Wrld Hist II
Wrld Hist II HIST 1112
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Brandon Wehner on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1112 at Georgia Southern University taught by Cathy Skidmore-Hess in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see /class/221992/hist-1112-georgia-southern-university in History at Georgia Southern University.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Legitimate Trade Prelude to Imperialism Notion that Africa will provide raw materials to Europe Europe will bring llcivilization to Africa finished goods and Christianity Ends with Imperialism Europe s often brutal domination of Africa In essence Christian missionaries try to replace slaves with lllegitimate trade items Imperialism domination by industrialized world over nonindustrialized world Key to the new imperialism was technology and the search for markets and raw materials Explosion of territorial conquests Use economic and technological means to reorganize dependent regions 18691914 industrial powers felt throughout Asia East India and Pacific Islands llmost tribes accepted European rule as part of an irresistible order one which brought benefits above all peace and exciting noveltiesquot Whatever happens we have got the Maxim gun and they have not Effectively able to impose agenda on Africa Asia and Latin America Most domination through conquest by sometimes indirect Motives Political status prestige protect existing empires acquire overseas territory Social and cultural civilization Christianity and commerce Economic markets and raw materials declining profits cause businessmen to look elsewhere for profits Scramble for Africa 1880s Africa invaded by European Countries Europe invades points Egypt So Africa and Central Africa Egypt dominated by Britain British troops there to protect investment Central Africa France and Portugal took vast majority of equatorial Africa Bismarck of Germany asserts principle of effective occupation Countries and Imperialism o Protestant Reformation O O O O O European that 39 quot 39 39I branch of Christianity Way of rebelling against central authority claiming to be either Catholic or Protestant Martin Luther I 95 Theses protested practices of Catholic Church I Objected to the sale of indulgences Received protection from Prince Frederick Challenged Papal authority Condemned by Pope in 1519 burns document condemning him Translation of the German Bible was significant because it was important for the development of the German language and German nationalism Jean Calvin Catholic Church begins Counter Reformation in response Erasmus translated the New Testament into Latin criticized Catholic Church but never broke away from them and wanted inner spirituality 0 Industrial Revolution 0 Mercantilism government policies that promote and protect the overseas trade of that government s citizens 0 Holy Roman Empire was located in GermanyCentral Europe 0 In the Injunction Nobis Pope Pius I asserts and outlines Catholic practices 0 Nicholas V s Papal Bull of 1455 justified enslavement of Africans on the grounds that they were Muslims 0 American Economics 0 O O O 0 Initially one of the more important precious metals I Potosi site of one of America s most important silver mines 0 Provided enough money precious metal to pay for Spanish military for 100 years International commodities produced in Americas used forced labor Impact of American silver on the world economy flowed to Asia to pay for Asian goods The Columbian Exchange involved the exchange of plants animals people and disease between Europe Africa and the Americas Silver mining and sugar cultivation generated the most wealth for Europe Environmental damage to sugar plantations was caused by soil exhaustion The Great Circuit was the route from Africa to the Americas to Europe The Middle Passage was the route from Africa to the Americas 0 Zumbi leader of Palmares 0 Spain 0 Council of the Indies created in 1524 in response to the independent power of the conquistadores O O O O O Encomienda system allowed Spanish to demand forced labor and payment in food goods and textiles The Mita compulsory labor system that was required of adult males to work for 6 months in the mines factories or farms originally an ncan system Many of the distinctive qualities of Spain are based in a 700 year period of warfare between Muslims and Christians Alhambra Decree banished Jews from Spain justification Jews were quotcontaminatingquot Christians Reconquista I Long term result Catholicism became fused with Spanish identity Inquisition I One of the goals to find quotconversosquot and others practicing Judaism I Primary reason to investigate the behavior of converting Muslims and Jews Columbus received money from Queen Isabella to finance his voyages At the time of the arrival of the conquistadors the Valley of Mexico was reaching its ecological limits Spaniards practiced extensive farming that involved wheat and cattle During the 16 h century Spanish silver flowed E the Netherlands During the 16 h century King Phillip II had to import experts to keep his army efficient Portugal O 0000 0 Africa 0 O 0 When the Portuguese gained control of Madeira they completely altered the environment When the Portuguese began to control the Islands off the Atlantic coast of Africa they began to establish sugar plantations centers of cloth production and ranching Ceuta was one of the first Portuguese footholds in Africa Early sugar islands were off the coast of Africa Empire was oceangoingtrade based Hoped to find Prester John find the source of gold and encircle the Islamic World during their voyages Prince Henry was famous for his sponsorship of voyages of exploration Initially slaves were African prisoners of war Communities of runaway slaves were called maroons or quilombos Slaves in America forged new and distinct culture based on the blending of European African and American language beliefs and customs The high mortality rates and constant flow of new supplies of slaves to the West Indies led to the prominence of African traditions in West Indian life Iberian Peninsula 0 0 Expansion arose from strong religious economic and political motives coupled with improvements in maritime and military technologies Both Spain and Portugal hoped to find gold and spices on their voyages o In 1492 Granada the last Islamic stronghold in Iberia fell 0 Spanish and Portuguese voyages of exploration in the 15 h and 16h centuries were government enterprises 0 American Coloniesexpansionexploration o Americanborn whites were called Creoles o The Pope divided the New World between Spain and Portugal in 1494 with the Treaty of Tordesillas 0 Diversity between native peoples in Americas was erased by high death rates the Catholic Church and the broad label of the people as quotIndiansquot for tax and administration purposes Amerindian religious beliefs survived beneath the surface of imposed Christianity 0 Rebellion among peoples subject to the Aztecs Smallpox and Malina s translating ability all contributed to Cortez s success Oldest known city in the Americas Caralsupe By the end of the 16 h century Portugal occupied most of the Brazilian coast 17 h century sugar plantations in Brazil depended on slave labor OOOO Almagros were upset with the Pizzaros because the Pizarros executed one of them and did not wish to share their wealth o Amerindian borrowing and blending of Catholicism and indigenous belief created a distinct Latin American culture 0 Death rates among American Indians during epidemics of early colonial period were very high 0 On most islands in the Caribbean the percentage of slaves in the population was 90 o Malina La Malinche was a Mayan slave and translator o Incas 0 Before the arrival of Pizzaro the Incas had experienced a smallpox epidemic One of the basic units of society was the ayllu kinship group Empire based in part on the ability to relocate subject populations Atalhuapa controlled military and the city of Quito 000 Integrated captured peasants into their army taught captured elites Quechua and sent them to Cuzco and sent sacred objects to Cuzco Machu Pichu o Excelled at organization and supply 0 Aztecs o Divided time between times of war and times of farming Aztec gods demanded blood Existed in a liquid environment Had Chihuahuas chocolate and drugs OOO Practiced intensive farming using advanced hydrology
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