English Composition II
English Composition II ENGL 1102
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FormalismNew CriticismNeo Aristoteliansim Typical questions How does the work use imagery to develop its own symbols ie making a certain road stand for death by constant association What is the quality ofthe work39s organic unity quotthe working together of all the parts to make an inseparable wholequot Tyson 121 In other words does how the work is put together reflect what it is How are the various parts ofthe work interconnected How do paradox irony ambiguity and tension work in the text How do these arts and their collective whole contribute to or not contribute to t e aesthetic quality ofthe work How does the author resolve apparent contradictions within the work What does the form ofthe work sa about its content Is there a central orfocal passage that can be said to sum up the entirety ofthe work How do the rhythms andor rhyme schemes of a poem contribute to the meaning or e ect ofthe piece Russian Formalism Victor Shklovsky Roman Jakobson Victor Erlich Russian Formalism History Doctrine 1955 Yuri Tynya nov New Criticism John Crowe Ransom The New Criticism 1938 LA Richards William Empson TS Eliot Allen Tate Cleanth Brooks NeoAristoteliansim Chicago School ofCriticism RS Crane Critics and CriticismAncient and Modern 1952 Elder Olson Norman Maclean WR Keast Wayne C Booth The Rhetoric of Fiction 1961 Psychoanalytic FreudLacan How do the operations of repression structure or inform the work Are there any oedipal dynamics or any other family dynamics are work here How can characters39 behavior narrative events andor ima es be explained in terms of psychoanalytic concepts of any kind or examplefear orfascination with death sexuality which includes love and romance as well as sexual behavior as a primary indicator of psychological identity or the operations of egoid superego What does the work suggest about the psychological being of its author What might a given interpretation of a literary work suggest about the psychological motives of the reader Are there prominent words in the piece that could have different or hidden meanings Could there be a subconscious reason for the author using these quotproblem wordsquot Psychoanalytic FreudLacan Harold Bloom A Theory of Poetry 1973 Poetry and Repression Revisionism from Blake to Stevens 1976 Peter Brooks Jacque Lacan The Ego in Freud39s Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis 1988 quotThe Agency of the Letter in the Unconscious or Reason Since Freudquot from Ecrits A Selection 1957 Jane Gallop Reading Lacan 1985 Julia Kristeva Revolution in Poetic Language 1984 Marshall Alcorn Changing the Subject in English Class Discourse and the Constructions of Desire 2002 Psychoanalytic Jung What connections can we make between elements ofthe text and the archetypes Mask Shadow Anima Animus How do the characters in the text mirror the archetypal figures Great Mother or nurturing Mother Whore destroying Crone Lover Destroying Angel How does the text mirror the archetypal narrative patterns Quest NightSeaJourney How symbolic is the imagery in the work How does the prota onist reflect the hero of myth Does the hero em ark on ajourney in either a physical or spiritual sense Is there a 39ourney to an underworld or land ofthe dead What trials or ordeals does the protagonist face What is the reward for overcoming them Psychoanalytic Jung Maud Bodkin Archetypal Patterns in Poetry 1934 Carl Jung The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious Vol 9 Part 1 of Collected Works 2nd edTrans RFC Hull 1968 Bettina Knapp Music Archetype and the Writer A Jungian View 1988 Ricahrd Sugg Jungian Literary Criticism 1993 Marxist Whom does it benefit ifthe work or effort is acceptedsuccessfulbelieved etc What is the social class ofthe author Which class does the work claim to represent What values does it reinforce What values does it subvert What conflict can be seen between the values the work champions and those it portrays What social classes do the characters represent How do characters from different classes interact or conflict Marxist Karl Marx with Friedrich Engels The Communist Manifesto 1848 Das Kapital 1867 quotConsciousness Derived from Material Conditionsquot from The German Ideology 1932 quotOn Greek Art in Its Timequot from A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy 1859 Leon Trotsky quotLiterature and Revolutionquot 1923 Georg Lukacs quotThe Ideology of Modernismquot 1956 Walter Benjamin quotThe Work ofArt in the Age of Mechanical Reproductionquot 1936 TheodorW Adorno Louis Althusser Reading Capital 1965 Terry Eagleton Marxism and Literary Criticism Criticism and Ideology 1976 Frederic Jameson Marxism and Form The Political Unconscious 1971 JUrgen Habermas The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity 1990 Reader Response How does the interaction of text and reader create meaning What does a phrasebyphrase analysis of a short literary text or a key portion of a longer text tell us about the reading experience prestructured by built into that text Do the soundsshapes of the words as they appear on the page or how they are spoken by the reader enhance or change the meaning ofthe wordwork How might we interpret a literary text to show that the reader39s response is or is analo ous to the topic ofthe story