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by: Jamir Abbott
Jamir Abbott
GPA 3.61

Joseph Bullington

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Joseph Bullington
Class Notes
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This 52 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jamir Abbott on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CISM 1120 at Georgia Southern University taught by Joseph Bullington in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see /class/222070/cism-1120-georgia-southern-university in Computer Information Systems at Georgia Southern University.

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Date Created: 10/12/15
Discovering Computers 2009 Chapter 4 The Components of the System Unit Chapter 4 Objectives Differentiate among various styles of system units Differentiate among the various types ofmemory Identify chips adapter cards and other DeScr ibe the types of expansion slots and adapter cards components of a motherboard Explain thedifferences among a serial port a parallel port a USB port a FireWire port and other ports V Describe the components of a processor and how they complete a machine cycle Describe how buses contribute to a Identify characteristics of various personal com puter processors on the market today comlmterls ProceSSing Speed Identify components in mobile computers De nea bit and describe how a series of bits represents data and mobile devices Explain how programs transfer in and out of memory Understand how to clean a system unit The System Unit What is the system unit gt Case that contains electronic components of the computer used 7774 to process data 39 Sometimes called the chassis p 184 Fig 4 1 The System Unit What are common components inside the system unit gt Processor gt Memory gt Adapter cards 39 Sound card 39 Video card gt Drive bays gt Power supply p 185 Fig 42 The System Unit What is the motherboard gt Main circuit board of the system unit gt Contains expansion slots processor chips and memory slots gt Also called system 39 board Click to View Web Link click Chapter 4 Click Web Link from Ie navigation then click Motherboards below r ulmaiml aluix lnr a rammam p 186 Fig 43 The System Unit What is a chip gt Small piece of semiconducting material on which integrated circuits are etched 39 Integrated circuits contain many microscopic pathways capable of carrying electrical current V gt Chips are packaged so that they can be attached to a circuit board p 186 Processor What is the central processing unit CPU gtInterprets and carries out basic instructions that operate a computer I Control unit directs and coordinates operations in computer Processor Arithmetic logic unit I performs n21 Memorv Information Deuces anthmetlc comparison and logical operations Instructions gtAlso called the processor Data Information Storage Devices p 186 187 Fig 44 Processor What are multicore processors gt A multicore processor is a chip with two or more separate processors gt A dualcore processor is a single chip that contains two separate processors gt A quadcore processor is a single chip that contains four separate processors gt Each processor on a multicore chip generally runs at a slower clock speed but increases overall performance Click to View Web Link click Chapter 4 Click Web Link from le navigation then click QuadCore Processors below Chapter 4 p 187 Processor What is a machine cycle gt Four operations of the CPU comprise a machine cycle Step 1 Fetch I Obtain program instruction or data item from memory Memory Step 2 Step 4 Store Decode Write result to memory Translate instruction into Processor V commands ALU Control Uni i Step 3 Execute Carry out command p 188 Fig 4 5 Processor What is pipelining gt Processor begins fetching second instruction before completing machine cycle for rst instruction gt Results in faster processing PROCESSOR CONTHDL ARIl lMHIC UNIT LDEICUNITMLU 39 msh ucliuns data mlmma on s 2 J mm 0mm memes l a QMLWquot DEVICES msu notions Gala l ahon p 189 Fig 4 6 Processor What is a register gt Temporary highspeed storage area that holds data and instructions Stores location from where instruction was fetched Stores Stores data instruction while it is while ALU being decoded computes it Stores results of calculation p 189 Processor What iS the fi39g gl g p gt Controls timing of all computer operations gt Generates regular electronic pulses or ticks that set operating pace of components of system unit gt 11 G a x l x f z39 r a x mm email r x 1 A y 5 i m quotH 7P5 7 i ii 7 quot A 1 1m Mimi lmkn db we a39lmgm mj wm v be H r 177quot M Aquot 39 F l 1 1 M 1quot DMD milme H 1 infugqgan s a J a W 3 399 319 J f x 3 William 