Environmental Biology BIOL 1230
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mervin Champlin on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1230 at Georgia Southern University taught by Archie Ammons in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see /class/222028/biol-1230-georgia-southern-university in Biology at Georgia Southern University.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Chapter 6 Human Population Human population growth is approaching 7 billion Contraceptive use 54 of married women worldwide read pg 128 129 China86 United States68 20 African Nations lt10 Government investment in family planning amp contraceptive availability success International concern for overpopulation is growing 1994 Egypt over 93 of UN members 179 nations called for universal access to reproductive health care within 20 years How to do it 1 Improve access to health care 2 Improve education 3 Fight poverty 4 Fight sexism Lead Organization United Nations Population Fund UNF PA 180 nations US sometimes withholds contributions Other countries mostly Europe replace lost US funds US contributions to UNFPA currently reinstated Poorer societies have higher growth rates than wealthier societies Consistent with demographic transition theory Higher fertility amp growth rates with lower contraceptive use 99 ofnext billion people will be born in 0 Poor countries 0 Lessdeveloped regions less able to support them Poverty fosters rapid environmental degradation Af uent societies have enormous resource consumption amp waste production global use 25x greater since 1961 people use resources from other areas as well as from their own Individuals have gigantic ecological footprints 1 American 6 Chinese or 12 Indian Chapter 9 Land Use and Resource Management read pg 185 about Oregon s urban growth policies Urbanization migration from rural to urban areas sinks from resources cannot function without goods and materials from other areas Undeveloped land required to provide ecosystem services World urban population is 4X greater since 1950 due to 1 population growth 2 migration to cities 0 Urbanization slowing in develop nations 0 Shifting into suburbs o Urbanization rising in developing nations 0 Jobs 0 Urban lifestyles SUBURB ADVANTAGES More space amp privacy Better economic conditions Cheaper real estate Less crime Better schools More suburbs less natural space People forced to drive everywhere increasing traffic Houses amp roads supplant gt25 million acres of US land per year Sprawl spread of lowdensity urban or suburban development outward from urban center Physical spread of development gt population growth Suburban residents take up 11X more space than city dwellers pg 190 SPRAWL CAUSES Population growth Rising land consumption per person People like space amp privacy More road access There has been encouragement from developers amp politicians GROWTH IS GOOD Sprawl VERY BADH PG 189 Transportation People forced to drive cars a lot Increases dependence on petroleum Pollution C02 N 7 S containing air pollutants Motor oil amp road salt from roads and parking lots Health Promotes physical inactivity Increases obesity and high blood pressure Land Use Conversion into suburb plots amp road infrastructure Loss of ecosystem services Economics Drains taX dollars from communities Money diverted to roads amp suburb support infrastructure which is VERY spread out CITTY URBAN PLAN NING profession that designs cities to maximize efficiency functionality beauty Planners advise policymakers on development options transportation needs public parks etc REGIONAL PLANNING like city planning but with broader geographic scales coordinate with multiple municipal governments Zoning classifying areas for different types of development and land use Homeowners amp businesses know what cancannot be located nearby URBAN GROWTH BOUNDARIES UGB s limits sprawl keeps growth in existing urbanized areas Revitalize downtowns Protect farms forests and their industries Ensure urban dwellers some access to open space May reduce infrastructure costs DISADVANTAGES Increases housing prices within boundaries Restricts development outside of UGB Increases density of new housing inside UGB Too much population growth may subvert best antisprawl efforts SMART GROWTH UGB s and other land use policies to control growth Focusing development in existing areas Rejuvenating older existing communities Building up not ou Favoring multistory shophouses and highrises NEW URBANISM neighborhoods designed for walkability Homes businesses schools close together functional neighborhoods where most needs met without cars Zoning rules must cooperate with new urbanism Denser development must be allowed MASS TRANSIT important to urban life Public buses Trains amp subways Light rail small rail powered by electricity ADVANTAGES Cheaper More energy efficient Cleaner Less tra ic traffic jams cost US economy 74 billion yearly Cities are Resource Sinks food water fuel Chapter 14 Global Climate Change Read pg 303 Maldives Island Climate area s long term atmospheric conditions temperature humidity wind precipitation etc Weather conditions at localized sites over hours or days Global climate change trends amp variations in Earth s climate temperature precipitation storm frequency Global warming increase in Earth s average temperature Earth s climate has varied naturally over time rapid climatic changes contributed by human activity fossil fuels combustion deforestation Review chapter 3 carbon cycle to see how pools and flux rates can change 3 most important climate affectors Sun heat lights powers life Atmosphere stabilizes temperature amp retains heat Oceans store amp transport heat and moisture Earth absorbs some heat directly about 50 Surface re emits heat as infrared energy Greenhouse Gases pg 305 atmospheric gases that absorb infrared radiation water vapor ozone carbon dioxide nitrous oxide methane