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Date Created: 10/12/15
Evolution BIOL5532 Discussion and review questions 2202007 Multilocus population genetics drift and levels of selection What are the expected haplotype frequencies for two loci A and B each with two alleles l and 2 of equal frequency N You measure actual haplotype frequencies for these loci and nd the following frequencies A1B1 030 Ale 020 AzBl 020 Asz 030 To what degree to these haplotype frequencies differ from the expected values ie what is D The amount of linkage disequilibrium between two loci will typically decay over time The rate of recombination for the loci in the previous questions is 0 1 Starting with the degree of disequilibrium you calculated in question 2 what will D be after 10 generations 4 What process leads to this decay of linkage disequilibrium Explain V39 What processes can maintain linkage disequilibrium between loci 0 Distinguish between pleiotrophy and epistasis gt1 Describe how linkage disequilibrium can result in the spread of an allele with no appreciable effect on variation in fitness 9 List those evolutionary processes or components of the evolutionary process that may accurately be described as random versus those that are decidedly non random in nature 9 What two factors are primarily responsible for the time it takes for an allele to drift to xation in the population Why are these two factors important 10 Mathematically demonstrate that the probability of obtaining all homozygotes for allele p in a founding population varies according to population size ll Ellisvan Creveld syndrome is a category of human dwarfism characterized by among other conditions polydactyly In what human population does this condition occur most frequently and why 12 Demonstrate mathematically that a population with 20 males and 180 females is genetically equivalent to a population of equal sex ratio and only 72 individuals l3 Coat color in the rock pocket mouse Chaetodz39pus intermedius is partially controlled by the melanocortin receptor gene or MClR For a black lava rock site at Pinacate AZ this gene is under strong selection However in other areas experiencing the same selection fitness related to conspicuousness of coat color is not associated with the MClR locus Similar phenotypes arising independently across areas with similar selection pressures is known as what phenomenon in evolution 14 What fundamental disagreement between V C WynneEdwards and George Williams over the action of natural selection resulted in Williams 1966 book Adaptation and Natural Selection What rule did Williams invoke for posing group selection based explanations for characters in biology How do meiotic drive alleles spread in the population and what is the interplay between selection favoring a meiotic drive allele like a Drosophila segregation distorter allele and selection for individual reproductive success 17 List four potential outcomes for a social behavior displayed by one individual the actor towards another individual the recipient 18 Is reciprocal altruism atrue altruistic behavior Why or why not 19 What social and or cognitive conditions favor the evolution of reciprocal altruism List an example 20 Explains how Hamilton s rule explains the evolution of truly altruistic behavior where an individual suffers a fitness cost while providing another individual with a fitness benefit 21 Use kin selection theory to explain why selection should favor females forgoing their own reproduction to care for fullsisters in those species with haplodiploid sex determination Evolution BIOL5532 Discussion and review questions 1182007 History of evolutionary thought What is biological evolution and why is it important Describe a process of change in living organisms that is not an example of evolutionary change Trace the history of evolutionary thought prior to Darwin focusing on the key contributors and their conclusions What in uence did both Charles Lyell and Thomas Malthus have on Charles Darwin Discuss the key stumbling block to widespread acceptance of Darwin s mechanism by which evolution occurs What were some of the competing theories and how did this problem eventually become resolved Several alternatives to Darwinian natural selection were around during the late l9Lh and early 20Lh centuries De ne three of the major altematives to natural selection at the time What is the modern synthesis and what in uence did it have on Darwinian natural selection Be sure to discuss what elds of study were important to the development of the synthesis and discuss the three major architects of the modern synthesis during the 1920 s and 1930 s and their in uence on the development of modern evolutionary biology Brie y discuss the in uence of the modern synthesis on the eld of paleontology What major players in the early development of the modern synthesis dealt with speciation as part of modern evolutionary biology Genetz39 cs Contrast Mendel s theory of inheritance with the blending inheritance model favored by many in the late l9Lh century Why does the Mendelian model t with Darwianian evolution better than does blending inheritance What are Mendel s laws of inheritance Some of the data around the time of Mendel s rediscovery supported one of these laws but not long afterwards additional data cast some doubt on the other Explain Describe the process of recombination How is the process of recombination and the phenomenon of linkage among loci related Describe how data from breeding experiments observations of cellular division and the nucleus and the ndings of biochemistry all came together to support a Mendelian view of inheritance The HardyWeinberg Principle can predict genotype frequencies in the population for a given generation given gene allele frequencies in the parental generation However this ability to predict genotypes frequencies in one generation based on gene allele frequencies in the prior generation rests on certain assumptions List those assumptions and describe how they may perturb genotype frequencies away from HardyWeinberg expectations For a single locus with two alleles the allele frequencies in the parental generation are p 05 and q 05 In the next generation you find that out of 1000 individuals that there are 750 individuals with the Aa genotype 125 individuals with the AA genotype and 125 individuals with the aa genotype Based on the allele frequencies in the parental generation does this match what you would expect If not then pose a mechanism that would give you these genotype frequencies For a locus with 14 alleles how many genotypes are possible in the population For a locus with 3 alleles and genotype frequencies of 025 A1A1 025 AlAz 025 A1A3 0125 A2A3 00625 AzAz 00625 A3A3 what is the frequency of each allele A1 A2 and A3 in the population Evolution BIOL5532 Discussion and review questions Sexual selection and speciation 1 De ne sexual selection Why is an increase in fecundity not likely to be an example of a sexually selected trait while female preferences for particular males would be an example of a sexually selected trait 2 What two forms of competition drive evolution by sexual selection 3 What traits are favored under scramble competition Give an example of an organism that exhibits strong scramble competition for mates 4 What traits are favored under sperm competition Give an example of an organism that exhibits sperm competition 5 Mathematically define the change in the male trait and change in female preferences under a Fisherian model of sexual selection Be sure to define all the terms in your equation 6 Explain exactly why female preferences evolve under a Fisherian model of sexual selection when there is no direct selection on female preferences 7 For a particular population the slope of equilibrium between mean female preference and mean male ornament is 09 If the covariance between the female preference and the male trait is 0020 and the genetic variance for the male trait is 0021 will the traits be stable or will they runaway from equilibrium 8 What is a testable prediction of the Fisherian model of runaway sexual selection Is there support for this prediction in nature Where 9 Contrast indicator models of sexual selection with Fisherian models 10 Describe the good genes model of sexual selection What benefits are there to females for biasing their mating towards particular males 11 What requirements are there for both male ornaments and fitness such that good genes based sexual selection may operate 12 What testable predictions are made by the good genes model of sexual selection Is there support for these predictions in nature Where 13 Under Zahavi s handicap model of sexual selection explain why costly signals are honest signals 14 Under strong selection on males imposed by female choice what does theory say will eventually happen to heritable variation in tness 15 How does the HamiltonZuk model explain the paradox of the lek l6 Employ Triver s notion of differential parental investment to explain why females tend to be choosy and not males
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