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American Government

by: Santa Marvin

American Government POLS 1101

Santa Marvin
GPA 3.52

Kevin Cook

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Kevin Cook
Class Notes
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This 37 page Class Notes was uploaded by Santa Marvin on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 1101 at Georgia Southern University taught by Kevin Cook in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see /class/222061/pols-1101-georgia-southern-university in Political Science at Georgia Southern University.


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Date Created: 10/12/15
Political Systems Firm exam AHHHI Mojor irony of voiing 6 As The fronchise expanded The percenioge who vore declined Declined voter percenioge Progressive reforms o 2 goals gt Remove corrUpTion from bolloT gt EliminoTe lower closs from poli rics Progressives Insiiiu red 9 Secret Bollo rs Voier Registration Valer regislralian included a Primary elec rion Denial of alien volers syslem Affer progressive reforms Polificol porfies Vofing become weakened more difficqu Why o peOpIe voTe Bene s gr i 71 th 095T Regisfro on In precinct or neighborhood Up To election oloy u NNNther vo ring regis rro rion o Tions p l rm Mon vtofer f quling hours We do not vofe because Voler Choroclerislics More Educoled More income Young people College educoled Hisponios Monuol loborers Lillleno eduoollon Lowlncome Poliiicol Parlicipolion 39 a Class based Belief 39lhol you can effecl lhe governmenl Requires lime and monev Who por cipofes The most Middle age Naminaiian Campaign Presiden tlu V A state s EC votes its representation in congress 39 A stote s EC votes ore given to he condidote A thot receives the most populor votes winner takes all Condidotes focus on Big stotes win 11 lorgest it stoteswins election 3 Need 270 EC votes to win Major llr1llt be rween people and government rag 2 mom Parties Republicans Democrols A grou lhal Tries lo elecl of cials under lls label Allow people lo determine who serve in governmenl Democracy 1 What is Democracy 2 a b C A system of government in which the ultimate political authority is held by the people DemosPeople KratosAuthority Types of Democracy 3 E Majoritarian Democracy i Basic Majority Rule ii iii Pros Democracy at its simplest 1 Citizens create public policy people make their own decisions 2 Power isn t limited to an economic elite 3 The people who make the laws follow the laws as well 4 Committed citizens iv Cons 1 Uncontrolled limits 2 Democracy could crumble into mob rule 3 Question of Minority Rights 4 No moral limits Liberal Democracy i Combines majority rule with respect for civil liberties and protection of individual rights ii Civil Liberties 1 Basic freedoms designed to protect citizens from the excesses of government iii Origins 1 The Divine Right of the Kings a Kings were chosen by the gods 2 Society based on consent of the governed 3 Basic human rights 4 Equality among citizens 5 The right to protest and rebel against a oppressive government 6 These origins brought out the ideas of capitalism iv Main Tenants of Liberal Democracy Today 1 Majority Rule Regular Elections a Not all elections are scheduled in Liberal Democracies 2 Protection of Basic Rights a Right to Organize Groups b Right to formjoin Political Parties c Right to Acquire Information d Right to Express Opinions Publicly e Right to Protest Democracy A DemosPeople B KratosAuthority A system of government in which the ultimate political authority is vested in the people C Majoritarian Democracy 1 Basic Maiority rule 1 Pros 1 Citizen create public policy 2 Power is not limited to an economic elite 3 The people who make the laws abide by the laws 4 Committed citizenry J Cons 1 The fear that it could degenerate into shear mob rule 2 The question of minority rights 3 There are no moral limits D Liberal Democracy combines majority rule with respect for CIVIL LlBERTlES and protection ofindividual right 1 Civil Liberties basic freedoms designed to protect the citizens from excesses of government Origins a A group of political philosophers who rejected the belief of the divine right of kings liberal democrats 1 Society based on consent of the governed 2 Basic humans rights 3 Equality among citizen 4 The right protestrebel against an oppressive govt Capitalism 1 Promoted the idea that there should be a zone of privacy to grow oneself Main tenets of LD today a Majority rule b Protection of Basic right 1 List of right a Right to organize groups 12 Form andjoin political parties c Right to acquire info 1 Right to express info c Protection from the arbitrary use of government power 1 Due process ofpowerlaw a Procedural legal guarantees of life liberty and property 2 Equal protection under the law a Rights and liberties may not begiven to onegroup while denied to others E Egalitarian Democracy 1 Democracy must not only protect