chlorofluorocarbons CFCs greenhouse gases differ in ability to warm troposphere amp surface quotGreenhouse Effectquot some infrared energy travels downward warming atmosphere amp planet s surface C02 is a weak greenhouse gas low warming potential but C02 is very abundant 2 contributor to greenhouse effect 1 water vapor Greenhouse gases from human activities mostly C02 C02 now at highest level in gt800000 years Human increases in C02 emissions Fossil Fuel use in homes factories automobiles Main reason atmospheric C02 levels have increased so quickly Shift large amounts of C02 from sediment pools 9 atmosphere Deforestation also contributes Forests serve as sinks for recently active carbon Their removal reduces biosphere s ability to absorb C02 from atmosphere Methane Fossil fuel deposits livestock landfills crops ex rice Nitrous Oxide Feedlots chemical plants car emissions synthetic nitrogen fertilizers Water Vapor Most abundant greenhouse gas contributes most to greenhouse effect Global concentration unchanged NOT viewed as driving industrial age climate change Radiative Forcing amount of change in energy pg 306 Positive forcing warms the surface Negative forcing cools it Earth s radiative forcing 16 wattssq meter higher than pre 1750 levels enough to alter climate Solar Output Sun varies in amount of emitted radiation ll yr sunspot cycles M considered significant 012 wattssq meter Ocean Absorption Ocean holds 50x more carbon than atmosphere also absorbs it from atmosphere Slows down global warming But warmer oceans absorb less C02 less gas dissolves in warm water than cold water What does this mean if water temperature keep rising Rapid Climate Change Affects Areas Differently Pg 319 us Global Change Research Program report Why Rapid Climate Change poorly Addressed by Nations Most countries based on fossil fuel economies Global problems require action quotfree rider issues International cooperation very difficult Neoclassical markets amp services would be heavily affected business amp industry would have to address external cost amp ecosystem services more accurately Lobbying against action on climate change primarily funded by business sector Poor Public Education Environmental science still relatively new field only recently being taught in schools Science education poor in most countries Modern sensationalist journalism amp news media exaggerated or false claims rapid vs accurate reporting over use of quotopinion pundits Political Inaction No cheap or easy solutions No fast within electoral term solutions quotfuture costsquot reform has very low political success Responses to Rapid Climate Change Mitigation helping to solve problems Actions that reduce greenhouse gas emissions to lessen severity of future climate change Renewable energy efficiency soil protecting farming slowing deforestation quotTreats the disease Adaptation conforming to new situation Pursuing strategies to minimize impacts Restricting coastal development drought tolerant farming better flood control Only quotworksquot if strategies can keep up with environmental changes quotTreats the symptoms Largest 40 source of US C02 Emissions 2 ways to reduce fossil fuel Conservation Efficiency technology individual choice Get C02 out of atmosphere Removing use neutral renewable fuels Storing underground Read about carbon storage in text pg 320 2 C02 Source in US Transportation Solutions Better fuel efficiency Less driving Public transportation City planning better access to work Conventional cars very inefficient 62 engine heat loss friction inefficiencies 17 idling 5 drive train friction 2 running accessories water pump stereo gt85 ofthe fuel doesn t even move your car Currently technology can mitigate C02 emissions Achieving 7 ofthese would stabilize air emissions pg 322 in text Voluntary International Agreements DO NOT WORK read about failure of United Nations FCCC pg 322 Kyoto Protocol 1997 1St major attempt at binding international action Regulation of 6 greenhouse gases Heavily industrialized nations 40 must get emissions down to pre 1990 levels Ratified by 187 97 of UN member countries 2009 US has signed but not ratified US state amp local governments addressing greenhouse gas emissions on their own US Mayors Climate Protection Agreement representing gt25 of US population Kyoto goals includes Atlanta amp Savannah Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative most of New England C02 cap amp trade programs Western Climate Initiative Six US states amp most Canadian provinces California leader in US environmental policy Permit Trading Free market solution to meet policy goals Cha pter 16 Renewa ble Alternatives Most nations powered by fossil fuels gt80 of world s energy needs oil gt65 ofworld s electricity needs coal Renewable energy Biomass 529 Hydropower 697 Geothermal Wind Solar Biomass and hydropower dominate US renewable energy New Renewables solar wind geothermal US poorly funds renewable energy few subsidies and tax breaks technology and infrastructure research low BIOMASS organic material that makes up living organisms Comes in many forms Wood Charcoal from burned wood Combustible animal waste 0 gt 1 billion people rely on WOOD as primary energy source 0 Biomass is only renewable if it is sustainably harvested Biofuels biomass sources converted into fuels to power vehicles ethanol and biodiesel Biopower biomass sources burned generating heat and electricity Special crops woody debris waste products read pg 358361 Cofiring Biogas Gasi cation BIOMASS ENERGY ADVANTAGES o virtually carbon neutral releasing no NET carbon into atmosphere 0 Only if biomass sources NOT overharvested 0 Only if fossil fuels not used to help produce biomass synthetic fertilizers tractor fuels pesticides Economic Bene ts Supporting rural communities where biomass crops grow Reducing dependence of fossil fuel imports Cheaper to burn Improved energy efficiency waste recycling