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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Harrison Hiraki on Friday November 21, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to 12109 at University of Washington taught by Andrea Carroll in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 11/21/14
Chapter 6 Reaction Systems a singe chemical reaction 0 Includes concentrations pressures and temperatures of all reactants o Equilibrium position a point at which the concentration of all species remains constant Chemical Equilibrium a state at which the concentrations of the all reactants and products remain the same When products more concentrated equilibrium said to be shifted to the right when reactants more concentrated said to be shifted to the left Standard State 0 Gases 1atm 0 Solutions 1M 0 Pure Liquids and Solids the state of the respective element The activity of a species is a measure of the non ideality of its properties Activity of a species ai i 1M concentration per 1 molar or Pi1atm pressure per 1 atm Equilibrium Constant K a constant determined by the concentrations of the reactants and products 0 A ratio of the activity of the products to reactants at equilibrium 0 Can be written on either side of the equation by inverting K1 0 Always unit less 0 Always uses equilibrium concentrations never original 0 K depends only on Temp never on initial concentrations K c means a constant that is related to but not equal to original K If multiplying coefficients of chemical reaction multiply K as well Small K means mostly reactants at equilibrium large K means mostly products at equilibrium intermediate K means comparable amounts of products and reactants at equilibrium Note from PV nRT 9 Molarity PRT When finding Kc or Kp An totals moles of products total moles of reactants Reaction Quotient Q the value of the expression for K at any time during the reaction 0 If Q K you are at equilibrium if Q at K you are not at equilibrium yet To solve construct reaction table aka ICE Table 0 I Initial concentrations C Change in concentrations E Equilibrium concentrations Concentration values always divided by 1 Molar to cancel units K values for pressure not affected by temperature of equilibrium Concentrations always measured in Molarity not moles Examples on Panapto Recording for 111414 Calculated x values can be either positive or negative depending on situation 0 To check for accuracy plug x value into K equation and check if K values are equal OOOOO o Simplifying assumption If change in concentration X is less than 5 then x value is negligible and can be taken out of calculation for large concentrations Le Chatelier s Principle Regarding a chemical equation at equilibrium if a stress is applied to the solution such as the addition or subtraction of a reactant or product the equilibrium position will shift in the direction that reduces stress o Example If reactants are added to an equation at equilibrium the equilibrium position will shift toward the product side to reestablish equilibrium 0 Other factors that can result in stress are changing of concentrations pressure volume or temperature o Note The addition of solids that stay solid during equilibrium do not affect equilibrium position o If the pressure is increased by decreasing volume then the equilibrium position will shift toward the side with the fewer moles I Ex N204 96 ZNO2 if pressure raised then equilibrium would shift toward N204 because the amount of moles take up less space o Changing pressure by adding a foreign gas that is non reactant will not affect the equilibrium position Exothermic reaction energy heat is a product of the reaction Endothermic reaction energy heat is a reactant of the reaction A temperature increase at equilibrium shifts the equation to the endothermic direction temperature decrease shifts equation to the exothermic direction Chapter 8 111914 A solution is saturated when no more solute can dissolve in the solvent o All leftover solute becomes a precipitate Equilibrium constant is solubility product Ksp IfaS 9 I Caq then Ksp bproductl Cproduct2areactant o a measured in concentration molarity o ex SrPO4s 9 3Sr2aq 2PO43aq ksp Sr23PO43 SrPO4 Shift in equilibrium position the addition of ions to a solution all ready in equilibrium Ion Product Quotient Qsp the solubility product constant at the moment the solution is observed o If Qsp Ksp then solution is at equilibrium
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