liberty and right but must also provide for basic social and economic equality 2 Majority rule is a myth A Models of Political though B Elitist Model C US politics dominated by the few 8232010 A 1776 Iohn Adams39 Administration 3 Political power was unified in the sense that major institutions were dominated by individual personalities 4 Early 180039s Civil War 1800 61 new political elite B Post civil War New Deal D New Deal WWII E Political power was shared between corporate leaders and government officials implementing new deal programs F WWII Present a Military b Formal Government 6 Corporate World Why Similar views about government Career pattern interlock Phenomenon known as interlocking and overlapping directories Holding one position leads to membership on other boards Backgrounds of elite Socialize with each othertend to reinforce one another 2 Pluralist Model 10039s and 100039s of elitist groups They compete with each other BargainCompromise No one single group dominates Multiple access points 3 Hyperpluralist Model 10039s and 100039s of single issue interest groups No decisions get taken No single issue mobilizes enough consensus to get something done 4 Mass MobilizationMass Democracy Model The People govern The expansion of the franchise of the American voter Flaw not everybody votes 08252010 Who is Political To be active in politics What is Politics Concept An abstraction representing an object A good definition should 1 Denote the special features of the concept P Be stated in such a way not to be circular w Be stated in positive terms 5 Be stated in clear and unequivocal terms E According to David Easton Politics is a set of interactions in which values are authoritatively allocated for an entire society Values Conditions or states of being that people desire EX Power respect wealth affection well being skill enJightenment Authoritative Decision at highest level sovereign decision 2 According to Harold Lasswell politics is the process of who gets what wh en and how What the valued things Who those with power and authority Power may involve Force persuasion rewards Authority Legitimate power more than legalimplies rightness People follow the wishes of an authority because it is the right thing to do This is the most efficient form of power Political Science the study of politics Try to acquire new knowledge about politics 1 Normative how things ought to be 2 Descriptive Problems in studying politics and government 1 Political learning occurs early in life 2 Politics involves values and opinions as well as facts 3 The stakes are high 4 There are many misconceptions about politics that are a part of conventional wisdom What is government A political association that does two things 1 Makes the rules determining who will get the valued things in society 2 It alone regulates the use of legitimate force in society In the United States the government does not directly determine distribution 0ur government protects private distribution The government does set some limits social safety net Social Safety Net Welfare Medicaid Social Security Paid for by income tax Progressive Tax Tax rate increases as the tax base increases Marginal Utility Theory Each additional dollar of income is worth slightly less than the preceding dollar Regressive Tax Tax burden falls more heavily upon low income groups Flat Tax Proportional Tax All income groups pay the same percentage of their income in taxes NationState Vast increase in the number of NS AntiColonial National Self Determination Movement Characteristics of a nation state 0 1 De nable territory with fixed boundaries contiguous territory Most nation states have a universal official language Nation states have common symbols which encourage the unity of citizens NationStates are legalistic entities with basic law and legitimacy based in contractual documents Forming Our Nation State The American Revolution was it a revolution 1 P It did not involve the overturning of a social order No aristocracy to overthrow The elimination of private ownership was not an element Grew out of a desire to protect property rights Our revolutionary heritage is of a political rather than social nature Did we win the war More than likely the British simply quit Far from Britain Terrain Unfamiliar Guerilla Tactics no one center No real resolve Articles of Confederation Adopted 1777 Formally ratified 1781 League of Friendship among Statesquot States retain sovereignty over the national government Established a congress but severely limited the powers congress could exercise Congress could not tax nor raise an army No executive or judicial branch This government was too weak to resolve domestic or foreign problems The Constitution of 1787 Constitutional Government Have a written constitution as a basis of authority Republican in form Governed by representatives of the people Democratic in intent Some direct participation by the people Federal in structure Authority