What does the body 0 criticism published about a literary text suggest about the critics who interpreted that text andor about the reading experience produced by that text Tyson 191 Reader Response Peter Rabinowitz Before Reading 1987 Stanley Fish Is There a Text in This C assThe Authority of Interpretive Communities 1980 Elizabeth Freund The Return of the Reader Reader Response Criticism 1987 David Bleich Norman Holland The Dynamics of Literary Response 1968 Louise Rosenblatt Wolfgang Iser The Implied Reader Patterns of Communication in Prose Fiction from Bunyan to Beckett 1974 Hans RoberJauss Structuralism Using a specific structuralist framework like Frye39s mythoihow should the text be classified in terms of its genre In other words what patterns exist within the text that make it a part of other works like it Using a specific structuralist frameworkanalyze the text39s narrative operationscan you speculate about the relationship between thetext and the culture from which the text emerged In other words what patterns exist within the text that make it a product of a larger culture What patterns exist within the text that connect it to the larger quothumanquot experience In other words can we connect patterns and elements within the text to other texts from other cultures to map similarities that tell us more about the common human experience This is a liberal humanist move that assumes that since we are all human we all share basic human commonalities What rules or codes of interpretation must be internalized in order to 39make sense39 ofthe text What are the semiotics ofa given category of cultural phenomena or 39text39 such as highschool football games television andor magazine ads for a particular brand of perfumeor even media coverage ofan historical event Tyson 225 Structuralism Charles Sanders Peirce Ferdinand de Saussure Course in General Linguistics 1923 Claude L viStrauss The ElementaryStructure of Kinship 1949 quotThe Structural Study of Mythquot 1955 Northrop Frye Anatomy ofCriticism Four Essays 1957 Noam Chomsky Syntactic Structures 19 57 Aspects of the Theory of Syntax 1965 Roland Barthes Critical Essays 1964 Mythologies 1957 52 1970 Image Music Text 1977 Emberto Eco The Role of the Reader 1979 Joseph Campbell The Hero With the Thousand Faces PostmodernDeconstructionism How is language thrown into freeplay or questioned in the work For example note howAnthony Burgess plays with language Russian vs English in AClockwork Orange or how Burroughs plays with names and language in Naked Lunch How does the work undermine or contradict generally accepted truths How does the author or a character omit change or reconstruct memory and identity How does a work fulfill or move outside the established conventions of its genre How does the work deal with the separation or lack thereof between writer work and reader What ideology does the text seem to promote What is left out ofthe text that if included might undermine the goal of the work fwe changed the oint of view ofthe text say from one character to another or multip e characters how would the story change Whose story is not told in the text Who is left out and why might the author have omitted this character39s tale PostmodernismDeconstructionism Immanuel Kant quotAn Answer to the Question What is Enlightenmentquot 1784 as a baseline to understand what Nietzsche was resisting Friedrich Nietzsche On Truth and Lies in an Extramoral Sensequot1873 The Gay Science 1882 Thus Spoke Zarathustra A Book forAll and None 1885 Jacques Derrida quotStructure Si n and Play in the Discourse of Human Sciencesquot 1966 OfGrammato o y 1967 quotSignature Even Contextquot 1972 Roland Barthes quotThe Death oft e Authorquot 1967 Deeuze and Guattari quotRhizomequot 1976 JeanFrancois Lyotard The Postmodern Condition 1979 Michele Foucault The Foucault Reader 1984 Stephen Toulmin Cosmopolis 1990 Martin Heidegger Basic Writings 1993 Paul Cilliers Complexity and Postmodernity 1998 hab Hassan The Dismemberment of Orpheus 1998 From Postmodernism to Postmodernity The LocalGlobal Context 2oo1 New Historicism What lan uagecharactersevents present in the work reflect the current events 0 the author s day Are there words in the text that have changed their meaning from the time ofthe writing How are such events interpreted and presented How are events39 interpretation and presentation a product ofthe culture ofthe author Does the work39s presentation support or condemn the event Can it be seen to do both How does this portrayal criticize the leading political figures or movements ofthe day How does the literary text function as part ofa continuum with other historicalcultural texts from the same period How can we use a literary work to quotmapquot the interplay of both traditional and subversive discourses circulatin in the culture in which that work emerged andor the cultures in whic the work has been interpreted How does the work consider traditionally marginalized populations New Historicism Michel Foucault The Order of Things An Archeology of the Human Sciences 1970 Language Counter memory Practice 1977 Clifford Gee rtz The Interpretation of Cultures 1973 quotDeep Play Notes on the Balinese Cockfightquot 1992 Hayden White Metahistory 1974 quotThe Politics of Historical Interpretation Discipline and De Sublimationquot 1982 Stephen Greenblatt Renaissance SelfFashioning