39 39 quotx 39 quot 3 1 M i7 y V kw k N p 189 190 Processor What are the guidelines for selecting agproiegessor GUIUELINES FUR SELECTING Aquot INTEL UH INTELCUMPATIBLE PROCESSOR 39 Power users with Workstations llanium Z Xann o Lowend sewers on a networ 39 Power users or users who design protessionai drawrngs produce and edit videos record and edit music participate in video conlerences create newsletters or numberriutensive spreadsheets produce muitimedia presentations use the Web as an intensive research tool so d docume and graphics via the Web watch videos clay graphicintensive games on CD or DVD create personai Web sites word processing and spreadsheet soltware39 edit photos communicate with others on the Web via emaii chat rooms and discussions shop ont e eb create basic Web pages use the computer as a digital entertainment unit ocurnenis w39nh word processing and spreadsheet software edit photos make greeting cards and caiendars use educational or entertainment CD5 communicate with others on the Web via email chat rooms and discussions Users with mobile computers or mobile 3an 2 Mfume an 2 DM Twinquot 54 devices me 0 ms p 192 Fig 4 8 Processor What are heat sinks heat pipes and liquid cooling gt Heat sink component with ns that cools processor gt Heat pipe smaller device for notebook computers gt Liquid cooling uses a continuous ow of uids to transfer heat away heat sink fan p 193 Fig 4 9 Processor What is parallel processing gt Using multiple processors simultaneously to execute a program faster gt Requires special software to divide problem and bring results together Control Processor Processor 2 Processor 3 Processor 4 Processor 1 7 hiemory Memory Alamo ry lVIemory results combined p 194 Fig 410 Data Representation How do computers represent data gt Most computers are digital BINARY DIGIT ELECTRONIC ELECTRONIC 39 Recognize 0111 tWO BID CHARGE STATE discrete States on or Off 39 Use a binary system to 9 recognize two states 39 UseyNum ber system with two unique digits i0 and a 1 called bits short for binary digits p 194 195 Fig 411 Data Representation What is a byte gt Eight bits grouped together as a unit gt Provides enough different combinations of 0s and Is to represent 256 individual characters 39 Numbers 33 BVTE FOR THE NUMBER 4 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 39Uppercase and lowercase 83 8er FDR me NUMBER 5 letters IOCIOO IQ 1Q O 1g 1 arg 39 Punctuation 8BTBYTEFOMHELWEH marks 1quot 0 quot0 1 quot0 0 quot0 W 39 Other p195 Fig43912 Data Representation What are three popular coding systems to represent data gt ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange gt EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code gt Unicode coding scheme capable of representing all world s languages 1 2 11110010 3 11110011 00110011 p 195 Fig 413 Data Representation How is a letter converted to binary form and back Step 1 The user presses the capital letter T SHIFTT key on the keyboard Step 2 An electronin signal for the capital letter T is sent to the system unit Step 3 Step 4 I I The system unit converts the After Pr005551nggt the tummy scan code for thecapital letter T code for the cap1tal letter T 1s to its AsCH bj39na ry co de cgnverted to an image and 01010100and st39ores Iit in d1splayed on the output dev1ce memory f0 processing p 196 Fig 414 Memory What is memory gt Electronic components that store instructions data and results gt Consists of one or more chips on motherboard or other circuit board gt Each byte stored in unique location called an address similar to seats in a concert hall p 197 Fig 4 15 Memory How is memory measured gt By number of bytes available for storage Gigabyte GB 1 billion bytes Terabyte TB 1 trillion bytes p 197 Fig 4 16 Memory What is random access memory if 1 11 ii L Memory ships u mt can 92 real from MA wr39rieu Lt by pruswsw Also called main memorv or primary storage g uuipuirer has Ill asyer it responds Click to View Web Link click Chapter 4 Click Web Link from Ie navigation then click RAM below Chapter p 198 199 Memory How do program instructions transfer in and out of RAM Step 1 When you start the7computer certain RAM 7 operating system files are loadedinto RAM39from jV bb browser instructions Operating system interface Operating system instructions Step Whenyou starta Web browser the 4 l 1intn RAMfme the harddisk The39VWeb browser window is displayed onthe screen W39eb browser window the hard The operating SyStem displays the 11 user interface39onitlieTS creen aint program A 39 instructions Step 3 When you starta pa rtprogfarn the programs39instrilcti39o s39are loadedir1to RAM from the hard disk Thepaint program along with the Web Browser