divided between national and state governments Limited in nature Built in limitations Ex Limited ability to vote Ex Separation of powers Principle that the powers of government should be separated and put in the care of different parts of government 1 Legislative function W Making Iaws congress 2 Executive function Carrying out the laws President Judicial Function Interpreting the laws Supreme Court Separation of powers unworkable without checks and balances A check is the control one branch has over another39s function creating a balance of power Mixes powers together Gives legislative power to execute Veto Gives executive power to legislature Senate con rms nominations to major executive posts The resulting system is not efficient Built in tensions between branches and levels of government Rati cation Federalists AntiFederalists Bill of Rights Constitution in establishing the government did three things 1 Established the structure of govermnent set up the three branches within the federal framework N Distributed certain powers to this government Article 1 section 8 gave the legislative powers to congress EX Power to raise and spend money Article 1 section 2 gave executive power to the president EX Command over armed forces 8 wide authority over foreign policy Article I gave judicial power to the Supreme Court The right to judge disputes arising under the constitution 3 Constitution restrained the government in exercising these powers Bill of Rights The US constitution both grants and limits powers 4 Major Constitution Principals 1 Separation of powers amp checks and balances 2 Limited government The powers of government are limited by the rights and liberties of the go verned People give the government listed powers and duties through a constitution while reserving the rest to themselves The Constitution set up safeguards to ensure that the government remains limited its proper duties and powers Federalism sep of powers w Judicial review The judicial branch has the authority to determine the constitutionality of government acts This power is not stated in the constitution comes from the Supreme Court case Marbury v Madison 1803 john Adams Pres 1 796 john Marshall Adam 5 Sec of Statechief justice P Thomas jefferson Pres 1800 ames Madison jefferson 5 Sec of State William M arbury Writ of Mandamus An order telling a government official to carry out his or her job Federalism Calls for political authority to be distributed between a central govt and state govt39s Spreads political power out US Federalism in valves 2 contradictory ideas 1 Const and laws of the central govt are supreme Article VI Supremacy Clause N All powers not delegated to the National Govt are reserved to the states or the peopleX Amendment Reserved Powers Control of City and local government Regulation of business within a state Supervision of education of general police power National Powers 1 Inherent Powers those powers essential to the govt EX Power to make foreign policy 2 Delegated powers Those the constitution specifically assign to the national govt EX Power to regulate commerce win money 3 Implied Powers McCulloch v Maryland 1819 1 Does Maryland have the right to taX part ofthe national govt N 0 2 Does the nationaIgovt have the right to create a bank Yes Article Section 8 Necessary and proper clause Elastic Clausequot Implied Powers Authority possessed by the National Govt by inference from those powers delegated to it in the constitution 4 Concurrent Powers Those powers that can be exercised by both the national and state govts EX Power to tax power to borrow money State Powers 1 Concurrent powers 2 Reserved powers Federalism as Food 1 Dual Federalism 19th amp Early 20th centuries Layer Cake Federalism Fed as separate layers of state and national activity 2 Cooperative Federalism 1932Present Marble Cake Federalism All levels of govt working together Changing the constitution 1 Formal Amendments Least common method Required unusually large majorities and action by both state and national govts This protects the constitution Amendments proposed 5 23 vote in both houses of congress 6 0r 7 23 of state leg vote to petition congress to call a national const convention Amendments Ratified 1 3 of state leg vote to adopt the amendment 0r 2 34 of special ratifying conventions in each state vote to adopt amendment II Iudicial Interpretation Most common Method for changing the Constitution By ruling on individual court cases the Supreme Court has shaped and reshaped the document The court give practical meaning to vague constitutional phrases The Supreme Court functions as a permanent constitutional convention 3 Legislation Congress has been responsible for filling in the framework of govt as outlined by the constitution Ex Congress established all federal courts below the Supreme Court Ex Congress determined the size of the house of rep and the supreme court 4 Custom


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