From More to Shakespeare 1980 Pierre Bourdieu Outline of a Theory of Practice 1977 Homo Academicus 1984 The Field of Cultural Production 1993 Postcolonialism How does the literary text explicitly or allegorically represent various aspects of colonial oppression What does the text reveal about the problematics of postcolonial identity including the relationship between personal and cultural identity and such issues as double consciousness and hybridity What persons or groups does the work identify as quototherquot or stranger How are such personsgroups described and treated What does the text reveal about the politics andor psychology of anticolonialist resistance What does the text reveal about the operations of cultural difference the ways in which race religion class gender sexual orientation cultural beliefs and customs combine to form individual identity in shaping our perceptions of ourselves others and the world in which we live How does the text respond to or comment upon the characters themes or assumptions ofa canonized colonialist work Are there meaningful similarities among the literatures ofdifferent postcolonial populations How does a literary text in the Western canon reinforce or undermine colonialist ideology through its representation of colonialization andor its inappropriate silence about colonized peoples Tyson 378379 Postcolonialism Edward Said Orientalism 1978 Culture and Imperialism 1994 Kamau Braithwaite The History of the Voice 1979 Gayatri Spivak In Other Worlds Essays in Cultural Politics 1987 Dominick LaCapra The Bounds ofRace Perspectives on Hegemony and Resistance 1991 Homi Bhabha The Location ofCulture 1994 Feminism How is the relationship between men and women portrayed What are the power relationships between men and women or characters assuming malefemale roles How are male and female roles defined What constitutes masculinity and femininity How do characters embody these traits Do characters take on traits from opposite genders How so How does this change others reactions to them What does the work reveal about the operations economically politically socially or psychologically of patriarchy What does the work imply about the possibilities of sisterhood as a mode of resisting patriarchy What does the work say about women39s creativity What does the history ofthe work39s reception by the public and by the critics tell us about the operation of patriarch What role the work play in terms ofwomen39sllterary history and literary tradition Tyson Feminism Mary Wollstonecraft A Vindication ofthe Rights of Women 1792 Simone de Beauvoir Le deuxie me sexe 1972 Julia Kristeva About Chinese Women 1977 Elaine Showalter A Literature ofTheir Own 1977 quotToward a Feminist Poeticsquot 1979 Deborah E McDowell quotNew Directions for Black Feminist Criticismquot 1980 Alice Walker In Search of Our Mother39s Gardens 1983 Lillian S Robinson quotTreason out Text Feminist Challenges to the Literary Canonquot1983 Camile Paglia Sexual Personae The Androgyne in Literature and Art 1990 Gender StudiesQueer Theory What elements ofthe text can be perceived as being masculine active powerful and feminine passive marginalized and how do the characters su port these traditional roles What sort of support if any is given to elements or characters who question the masculinefeminine binary What happens to those elementscharacters What elements in the text exist in the middle between the perceived masculinefeminine binary In other words what elements exhibit traits of both bisexual How does the author present the text Is it a traditional narrative Is it secure and forceful Or is it more hesitant or even collaborative What are the politics ideological agendas of specific gay lesbian or queer works and how are those politics revealed inthe work39s thematic content or portrayals of its characters What are the poetics literary devices and strategies ofa specific lesbian gay or queer works What does the work contribute to our knowledge of queer gay or lesbian experience and history including literary history How is queer gay or lesbian experience coded in texts that are by writers who are apparently homosexual What does the work reveal about the operations socially politically psychologically homo hobic How oes the literary text illustrate the problematics of sexuality and sexual quotidentityquot that is the ways in which human sexuality does not fall neatly into the separate categories defined by the words homosexual and heterosexual Gender StudiesQueer Theory Luce Iriga ray Speculum of the Other Woman 1974 H lene Cixous quotThe Laugh ofthe Medussaquot 1976 Laura Mulvey quotVisual Pleasure and Narrative Cinemaquot 1975 quotAfterthoughts on Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinemaquot 1981 Michele Foucault The History ofSexuality Volume I 1980 Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick Epistemology of the Closet 1994 Lee Edelman quotHomographiesquot 1989 Michael Warner Judith Butler quotImitation and Gender Insubordinationquot 1991 Do you want to focus on Characters Motivations Psychoanalytic Cultural Criticism Postcolonialism Feminism Queer Studies Society i Marxism Cultural Criticsm New Historicism PostmodernismDeconstructionism Patterns within the texts a Formalism Structuralism How the work affects you as an individual Reader Response Marxism Cultural Criticism