenes promises rewards GreeksRoman gods don t care gt Arisotle said that gods have no concerns for humans aseity gt indifference to human destiny Dualistic Monotheism JCI gt in addition to a supreme divine existence there also exists at least one evil less powerful supernatural being Christianity gt Satan sowers of discourse one the 7th layer of hell dante s inferno Muslim gt spirit of evil iblis was a jinn made by smokeless fire by God humans made of clay ibis disobeyed Allah due to envy and was expelled from the grace of allah judaism gt Satan tempted Job but not active like in Christianity sin is result of human choice for Christians sin is a function of the human fall gt corrupted human disposition Predecessors to monotheism Pharaoh Amenhotep IV Aten sun God monotheisms unite and divide 9 Egyptian experiment did not last priests for other gods lost their jobs gt going against God became treason religion monotheism most often partners with political power of state Abe Lincoln I don39t pray that God is on our side I pray that we39re on God39s side Henotheism gt single High God wo rejecting other less powerful gods Jewish monotheism uniqueness of God the creator mediation between God and humankind Torah disruption of relationship gt human disobedience Redemption gt messiah gt anointed one Unique relationship God creator revealer of Torah redeemer of Israel Trilogy gt God torah israel no incarnation or apotheosis omniscient and omnipotent creator and providential creates natural orderintervenes God is free to choose what is just gt human is made in God39s image spirit and matter gt unitary consciousness and the power to choose Jewish God is transcendent and immanent above below across and in the world Jews are chosen as Gods people Covenant gt mt sinai moses 10 commandments Messsianism gt anointed with oil to fulfill a divinely appointed destiny presiding priest david is the archetype of the messiah flexibility gt restore kingdom to israel redeem the world bring jews back to palestine preside over the resurrection of the dead inaugurate the kingdom of God the end of the world 1032014 Rabbinic 1 Written Torah 2 Oral Torah only in rabbinic gtineage 3 Lived 1072014 Jewish Monotheism Two issues 1 Uniqueness of God as Creator the mediation between this God and humankind the Torah the disruption of the relationship human disobedience gt how do you overcome the separation 2 And the way of redemption the figure of the messiah the anointed one To what extent is God immanent in Judaism Christianity John 11 In the beginning was the word and the word was God and the word was with God Word logos gt flesh Extra Credit Why does God choose the Jews according to the Bible The chosen ness of Israel is for the sake of the world to be a light to the nations Israel always disobeys God gt idolatry etc Zionism was originally a secular movement whose purpose was to restore Israel Rabbinic Criteria for Messiah 1 David39s lineage 2 signs of Kingdom gt peace miracles healing 3 Full knowledge of the written and oral Torah 4 But rabbis reject Jesus for misinterpretation of the Torah Diaspora Messianism and Persecution Zvi charismatic figure celebrate all of the Jewish holidays at once Zvi announced himself as a messiah jailed by the Ottoman Sultan Muslim prince for disturbing peace gt converted to Islam in pnson Enlightenment Cultural Revolution Think for yourself test everything Religious authorities decline Spread of power to local groups in part because of the invention of the printing press the translation of Scriptre into vernacular emergence of empirical and historical sciences Development of capitalist economies Disintegration of political absolutism Development of the nation state Spread of human rights democracy Secular responses Zionism gt secular push to free Jews from traditional religious structures push for political freedom in 1904 Viennese Jew Theodore Herzl advocate for Jewish national rights in Ottoman Palestine Ket event gt Dreyfus affair 1894 in Fr wrongful conviction for treason alleged passing of military secrets of Captain Dreyfus young jewish artillery officer Jews were shocked at the degree and intensity of anti Semitism Herzl went from anti zionist to pro zionist because of this incident Religious responses Denominationalism Reform Orthodox Conservative God gt moral conscience unites human race Torah gt srae s discovery of moral conscience Israel gt Choseness is about moral purpose Mitzvot commandment Torah laws gt Ethical reflection on laws Messiah gt unification of humankind under liberal nationalism Process theology Science religion God are mirrors of one another Science and religion is not in conflict with one another Authority Ritual and Liturgical Life prophets 2000 6th century bce problem w israel gt disobedient all the time priests rabbk rituals Moses performs miracles liberated and created a nation gives torah gt gives blessings curses promises talks God out of his wrath and punishment National cult tribe that identified with Kings David and Solomon ruled between 1000 922 bce David39s kingship inspires the hope of a Messiah 922 Northern and Southern Kingdoms separate Israel and Judah 722 Assyrians conquer Northern Kingdom Judah remains till 586 