Introduction to Psychology
Introduction to Psychology PSYC 1101
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Dr. Nikolas Kirlin
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Nikolas Kirlin on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at Georgia Southern University taught by Rebecca Ryan in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/222067/psyc-1101-georgia-southern-university in Psychlogy at Georgia Southern University.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Social psychology 9 study of how people influence others behavior beliefs and attitudes Social Influences going along with the group 1 Conformity 9 tendency of people to alter their behavior as a result of group pressure a Public compliance gt b Private acceptance 9change yourself bc you think they are right E Asch s study 8 subjects you and confederates asked to match up lines You re 5 h called on You follow them with their answers 75 conformed on at least one trial 37 conformed to wrong answer UNAMBIGUOUS one interpretation E Sherif s study conducted studies on the Autokinetic effect 9brain constantly alters the perceived position of the external world How far does a stationary dot move others estimate converge towards yours AMBIGUOUS lots of possibilities of interpretation 2 Obedience go along to get along E Milgram s study why holocaust could have happened Teacher and learner Paired associate task 9 group words together quotstrong arm powerful shock if not said right 62 compliance going to 450 volts Cognitive Dissonance 9 Why our attitudes change Because of an unpleasant state of tension E Cult The seekers earth flooded dec 21 nothing happened But their beliefs got stronger because they changed their original belief to make theirs logical E Lab Study the boring task try to convince people experiment is fun fun fun but some got a dollar to say it and others 20 So the ones with less were actually more likely to tell the truth Reducing Dissonance Change behavior Change thoughts Add new thoughts Prejudice 9 attitude based to prejudge to arrive at a conclusion before we ve evaluated all of the evidence 0 Factors Deeply rooted in human species Fear relevant stimuli Fear irrelevant stimuli IV Competition V Displaced aggression VI In group bias V Out group homogeneity Discrimination 9 treating people different in out groups than in groups behavior towards others Blue versus brown eyes brown eyes better cause their pigments blue lazy dumb dishonest gt Brown eyes became arrogant gt Blue eyes submissive and insecure Reducing Prejudice discrimination Jigsaw classroom 9 separate task that need to be fitted together to complete project gives significant decreases in racial prejudice Contact hypothesis 9 increases contact between racial groups is rarely sufficient to reduce O O prejudice Common goal Mutual interdependence Equal status IV Interpersonal contact V Multiple contacts VI Equality norms Chapter 14 Personality not exclusively a product of the social influences impinging on us at any given moment 0 Psychoanalytic theory 9 explanation of developments and workings of personality three core assumptions 1 Psychic determinism all psychological events have a cause at the mercy of powerful forces 2 Symbolic Meaning no action is meaningless 3 Unconscious Motivation we rarely understand why we do what we do immensely greater importance than conscious o Freud s human psyche 9 interplay between three agencies gives rise to our personality 1 Id basic instincts unconscious no isn t in vocabulary sex and aggressive drive 2 Superego sense of morality 3 Ego boss of personality delay gratification until it can find an appropriate outlet principle decision maker Determinists all actions are products of preexisting casual influences Social Learning theories of personality gt Reciprocal determinism 9 a form of causation whereby personality and cognitive factors behavior and environmental variables mutually influence one another gt Observational learning 9 learning through watching others gt Locus of control 9 the extent to which people believe that reinforcers and punishers lie inside or outside of their control Behavioral views of personality 0 Radical behaviorist our behavior is determined 0 Contingences primary causes of our behavior lie outside rather than inside 0 Genetic Factors effects of shared environments on adult personality are weak or nonexistent Humanistic Model of Personality rejected the determinism of psychoanalysis and behaviorists and embraced the notion of free will gt Self Actualization core motive in personality the drive to develop our innate potential to the fullest possible extent 0 Rogers Model of personality I Organism innate genetic blue print positive and helpful towards others ll Self self concept set of beliefs of who we are lll Conditions ofworth expectations we place on ourselves for appropriate and inappropriate behavior 0 Characteristics of self actualized people E Thomas Jefferson Martin Luther Helen Keller Abraham Lincoln Ghandi Creative spontaneous accepting of themselves and others Self confident Real world intellectual problems Not afraid to rock the boat Trait theories of personality 0 Factor Analysis analyzes the correlations among responses on personality inventories and other measures 0 Predicting aggregated behaviors composites of behavior averaged across many situations The Big Five five traits that are surfaced repeatedly in factor analyses of personality measures Openess open people tend to be intellectually curious or unconventional 2 Conscientiousness conscientious people tend to