World Regional Geography
World Regional Geography GEOG 1130
Popular in Course
Popular in GEOG 040
This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kamron Weber on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1130 at Georgia Southern University taught by Robert Yarbrough in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/221968/geog-1130-georgia-southern-university in GEOG 040 at Georgia Southern University.
Reviews for World Regional Geography
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/12/15
World Regional Geography Notes Chapter 4 Europe Political Geography Concepts State Populated territory Established government Sovereignty Selfdetermination Na on 0 A group of people with a strong sense of unity common ethnicity culture andor history Shared cultural characteristics language religion etc 0 Shared beliefs and values Supranational organization State less Nation A nation without a state Ex Native American Roma Gypsies Kurds Palestinians Basques Collection of individual states with a common goal usually economicpolitical Individual states give up sovereignty when they join Ex European Union EU pg 185 The European Union EU 0 Economic Integration of EU Countries Trade barriers between EU members removed Common currency Euro Many manufacturing facilities moving to southern and central Europe Greece Spain Portugal Poland Czech Republic Allows EU countries to compete with core countries United States Japan etc Pg 198203 The EU is not just about economics 0 Free movement of people across borders not just goods 0 Significant difference between EU and free trade agreements 0 With aging populations most EU countries will need immigrants to fill jobs 0 With increased immigration many countries worried about national identity Population Issues in Europe Age Sex Structure Population pyramids provides information on the age and sex structure of a population Important cohorts age groups Percent under 15 yrs old Percent over 65 yrs old Dependency ratio sum of under 15 and over 65 divided by the workingage everyone else in the middle Provide a good idea ofthe dependency ratio cannot calculate it without the exact numbers Shows us that most European countries have aging populations average age is increasing Why higher life expectancy declining fertility rates Declining Fertility Rates Total fertility rate TFR average number of children a woman will have in their lifetime In European countries TFRs are below replacement level 21 0 Longer life expectancies Total Fertility Rate TFR What social cultural political and economic factors affect TFR Birth control Labor needs Religion Government policies Elderly care Education or lack of Immigration in Europe 2 major sources 2 major reasons Other European Need for labor in countries receiving countries Former colonies ex Sense of obligation to Algeria amp Morocco in former colonies France Assimilation vs Acculturation Assimilation Acculturation Requires significant Requires minimal changes among changes among immigrant groups they immigrants just enough give up many oftheir to function in a new cultural characteristics country from home countries EX Learn the language and adopt ways of life in but keep many of their their new country own beliefs customs Ex Language religion etc Pg 210 214 Cultural Differences and Most European I I National Identity countries want immigrants to Muslims in France assimilate not just RengiOUS Identity amp acculturate State Veiling in public space Hijab banned in public p I Why They don t want schools the country to Change Proposal to ban Burka and Niqab in public space passed in 2010 Chapter 5 Russia amp Newly Independent States Western Russia Belarus Ukraine western part of region Caucasia along the Caucus Mountains between Black and Caspian Seas Central Asia amp Eastern Russia Siberia eastern part of region Independent states once part of USSR Soviet Union until 1991 Devolution process by Economic transitions which part of a state have been difficult becomes independent High debt in Russia from the rest of it Growing informal Transition from economy in RUSSia communist state Economic dependency controlled economies n Russ39a leaves newly independent republics t0 CapltaIISt free with many questions market economies Pg 259269 SocioCultural Issues in Newly Independent States Project of quotRussificationquot ended with collapse of Soviet Union 0 Expression of local cultural identities ex ethnic amp religious increasing in Central Asia and Caucasia subregions Pg 269 272 NationalistSeparatist Movements People within stateless nations vying for