andceItainQperatihg syste irrstructionsai e in The paint pfog window is displayedron the screen Paint program window RAM Step Wh nyou quit a39program suchfa39s the Web browser it program instruction are removed from RAM The Web browser isno longerdisplayed on the screen W39eb browser window is no longer displayed on W39eb browser program instructions are removed from RAlVI p 198 Fig 417 desktop Memory Video The Leopard with a Time Machine CLICK TO START Memory What are two basic types of RAM chips Do not have to be 1 eene1 gized as often as DRAM Most common type D 1 V Faster and re 114113361 more reliable L r TJ w constantly than DRAM chips Newer Type Magnetoresistive RAM MRAM p 199 Memory Where does memory reside gt Resides on small circuit board called memory module gt Memory slots on motherboard hold memory modules p 199 Fig 4 18 Memory How much RAM does an application require gt Depends on the types of software you plan to use gt For optimal performance you need more than minimum speci cations p 199 Memory How much RAM do you need gt Depends on type of applications you intend to run on your computer RAM 1 GB or less Use Home and business users managing personal finances Using standard application software such as word processing Using educational or entertainment CDs Communicating with others on the Web p 200 Fig 419 1GBto4GB Users requiring more advanced multimedia capabilities Running numberintensive accounting financial or spreadsheet programs Using voice recognition Working with videos music and digital imaging Creating Web sites Participating in video conferences Playing Internet games 4 GB and up Power users creating professional Web sites Running sophisticated CAD 3D design or other graphicsintensive software Memory What is cache gt Helps speed computer processes by storing frequently used instructions and data gt Also called memory cache I L1 cache built into processor L2 cache slowerbuthaslarger capacity L2 advanced transfer cache is faster built directly onkprocessor chip mama L3 cache is Separate frOm processor chip on motherboard L3 is only 39 on computers that use L2 advanced transfer cache Click to View Web Link click Chapter 4 Click Web Link from Ie navigation then click Windows ReadyBoost below Chapter 4 p 201 Fig 4 20 zoz LOZ 39d mziMH WKQPEEI ma a in T x admam rm x 4 frmmm mrE mm 5a1nd mm H z gm mmn mmd A rm my mrr 1 quotUnwaw ammmmn mm jurqrmrmad mom mm Cdma A erram 1334 uuw A L M I M 12 23 s qu Mowaw Memory What is ash memory gt Nonvolatile memory that can be erased electronically and rewritten gt Used with many mobile devices Step 3 Step 1 Plug the headphones into the portable Purchase and download music tracks from a mediapfayer pushra button on the Web site With one end of a special cable as memory chips portable mediaiplayer and Listen to connected to the system unit connect the the music throughij emphones other end to the USB port in the portable media player USB port 39 Click to View Web Link Step 2 A click Chapter 4 Click WBb Link Instruct the computer to copy the music tracks to MP3 Pla er from le naVlQatloni the ash memory chip in the portable media la er y then click Flash Memory elow Chapter 4 p 202 Fig 421 Memory What is CMOS Complementary 39 Used in some al mide RAM chips ash semiconductor memory Chips and memo other types of memory chips Uses battery Stores date power to retain time and information when computer s other power is startup turned off information p203 Memory What is access time gt Amount of time it takes processor to read data from memory gt Measured in nanoseconds ns one billionth of a second gt It takes 110 of a second to blink your eye a computer can perform up to 10 million operations in same amount of time IC s euond nem Ion o a moon Nano econd Onebillionth of a second Picosecond Onetrillionth of a second p203 Figs 422 423 Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards What is an adapter card gt Enhances system unit or provides conniejotions to external devices called peripherals gt Also called an expansion card TYPES OF ADAPTER GAHDS Disk controller Connects disk drives television lines Click to View Web Link click Chapter 4 Click Web Link from Ie navigation then click Video Cards 3 camera below Chapter 4 p 204 Fig 4 24 Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards What is an 2 341 2 13 gt An opening or socket on the motherboard that can hold an adapter card gt With 5 39 r I 7 the computer automatically con gures cards and other devices as you install them p 204 205 Fig 425 Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards What are ash memory cards PC cards and ExpressCard modules gt An ExpressCard module adds memory storage sound faxmodem