be careful and responsible 3 Extraversion extraverted people tend to be social and lively 4 Agreeableness agreeable people tend to be friendly and easy to get along with 5 Neuroticism neurotic people tend to be tense and moody Personality assessment the promise of detecting individuals differences in personality in a rigorous fashion Chapter 15 Psychological Disorders 0 Anxiety Disorders seep into numerous aspects of our functioning including our perceived physical health 1 Somatoform Disorders 9 people experience physical symptoms that suggest an underlying illness 2 Hypochondrias 9 continually preoccupied with the idea that they are suffering from a serious disease 0 Panic Disorder nervous feelings gather momentum and escalate into intense bouts of fear even terror repeated and unexpected o Generalized Anxiety Disorders worry is a way of life 60 of each day worrying o Phobias intense fear of an object or situation that s greatly out of proportion to its actual threat 1 Speci c phobia 9 objects places or situations 2 Social phobia 9 a marked fear of public appearances in which embarrassment seems likely o PTSD Marked emotional disturbance after experiencing or witnessing a severely stressful event 0 0CD condition marked by repeated and lengthy immersion in obsessions compulsions 1 Obsessions 9 persistent ideas thoughts or impulses that are unwanted and inappropriate and caused by stress Compulsions 9 repetitive behaviors or mental acts that they initiate to reduce or prevent distress V N V Mood Disorders difficulties center on his bleak mood 1 Major Depressive episode person experiences a lingering depressed mood or diminished interest in pleasurable activities along with symptoms that include weight loss and sleep 2 Bipolar Disorder peoples mood is often the mirror image of depression Manic Episodes 9 dramatically elevated mood decreased need for sleep greatly heightened energy inflated self esteem increased talkativeness irresponsible behavior Dissociate Disorders involves disruptions in consciousness memory and identity or perception 1 Depersonalization 9 feel detached from yourself living in movie or dream 2 Dissociative amnesia 9 people can t recall important personal information memory loss extensive 3 Dissociative fugue 9 forget significant events in their lives but flee their stressful circumstances assume new identity 4 Dissociative identity disorder 9 presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states Schizophrenia quotCancerquot of the mental state split personality Symptoms serious distortion of reality Disturbances in thinking language emotion and relationships Delusions Hallucinations 9 sensory perceptions Disorganized speech 9 skip from topic to topic in disjointed way Catatonia 9 motor problems disorganized behavior E Personality Disorders personality traits first appear by adolescence inflexible stable and expressed in a wide variety of situations Borderline personality disorder 9 instability in mood identity or impulse control Psychopathic personality 9 superficial charm dishonesty manipulativeness self centeredness and risk taking know full and well they are wrong Antisocial Personality Disorder 9 condition marked by a lengthy history of irresponsible and or illegal actions Substance Abuse and dependence Chapter 16 Psychological treatments 0 Psychoanalysis make the unconscious conscious aims to clear away the emotional distortions bred by past experiences guilt frustrations Free Association 9 say whatever thoughts come to mind no matter how meaningless no censorship Interpretation 9 explanations of the patients dreams emotions and behaviors Dream Analysis 9 express unconscious themes that influence the conscious life relations of dream to daytime experience Resistance 9 avoid future confrontation Transference 9 intense unrealistic feelings from past on therapist 5 3 6 Working through 9 process problems Jung s analytic psychoanalysis goal is individuation 9 integration of opposing aspects of the patients personality into a harmonious whole Interpersonal Therapy treatment that strengthens social skills and targets interpersonal problems conflicts and life transitions originally treated depression Humanistic existential therapies that share an emphasis on the development of human potential and the belief that human nature is basically positive 0 More alike than different 0 Importance of assuming responsibility for decisions 0 Self actualization process that unfolds automatically unless road block 0 Phenomenological Approach 9 therapist encounter patients in terms of subjective phenomena in the present moment Person centered Therapy centering patients goals and way of thinking don t tell them how to solve 0 Positive outcome 1 Therapist authentic genuine reveals his or her own reactions to what the patient is communicating Therapist express unconditional positive regard 9 non judgmental acceptance of all feelings the patient expresses 3 Therapist must relate 8 Gestalt Therapy theory of perception organized whole integrates different and sometimes opposing aspects of personality into a unified sense of self Behavioral approaches 0 Cognitive behavior therapy 9beliefs pay the central role in our feelings and behaviors Core assumptions 1 Cognitions can be identified and measures 2 Cognitions are the key players in both healthy and unhealthy psychopathological functioning Irrational beliefs 3 Chapter 9 Intelligence and IQ Testing 0 Karl Fredrick Gauss was the first to come up with the concept of the bell curve 0 IQ Intelligence Quotient a systematic means of quantifying differences