Reduces air pollutants sulfur dioxide nitrous oxides BIOMASS DISADVANTAGES 0 Health hazards indoor air pollution 0 Rapid harvesting deforestation soil erosion desertification o Ecosystem disruption agriculture use amp conversion decreased biodiversity fertilizers amp pesticides o Biofuel competing with food production corn supplies for food have dropped 0 Substantial energy inputs required many bioenergy crops not very ef cient Tom make 1 gallon of corn ethanol in US 1700 gallons of water 12 gallons of sewage Lots of fertilizers pesticides HYDROELECTRIC POWER moving water turns turbines and generates electricity Storage technique Impoundments harness energy by storing water in reservoirs behind dams Water passing through dam turns turbines RunofRiver Technique Generates energy without greatly disrupting water ow Speed of river ow turns turbines not gravity like in storage method Requires rivers with continuous and fast ows HYDROPOWER ADVANTAGES over fossil fuels Renewable Clean very little pollution HYDROPOWER DISADVANTAGES Damming rivers destroys habitats Natural ooding cycles disrupted affects sediment deposition Thermal pollution downstream water Reducing sh populations amp aquatic biodiversity Hydropower is popular Dams built in nations with large rivers and economic resources Hydropower is not likely to expand most of the world s largest rivers are already dammed People are more aware of ecological impact of dams SOLAR ENERGY 0 Passive Solar most common type buildings designed to maximize direct absorption of sunlight in winter and keep cool in summer 0 Active Solar technologies that focus move store solar energy Passive Solar simple but effective Low southfacing windows maximize heat in winter in summer put shades over windows to cool Thermal Mass construction materials that absorb store release heat Ex Water brick concrete Active Solar Flat plate solar collectors heat solar panels Installed on rooftops Dark colored heat absorbing metal plates Water air antifreeze pass through collectors transferring heat throughout building Heated water can be stored effective for home usage Solar Focusing Solar energy focused on single point to intensify strength 0 Power tower mirrors concentrate sunlight onto receivers to run steam power plant 0 Solar cookers simple portable ovens that use re ectors to heat food Photovoltaic PV Cells electrical solar panels Collect sunlight amp converts into electricity Solar energy contributes only a tiny amount of global energy but global use has grown 25 per year since 1971 Solar energy attractive in developing nations where electricity is scarce 0 Solar power is rising as Prices drop Technology improves Governments enact economic incentives subsidies amp tax breaks NetMetering Using small power sources to partially or fully power home Surplus electricity sent backwards to utility costs company Reduces or eliminates utility costs No need for homes to store energy energy storage is an extra cost There is Netmetering in almost all US states Energy Policy Act of 2005 Solar wind biomass technologies popular Sunny areas work well for solar power Lots of sunlight continuous sunlight Solar is most expensive way to produce electricity high startup costs Better technology amp reduced equipment costs rapidly make solar more affordable WIND TURBINES Wind turns rotor blades which rotate machinery inside Compartment nacelle on top of tall tower Modern towers are 40100 m tall Higher tower better More wind wind speed amp less turbulence WIND FARMS Turbines erected in groups Wind power grew 26 per year globally between 20002005 5 nations comprise 80 of world s wind power California amp Texas produce most wind power US Up to 30 of Us electricity could come from wind by 2030 OFFSHORE WIND FARMS Wind speeds 20 greater over water Less turbulence over water Marine wind farms are more expensive but better winds produce more power and make offshore wind more pro table Turbines currently limited to shallow water Mountainous regions best for wind power WIND POWER DISADVANTAGES We have no control over when wind blows Good wind sources not always near population centers Public opposition to wind farms near population noise property aesthetics Wind turbines chop up birds amp bats avoid placing wind farms on migration routes GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Renewable energy that comes from deep within earth Radioactive decay deep inside planet generates heat heat rises through magma ssures cracks Can heat underground water Geothermal power plants use naturally heated water and steam for direct heating amp generating electricity Geothermal not always renewable If heated water is used up faster than groundwater recharged plant will run out of water Plants now injecting municipal wastewater into ground to replenish supply Patterns of geothermal activity shift naturally hot groundwater now may stop later Most wells drilled hundredsthousands of meters toward heated groundwater Hot water ISO370 C 300700 F Chapter 16 cent A Hydrogen Economy Using Hydrogen as fuel source Hydrogen is most abundant element in the universe Using H quotfuel cells to power vehicles computers cell phones home heating etc Replacing fossil fuel energy with hydrogen energy could reduce dependence on foreign fuels H powered vehicles are very rare Most governments poorly fund hydrogen fuel research Hydrogen gas does not exist freely on earth bound to other molecules Splitting H from other molecules reguires energy Water Electrolysis electricity splits H from O atoms in water molecules 2H2092H2 02 Produces pure hydrogen gas Pollution produced depends on electricity SOURCE H can be obtained from biomass amp fossil fuels CH4 ZHZO 9 4H2 C02 H extraction can still create carbon based pollution Cleanliness of H based energy depends on how H extracted Hydrogen Fuel Cells Store amp quotBurnquot Hydrogen
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