communications and other capabilities to notebook computers gt A ash memory card a110ws users to transfer data from mobile devices to desktop computers gt USB Flash drive i An PC card adds various capabilities to computers Click to View Web Link click Chapter 4 Click Web Link from Ie navigation then click ExpressCard Modules below Cha ter 4 p 205 lg 4 26 4 27 Ports and Connectors What are ports and connectors gt Port connects external devices to system uinit gt Connector joins cable to peripheral Available in one of two genders male and female keyboard pun mmlse pan printer Dori parallel Don 4mm in purl Ewden om composne deen in mm rM reception pm ammo u39 nuns headphones pm or jack F4 audi39uin pans microphonemamtcr lelephune 57 non um lineinvon no I microphone purl mu mm w rt DON p 206 Fig 4 28 Ports and Connectors PMquot TYPES What are different types of connectors 5532 3 m p V Rear mmlvmun lumenam Emma k usm m 5m gs 2 w quotmmquot Snnnund E j g 1 sum 9 FMreull39n 5 If p Q I NDMI pun sneakquot mumas a Mm Fl manhnna quot mm a lineln p 207 Fig 4 29 Ports and Connectors F serial uansmwssmn of dzna What is a serial port 4 w numhe O 11000139y gt Transmits one bit of data at a ti m e x E 2 733 f 8quot 39 gt Connects slowspeed dev1ces such as mouse keyboard modem p 207 Fig 430 byte representahon for number 5 00110101 Ports and Connectors y p senmtiun tar number1 gtom1noot mm What is a parallel port 3323525222232131252523 v gt Connects devices that can transfer more than one bit 2 a time such as a printer p 208 Fig 4 31 Ports and Connectors What are USB ports USB universal serial bus port can connect up to 127 different peripherals together with a single connector type PCs typically have 1 six to eight USB ports Slngle USB pOIt can on front or back of be used to attaCh the System unit multiple peripherals in a daisy chain USB 20 p208 Ports and Connectors What are FireWire ports gt Connects multiple types of devices that require faster data transmission speeds I gt Allows you to connect up to 63 devices together FireWire 800 is the latest F ireWire versiOn gt A FireWire hub is a device that plugs in a FireWire port on the system unit and contains multiple FireWire ports in which you plugcables from FireWire devices V p 208 209 Ports and Connectors What are specialpurpose ports gt Allow users to attach specialized peripherals or transmit data to wireless devices I MIDI Musical Instrument Digital TRADITIDNRL FDHTS Interface p01t I eSATA port I SCSI port I IrDA Infrared Data Association port 39 I Bluetooth p01t Click to View Web Link click Chapter 4 Click Web Link from le navigation then click MIDI Ports below Chapter 4 p 209 210 Fig 4 32 NEWER PORTS What is a bus gt Channel that allows devices inside computer to communicate with each other 39 System bus connects processor ii and RAM 7 r V r K 39 Bus width determines number 7 of bits transmitted at one time 39 Word size is the number of bits processor can interpret and execute at a given time I39ITteD p 211 212 Fig 435 What is an expansion bus gt Allows processor to communicate with peripherals PCI AGP Express Bus Bus p212 Bays What is a bay gt Opening inside system unit used to install additional equipment gt Drive bays typically hold disk drives p 212 Fig 4 36 card readers Power Supply What is a power supply Converts AC Power into DC Power External peripherals might use an which is an external power supply p213 Mobile Computers and Devices What is a mobile computer gt Notebook weighing between 25 and 10 pounds or mobile device portable di me a a V I player lash memory 2 p213214 Fig 437 Mobile Computers and Devices What ports are on a notebook computer microphone port or lack DVi port headphones pon or jack network port p 214 Fig 4 38 Mobile Computers and Devices What ports and slots are on a tablet PC p 214 Fig 439 WUSB ports 44 video pon modern and 39 39 network pens behind cover FireWire port card slot headphones port PC Card s ot erA port microphune port Putting It All Together Intel Core 2 Extreme or AMD Turlnn X2 Ernnessotaand IMM Intel Celemn D or AMD Sempron or Intel Pentium DualCure or Intel Core 2 Duo at AMD Alhlon 64 X2 DualCore Minimum RAM 1 GE Intel ltaniurn 2 or AMD Quad Core Opterun or Intel Quad Core Xeon Minimum RAM1 GB SMALL IIFFIGEI Intel Cute 2 Duu or HDME FFICE Intel Core 2 Quad ur AMD Alhlon 64 x2 DualCore Minimum RAM 4 GE Inlel Cure 2 Dun ur Intel Core 2 Guild ur AMD Athlnn 64 X2 DualCore Minimum RAM39 2 GB Minimum RAM 2 GB p 215 Fig 440 Keeping Your Computer Clean Over time the system unit collects dust even in a clean environment gt Preventative maintenance requires a few basic products p 216 Fig 4 41


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