their own territory ex Basque Palestinians Kurds Chechens Tamil Tigers Chechens Chechnya autonomous in Russia near Georgia north of Caucus Mountains Predominantly Muslim nation with shared language Chechen and history Chechnya Militant separatists fighting against Russian army since 1991 innocent Chechens caught in the middle Tens ofthousands were killed or quotdisappearedquot Central Asian Republics Authoritarian political systems in Kazakhstan Uzbekistan amp Turkmenistan democratic systems in name only Some ofthe least developed countries in the region HDI in Uzbekistan Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan has been falling in the past decade Central Asian Republics cont Economy based mostly on primary goods Oil natural gas Kazakhstan Turkmenistan Agricultural production cotton Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Turkmenistan Pollution from industrial activity during Soviet era Culturally more similar to southern neighbors than to Russia Ex All 5 countries have significant Muslim populations Chapter 6 North Africa amp Southwest Asia Middle East Brief history of political change in the region Circa 2000 BCE site of 2 ancient civilizations Egypt and Mesopotamia Until WWI 1918 rise and fall of numerous empires from Sumerians to Assyrians to Ottomans Interwar Period increasing European influence particularly from Great Britain France amp Italy PostWWI political independence for most countries Iraq independence 1932 creation of Israel 1948 Pg 306309 Contemporary Cultural Diversity Religions Islam Sunni amp Shi a Judaism Christianity Not all Muslims are Arabs and not all Arabs are Muslims ex Kurds are Sunni Muslims Christian Arabs in Lebanon Languages 3 Language Families AfroAsiatic ArabicHebrew IndoEuropean PersianKurdish Altaic Turkish Many ethnicities are based upon language Iranians FarsiPersian and Kurds are not Arabs as they do not speak Arabic KHkukpg320 Northeastern Iraq in Kurdish region but not yet part of Kurdistan quotArabizationquot occurred under Saddam Hussein After removal of Saddam Kurds Arabs Turkmen and Assyrians compete for power Territoriality and ethnic identity Control of territory helps to solidify and legitimize ethnic identity Will Kirkuk be part of Kurdistan Regional election scheduled for 2007 has been postponed numerous times Iraq The People 0 Development Indicators GDP per capita 3600 comparable to Philippines Mongolia and India Life expectancy 70 years Age structure 38 of population is below age 15 and only 3 above age 65 Religions Islam Sunni amp Shi a Majority Sunni 8085 worldwide Iraq amp Iran are majority Shi a Pg 314 320 Christian minority 3 Iraq The Economy 5 Ethnic groups Resources and Arabs 7580 Economic Development Kurds Oil accounts for majority Turkmen of exports 84 Assyrians Export dependency History of Islam Islam means quotsubmissionquot to God s will Surrender entire being to Allah God Second largest religion in the world 15 billion Monotheistic one God Muhammad 570 632 a wealthy member of powerful Arab tribe in Mecca present day Saudi Arabia Not worshipped as a deity Seen by Muslims as the prophet after Moses and Jesus History of Islam cont Quran Koran means Mecca amp Islam quotrecitationquot Fame t0 Mecca birthplace of Muhammad In pleces Muhammad He lived 0Ver 23 Years there until moving with Considered to be the his followers to Medina word of God as relayed by the archangel Gabriel Home Of the Great Masterpiece of Arabic Mosque bu39lt around prose and poetry the Kaaba Holy Places Mecca Medina Jerusalem U FSNN Five Pillars of Islam pg 315320 Profession of Faith Shahada there is only one God Allah and Muhammad is his prophet Prayer Salat pray 5x a day facing Mecca Fasting Saum quotgreater needs than bread Alms Zakat charity given to the poor Pilgrimage Hajj peak of religious life pilgrimage given to Mecca Women and Islam pg 317320 Multiple forms of veiling are common throughout southwest Asia 0 Veiling is not required across the region Experiences of women in SW Asia and North Africa vary considerably Across countries between urban and rural areas according to individual characteristics like class status and age IsraeliPalestinian Conflict pg 327 328 British controlled Palestine since end of WWI and promised the Jews a state there After WWII majority of population is Palestinian ethnic Arabs and many European Jews immigrated to Palestine United Nations had a plan that would create both Jewish and Arab states after British were to leave in 1948 UN Partition Plan Violence erupted in reaction to UN plan British left in 1948 State of Israel created in 1948