Babylonians conquer and destroy the temple Early Judaism 6th Century to 70 ce a nation as a Liturgical Community of Priests Return from exile in 536 Temple rebuilt Levitical religion classical judaism Rabbinic period 701776 ce rabbi is the teacher or sage gt emerged from Pharisees pharisees were lay people not priests Reformed Judaism Philosophical torah and sage as philosopher parallels hellenistic culture Jewish philosopher philo of alexandria gtbibica image of Moses as sagephilosopher sage shapes public policy according to halakhic norms hasidism from the 18th century form of rabbinism initially rejected moses maimonides social formation liturgy and life stages worship history and the jews early Jewsih Worship centered on the daily sacrifice at the Temple vs Rabbinism Synagogue substitutes for Temple no mention of synagogues in the Bible Worship quorum of 10 needed to constitute a symbolic representation of the people communal vs indiv focus Rise of the synagogue first synagogue in the 3rd cent bce egypt synagogues come into their own following the fall of the 2nd temple hard to tell the difference with early Christian churches 1092014 Patterns ofJewish Liturgical Life Rabbinic Judaism worship framework established early worship framework that remains through present period Morning and Evening prayer replace sacrifice central prater 19 blessings Amidah Blessings detailing God39s attributes Hope for religious and national restoration Deut 6 gt Shema Hear O Israel the Lord Your God is One Affirmation of faith Akiva Deut 18 Tefiin put on arm and hand Boxes with verses make fringes on borders of garment prayer shawl participate on all forms of Jewish prayer Bindingforeheadarms Language gt Hebrew up until 19th century Lunar soar calendar Jewish months lunar 29 days every once in a while a leap year adding month 354364 solar yeaer named after babylonian names holidays always on lunar month gt passover 15th day of lunar month nissan rosh hashanah new year first or second day of tishrei yom kippur day of atonement 10th day of tishrei they have their own days based on Creation Shabbat means to cease or to sit shavat in hebrew sabbath commandment number 4 Exodus 208 11 Jewish law39s definition defines a day as ending at dusk and nightfall which is when the next day then begins Shabbat begins before sundown Friday night and ends at after nightfall Saturday night can39t work gt conflict with Christians about Sabbath LEGALISM New Year Cycle Summer ending fall beginning Rosh Hashanah SeptOct Sukkot gt remembrance of 40 years of wandering in the desert after the exodus Passover gt liberation from Egypt Seder meal on first night eating unleavened bread Hannukah gt festival of lights means dedication miracle of the oi gt rededication of the temple Birth circumcision removal of foreskin on 8th day of life marks Abrahamic covenant Jer 44 The son enters to life of Torah family and ethics through this circumcision Rite of puberty Bar mitzvah usually around 13 Son or daughter of the commandment one to whom the commandments apply Become entirely responsible for following the law of the Torah first appears in the Talmud 1st century ce Marriage act of sanctification ketuvah Wotmesses 2 male jews observers of the commandment Rabbis recite a verse Psalm 118226 Blessed all who are here sanctification ritual drink from a cup of vine a benediction to praise God for the canopy sanctification groom gives ring Breaking of the glass by the man as a remembrance of the fall of the temple to remember Jerusalem ritual for dying recitation of the Shema laws of mourning gt 7 days relatives father mother spouse brother sister children obligated to mourn a kaddish done at burial sanctification of God39s nam on sabbath and festivals no mourning Conversion non jew can become jew gt enter covenant of Abraham begin a new life Rabbinic changes from male to female lineage conversion preceded by study of religion interviewed by 3 rabbi knowledge of judaism circumcision or a drop of blood from penis immersion in a mikvah bath affects ritual purity Mysticism defined special immediate knowledge transcendental experience one knows something not by 5 senses by intuitionsubjective apprehension of widerdeeper reality strong emphasis on experiential element in knowing knowledge by acquaintance or by description Problems defining mysticism gt ultimate reality appears to not be a single object classic debate between transcultural mystical experience as opposed experience based on human tradition not all seek union with divine other or essence not all seek communion or relation to a god or spirit but sometimes communion with nature Buddhism gtno god no union no communion but a period of enlightenment Judaism and mysticism extra rational experience of mysticism mainly absent from Jewish Biblical literature later generations look back on Moses burning bush Jacob ladder to heaven as types of mystical experience parts of rabbinism Throne mysticism ezekiel chap 1 Extra credit tell about conversion religious or not Twelfth century Rabbi Eliezer ben Judah Throne mystics qualified immanence arguing that no one could approach God but only as God manifested God39s self the divine Shekinah Repair of the Godhead light and darkness