among people in their intelligence with the average around 100 Child prodigy an individual who displays astounding intellectual achievements at an early age What is Intelligence Definitional Confusion Special Considerations in Interpreting Intelligence Research 9 Emotional reasoning orthe affect heuristic the tendency to judge the validity ofan idea by our emotional reactionsto it 9 Edward Boring Boring s dictum intelligence is whatever intelligence tests measures Intelligence as Sensory Capacity Out ofSight Out of Mind 9 Sir Francis Galton radical hypothesis intelligence is the byproduct of sensory capacity Most knowledge first comes through the senses vision and hearing Therefore people with superior sensory capacities should acquire more knowledge Intelligence as Abstract Thinking 9 Alfred Binet and Henri Simon developed the rst intelligence test a diagnostic tool designed to measure overall thinking ability Included 0 Naming objects Generating meanings of words Drawing pictures from memory Completing incomplete sentences Determining the similarities between two objects 0 Constructing a sentence with three words 9 Higher mental processes Reasoning Understanding Judgment Abstract thinking the capacity to understand hypothetical concepts rather than concepts in the hereandnow 14 American experts compiled a list of what intelligence includes Ability to 0 Reason abstractly 0 Learn to adapt to novel environmental circumstances 0 Acquire knowledge 0 Benefit from experience American s views of intelligence Capacity to reason well and reason quickly Ability to amass large amounts of knowledge in a brief period oftime 9 NonWestern views lz lz lz Re ecting people s wisdom and judgment more than their intellectual brilliance China intelligence those who perform actions for the greater good of the society and are humble That Controversial Little Letter g 9 Charles Spearman g or general intelligence A single common factor across all these aspects verbal reasoning spatial ability vocabulary that accounts for the overall differences in intellect among people lmplies that some people are just plain smarterthan others S or specific abilities particular ability level in a narrow domain 0 How we perform on a given mental task depends not only on our general intelligence g but also on our particular skills s Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence 9 Raymond Cattell and John Horn distinguished between fluid and crystallized intelligence Fluid intelligence the capacity to learn new ways of solving problems Crystallized intelligence the accumulated knowledge ofthe world we acquire over time Knowledge from newly learned tasks flows into our longterm memories crystallizing into lasting knowledge Fluid abilities decline with age Multiple lntelligences Different Ways of Being Smart 9 Multiple intelligences different domains ofintellectual skill 9 Frames of Mind Howard Gardner there are multiple frames of mind different ways of thinking about the world and each frame of mind is a different and independent intelligence on its own Existential intelligence the ability to grasp deep philosophical ideas Gardner proposed eight different intelligences o Linguistic speak and write well 0 LogicoMathematical use logic and mathematical skills to solve problems Spatial think and reason about objects in 3D space Musical perform understand and enjoy music BodilyKinesthetic manipulate the body in sports dance or other physical endeavors Interpersonal understand and interact effectively with others lntrapersonal understand and possess insight into self Naturalistic recognize identify and understand animals plants and other living things 9 The Triarchic Model Robert Sternberg Triarchic model positing 3 types of intelligence 0 Analytical intelligence the ability to reason logically book smarts Closely related to g The kind of intelligence we need for intelligence and standardized tests 0 Practical intelligence the ability to solve realworld problems especially those involving other people street smarts Social intelligence the capacity to understand others 0 Creative intelligence the ability to come up with novel and effective answers to questions 0 Biological Bases of Intelligences Intelliqence Testing The Good the Bad and the Uqu 0 Two More Controversial Letters IQ 9 Wilhelm Stern formula for IQ Mental Age divided by Chronological Age multiplied by 100 Mental Age the age corresponding to the average person s performance on an intelligence test Chronological Age actual age 9 Deviation IQ Rescuing Adults from Declining Intelligence Deviation IQ expresses each person s IQ relative to his or her same aged peers o The Eugene s Movement Misuses and Abuses of IQ Testing 9 Eugenics the effort to improve a population s genetic shock by encouraging people with good genes to reproduce and vice versa 9 Association fallacy the error of confusing a claim s validity with the people who advocate it guilt by association 0 IQ Testing Today 9 Commonly Used Adult IQ Tests Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS o 14 specific tasks to asses mental abilities Vocab Arithmetic Spatial ability Reasoning about proverbs General knowledge 0 Verbal IQ crystallized intelligence 0 Performance IQ uid 9 Commonly Used Childhood IQ Tests WISC see above and Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scale of Intelligence WPPSI StanfordBinet IQ Test 0 Wide variety of tasks including Vocab Memory for pictures Naming of familiar objects Repeating sentences Following commands 9 CultureFair IQ Tests
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