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Biochemistry I Lab

by: Eladio Reichert

Biochemistry I Lab CHEM 5541

Eladio Reichert
GPA 3.65


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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eladio Reichert on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 5541 at Georgia Southern University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 138 views. For similar materials see /class/221978/chem-5541-georgia-southern-university in Chemistry at Georgia Southern University.

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Date Created: 10/12/15
CHEM 5541 Review Sheet Chapters 10 amp 11 Chapter 10 1 N 0 How are the chemical properties of storage lipids and membrane lipids different How does this relate to their functional properties ie why wouldn t a triglyceride make a good membrane lipid Storage lipids include primarily fats and oils These are highly reduced compounds containing fatty acids that when oxidized provide a large amount of energy for the organism Triglycerides are one e lipid These are made up of three fatty acids in ester linkage with a single glycerol molecule Because the polar hydroxyls of glycerol and the polar carboxylates of the fatty acids are bound in ester linkages triglycerides are nonpolar hydrophobic molecules essentially insoluble in water Mem ra e ipids on the other hand are amphipathic The orientation of their hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions directs their packing into membrane bilayers The three general types of membrane lipids are glycerophospholipids sphingolipids and sterols All have oar heads and nonpolar tails and all form bilayers which constitute the central architectural feature of biological membranes Hydrophobic triglycerides do not orient into such bilayers having no hydrophilic portion to face toward the aqueous surroundings Natural occurring unsaturated fatty acids are nearly all found in the cis configuration However trans fatty acids are found in many foods most often as a byproduct of the hydrogenation process used to harden natural oils in the manufacture of margarine and vegetable shortening Oleic acid is a naturally occurring monounsaturated fatty acid 181A9 Elaidic acid is the trans form also 181A9 an unnatural isomer found in many vegetable shortening products Would you expect a simple triglyceride containing elaidic acid to have a higher or lower melting point relative to one containing oleic acid Wh h riglyceride containing the trans isomer of the fatty acid would likely have a higher melting point In trans fatty acids the acyl chains originate from the opposite side of the double bond making the whole molecule relatively straight The cis isomer has the acyl chains originating on the same side of the double bond giving the fatty acid a bend or kink The straight trans fatty acids will pack more tightly increasing the interactions between them and raising the melting point ofthe fat What are the chemical components of a biological wax and what is its general structure A wax consists of a longchain fatty acid in ester linkage to a longchain fatty alcohol Example below 0 CHzICHzlm C O C z Cths CH3 Palmitic acid 1Triacontanol 5 Give the structure of phosphatidylethanolamine containing 1palmitate 160 and 2oleate 181 A9 Glycemphosphnlipid Saturated fznyarid general slrudnre W 29 palmitic add quotquot 0 2 ll H o c a zmro y h X Unsaturated Ilany add Headrwup alcand 0L 29m subsliumnl X CHzCH2N H3 0 Explain the cause of hereditary diseases of sphingolipid metabolism such as TaySachs and NiemannPick diseases These diseases are the result of mutations in the genes that code for enzymes of sphingolipid breakdown The mutant enzyme is defective and unable to catalyze its reaction in the metabolic pathway this results in the accumulation of the metabolic intermediate that is the substrate for the enzyme See Box 102 p356 Chapter 11 1 How are integral membrane proteins structurally different from globular proteins Integral membrane proteins contain a membrane spanning region domain that is amphipathic The amino acid side chains facing outward are nonpolar whereas the one facing inward are polar to interact with the polar molecule which is its substrate This is in direct contrast to a globular protein which would have all the nonpolar residues on the interior not facing the aqueous environment N Would the following change in structure of the membrane lipids favor the frozen more ordered or melted less ordered state of a lipid bilayer a If unsaturated hydrocarbon chains are replaced with saturated hydrocarbon chains This would make the membrane lipids more ordered increasing the likelihood of freezing b If the hydrocarbon chains are shortened V th shorter chains there is less attraction Van Der Waals force between the nonpolar chains therefore more likely a less ordered state c If the cholesterol content is increased More cholesterol is present it is likely that the rigid steroid rings will favor the frozen ordered membrane state


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