are not opposites but mirror images separated because of disobedience when repaired work together God depends on human to repair Godhead Human initiative in Divine Fulfillment Human s obligation to trace alter these powers before sin disobedience divine realm in harmony vs restoration of Israel to its land original harmony restored immediate knowledge to God is restored vs a return to sacrifice in Temple Restoration for Kabbalists is not political but internal the following of halakah under the guidance of rabbinic authorities will restore the world inner and outer Ethical monotheism set standard of what is good and what is evil for all timeall places monotheistic religions create the idea one standard one system of good and evil one God one revealed truth Jewish Ethics halakhah gtcutivation of character in the community of the faithful commandments and moral life talmudic tradition has 613 covenantal commandments mitzvot 248 positive commandments that are positive corresponds to the number of organs in one s body one s obedience tied to body health 365 negative commandments corresponds to the number of days in a year Extra credit 730pm kane 110 guest speaker within Judaism there is always a separation between the I and Thou Jewish Contemporary Ethical Thinking Emmanuel Levinas 19051996 European philosophical thinker derives the primacy of his ethics from the encounter with the Other The irreducible relation the epiphany of the face to face The Other reveals himself in his alterity not in a shock negating the I but as the primordial phenomenon of gentleness the revelation of the face makes a demand to recognize the subjectivity and otherness of this one Ethics of responsibility Religion and Political Order State defined legitimized coercion law culture and politics shape behavior and beliefs of individuals and groups Religion creates social and symbolic boundaries that are based on worldviews that consecrate these boundaries boundaries sometimes in tension with state sometimes cooperating religion and political coming together is dangerous but powerful Judaism and the state religion of exile gt sustains itself against colonizing empires Greek Roman Christian Islamic and only in 1948 state arises up to 70 ce the temple focused the political order around the priests rome tolerates Jews allows for their ritual practices but Rome puts down the Jewish rebellions in 70132 rabbinic period Jewish diaspora sephardic tradition Iberian peninsula spain and portugal ashkenasic tradition in france and ctrl and eastern europe Jews in diaspora first century they develop systems of sef rue led by patriarchs mediate between jewish and roman authorities rabbi judah the patriarch compiler of the mishnah living disconfirmations of Christian claims accused by some as Christ killers Emperor Justinian in 6th century code of civil law protects Jews lives and properties but limits social economics and religious freedoms gt rebellious people Mesopotamia conquered by islam they want to convert them Jews in 20th century Zionism led by Theodore Herzl a secularjew with resistance from orthodox pushed for political land and freedom rejects the idea that the hatred of the Jews is a fact of history or that their political isolaton is consequence of their disobedience toward God post wwi humiliating peace treaty for germany gt rise of national socialist party gt scapegoating jews post wwii British push for a designated homeland for the jews consequences on judaism ofjewish state cultural ramifications no civil marriage in modern israel marriage only by religious institutions in israel controlled by the orthodox Chief Rabbinate also puts restrictions on who can convert struggle in israel between religiousjews Anti Judaism Definition Antipathy towards Judaism as a debased false or socially harmful religion Arch of Titus built to celebrate the destruction of the second temple Primary Historical Expressions Pauline Theology Early church as New Israel Emperor cult of Roman Imperial Religion James Carroll Jews accounted for 10 of the total population of the Roman Empire By that ratio if other factors such as pogroms and conversions had not intervened there would be 200 million Jews in the world today instead of something like 13 million Augustinian Theology of Roman Catholicism the hebrew bible carried the prophecies of Christ Christian point to Jewish text and say see even our enemies attest to the prophecies the Jews have the mind of Cain jealous killers Christians have the mind of Abel innocents Nonetheless Jews remain under God39s safeguard Rebellious but they continue as witnesses to the law Anti semitism definition The ills of the modern world are all due to the conspirational designs of international jewish power brokers who hope to enslave the world to the jews functions like a religion comprehensice pic of the world moral guide for action solidarity Musim jew conflict not brought up with stories ofJewish deicide qur an says that idea of killing Christ is blasphemous muhammad did not claim to be son of god or messiah only a prophet they saw conflict between muhammad and the jews as something of minor importance in muhammad s career
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